1 Samuel
2 Samuel
1 Kings
2 Kings
1 Chronicles
2 Chronicles

Song of Songs



1 Corinthians
2 Corinthians
1 Thessalonians
2 Thessalonians
1 Timothy
2 Timothy

1 Peter
2 Peter
1 John
2 John
3 John

Revelation 1-11
Revelation 12-22

Notes on Romans
From the Original 1599 Geneva Bible Notes

Ro 1:1

1:1 Paul, {1} a {2} {a} servant of Jesus Christ, called [to be] an {b} apostle, {c} separated unto the gospel of God,

    (1) The first part of the epistle contains a most profitable preface down to verse six.
    (2) Paul, exhorting the Romans to give diligent heed to him, in that he shows that he comes not in his own name, but as God's messenger to the Gentiles, entreats them with the weightiest matter that exists, promised long ago by God, by many good witnesses, and now at length indeed performed.
    (a) Minister, for this word "servant" is not taken in this place as set against the word "freeman", but rather refers to and declares his ministry and office.
    (b) Whereas he said before in a general term that he was a minister, now he comes to a more special name, and says that he is an apostle, and that he did not take this office upon himself by his own doing, but that he was called by God, and therefore in this letter of his to the Romans he is doing nothing but his duty.
    (c) Appointed by God to preach the gospel.

Ro 1:3

1:3 {3} Concerning his {d} Son Jesus Christ our Lord, which was {e} made of the seed of David {f} according to the flesh;

    (3) By declaring the sum of the doctrine of the Gospel, he stirs up the Romans to consider well the matter about which he is entreating them: so then he shows that Christ (who is the very substance and sum of the gospel) is the only Son of God the Father, who with regard to his humanity is born of the seed of David, but with regard to his divine and spiritual nature, by which he sanctified himself, is begotten of the Father from everlasting, as also manifestly appears by his mighty resurrection.
    (d) This is a plain testimony of the person of Christ, that he is but one, and also a testimony of his two natures, and their properties.
    (e) Who received flesh from the virgin who was David's daughter.
    (f) As he is man: for this word "flesh", by the figure of speech synecdoche, is taken for man.

Ro 1:4

1:4 And {g} declared [to be] the Son of God with {h} power, according to the spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead:

    (g) Shown and made manifest.
    (h) The divine and mighty power is set against the weakness of the flesh, for it overcame death.

Ro 1:5

1:5 {i} By whom we have received {k} grace and apostleship, for {l} obedience to the faith {m} among all nations, for his name:

    (i) Of whom.
    (k) This marvellous, liberal, and gracious gift, which is given to me, the least of all the saints, to preach, etc.; see Eph 3:8 .
    (l) That men through faith might obey God.
    (m) For his name's sake.

Ro 1:6

1:6 Among whom are ye also the {n} called of Jesus Christ:

    (n) Who through God's goodness belong to Christ.

Ro 1:7

1:7 To all that be in Rome, beloved of God, called [to be] saints: {o} Grace to you and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ.

    (o) God's free good will: by "peace" the Hebrews mean a prosperous success in all things.

Ro 1:8

1:8 {4} First, I thank my God through Jesus Christ for you all, that your faith is {p} spoken of throughout the {q} whole world.

    (4) He obtains their favourable patience, in that he points out what it is that they can be praised for, and his true apostolic good will toward them, confirmed by taking God himself as witness.
    (p) Because your faith is such that it is spoken well of in all churches.
    (q) In all churches.

Ro 1:9

1:9 For God is my witness, whom I serve with my {r} spirit in the {s} gospel of his Son, that without ceasing I make mention of you always in my prayers;

    (r) Very willingly and with all my heart.
    (s) In preaching his Son.

Ro 1:12

1:12 That is, that {t} I may be comforted together with you by the mutual faith both of you and me.

    (t) Though Paul was ever so excellent, yet in teaching the church, he might be instructed by it.

Ro 1:15

1:15 So, as much as in me is, I am ready to preach the gospel to you that are at {u} Rome also.

    (u) He means all those who dwell at Rome, though some of them were not Romans; see the end of the epistle.

Ro 1:16

1:16 For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ: {5} for it is the {x} power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth; to the Jew first, and also to the {y} Greek.

    (5) This is the second part of the epistle, until the beginning of chapter nine. Now the whole end and purpose of the discussion is this: that is to say, to show that there is but one way to attain unto salvation (which is displayed to us by God in the gospel, and that equally to every nation), and this way is Jesus Christ apprehended by faith.
    (x) God's mighty and effectual instrument to save men by.
    (y) When this word "Greek" is contrasted with the word "Jew", then it signifies a Gentile.

Ro 1:17

1:17 {6} For therein is the righteousness of God revealed from {z} faith to faith: {7} as it is written, The just shall live by faith.

    (6) The confirmation of the former proposition: we are taught in the gospel that we are instituted before God by faith, which increases daily, and therefore also saved.
    (z) From faith, which increases daily.
    (7) The proof of the first as well as of the second proposition, out of Habakkuk, who attributes and gives to faith both justice and life before God.

Ro 1:18

1:18 {8} For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against {a} all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who hold the {b} truth in unrighteousness;

    (8) Another confirmation of the principal question: all men being considered in themselves, or without Christ, are guilty both of ungodliness and also unrighteousness, and therefore are subject on condemnation: therefore they need to seek righteousness in someone else.
    (a) Against all types of ungodliness.
    (b) By "truth" Paul means all the light that is left in man since his fall, not as though they being led by this were able to come into favour with God, but that their own reason might condemn them of wickedness both against God and man.

Ro 1:19

1:19 {9} Because that which may be known of God is manifest in {c} them; for God hath shewed [it] unto them.

    (9) By their ungodliness he proves that although all men have a most clear and evident mirror in which to behold the everlasting and almighty nature of God, even in his creatures, yet they have fallen away from those principles to most foolish and stupid ideas of their own brains, in their worship of God and of what God requires of them.
    (c) In their hearts.

Ro 1:20

1:20 For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being {d} understood by the things that are made, [even] his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse:

    (d) You do not see God, and yet you acknowledge him as God by his works; Cicero.

Ro 1:21

1:21 Because that, when they knew God, they {e} glorified [him] not as God, neither were thankful; but became {f} vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened.

    (e) They did not honour him with that honour and service which was appropriate for his everlasting power and Godhead.
    (f) As if he said, became so corrupt in themselves.

Ro 1:22

1:22 {g} Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools,

    (g) Or, thought themselves.

Ro 1:23

1:23 And changed the glory of the {h} uncorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and fourfooted beasts, and creeping things.

    (h) For the true God they substituted another.

Ro 1:24

1:24 {10} Wherefore {i} God also {k} gave them up to uncleanness through the lusts of their own hearts, to dishonour their own bodies between themselves:

    (10) The unrighteousness of men he sets forth first in this, that following their lusts, even against nature, they defiled themselves one with another, by the just judgment of God.
    (i) The contempt of religion is the source of all evil.
    (k) As a just judge.

Ro 1:27

1:27 And likewise also the men, leaving the natural use of the woman, burned in their lust one toward another; men with men working that which is unseemly, and receiving in themselves that {l} recompence of their error which was meet.

    (l) An appropriate reward and that which they deserved.

Ro 1:28

1:28 {11} And even as they did not like to retain God in [their] knowledge, God gave them over to a {m} reprobate mind, to do those things which are not convenient;

    (11) He proves the unrighteousness of man by referring to many types of wickedness, from which (if not from all, yet at the least from many of them) no man is altogether free.
    (m) To a corrupt and perverse mind, by which it comes to pass that the conscience, having been removed by them, and they having almost no more remorse for sin, run headlong into all types of evil.

Ro 1:31

1:31 Without understanding, {n} covenantbreakers, without natural affection, implacable, unmerciful:

    (n) Not caring if they keep their covenants and bargains.

Ro 1:32

1:32 Who knowing the {o} judgment of God, that they which commit such things are worthy of death, not only do the same, but {p} have pleasure in them that do them.

    (o) By the "judgment of God" he means that which the philosophers called the "law of nature", and the lawyers themselves termed the "law of nations".
    (p) Are companions and partakers with them in their wickedness, and beside that, commend those who do wrong.

Ro 2:1

2:1 Therefore {1} thou art inexcusable, O man, whosoever thou art that judgest: for wherein thou judgest another, thou condemnest thyself; for thou that judgest doest the same things.

    (1) He convicts those who would seem to be exempt from the rest of men (because they reprehend other men's faults), and says that they are least of all to be excused, for if they were searched well and carefully (as God surely does) they themselves would be found guilty in those things which they reprehend and punish in others: so that in condemning others, they pronounce sentence against themselves.

Ro 2:2

2:2 But we {a} are sure that the judgment of God is according to {b} truth against them which commit such things.

    (a) Paul alleges no places of scripture, for he reasons generally against all men: but he brings reasons such that every man is persuaded by them in his mind, so that the devil himself is not able to completely pluck them out.
    (b) Considering and judging things correctly, and not by any outward show.

Ro 2:4

2:4 {2} Or despisest thou the riches of his goodness and forbearance and longsuffering; not knowing that the goodness of God leadeth thee to repentance?

    (2) A vehement and grievous crying out against those that please themselves because they see more than others do, and yet are in no way better than others are.

Ro 2:5

2:5 But after thy hardness and impenitent heart {c} treasurest up unto thyself wrath against the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God;

    (c) While you are giving yourself to pleasures, thinking to increase your goods, you will find God's wrath.

Ro 2:6

2:6 {3} Who will render to every man according to his deeds:

    (3) The foundation of the former disputation, that both the Jews and Gentiles together have need of righteousness.

Ro 2:7

2:7 To them who by patient continuance in well doing seek for {d} glory and honour and immortality, eternal life:

    (d) Glory which follows good works, which he does not lay out before us as though there were any that could attain to salvation by his own strength, but, he lays this condition of salvation before us, which no man can perform, to bring men to Christ, who alone justifies the believers, as he himself concludes; see Ro 2:21-22 .

Ro 2:8

2:8 But unto them that are contentious, and do not obey the {e} truth, but obey unrighteousness, {f} indignation and wrath,

    (e) By "truth" he means the knowledge which we naturally have.
    (f) God's indignation against sinners, which will quickly be kindled.

Ro 2:11

2:11 For there is no {g} respect of persons with God.

    (g) God does not judge men either by their blood or by their country, either to receive them or to cast them away.

Ro 2:12

2:12 {4} For as many as have sinned without law shall also perish without law: and as many as have sinned in the law shall be judged by the law;

    (4) He applies that general accusation against mankind particularly both to the Gentiles and to the Jews.

Ro 2:13

2:13 {5} (For not the hearers of the law [are] just before God, but the doers of the law shall be {h} justified.

    (5) He prevents an objection which might be made by the Jews whom the law does not excuse, but condemn, because it is not the hearing of the law that justifies, but rather the keeping of it.
    (h) Will be pronounced just before God's judgment seat: which is true indeed if any one could be found that had fulfilled the law: but seeing that Abraham was not justified by the law, but by faith, it follows that no man can be justified by works.

Ro 2:14

2:14 {6} For when the Gentiles, which have {i} not the law, do by {k} nature the things contained in the law, these, having not the law, are a law unto themselves:

    (6) He prevents an objection which might be made by the Gentiles, who even though they do not have the law of Moses, yet they have no reason why they may excuse their wickedness, in that they have something written in their hearts instead of a law, as men do who forbid and punish some things as wicked, and command and commend other things as good.
    (i) Not that they are without any law, but rather the law of the Jews.
    (k) Command honest things, and forbid dishonest.

Ro 2:15

2:15 Which shew the work of the law {l} written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and [their] thoughts the mean while accusing or else excusing one another;)

    (l) This knowledge is a natural knowledge.

Ro 2:16

2:16 {7} In the day when God shall judge the secrets of men by Jesus Christ according to {m} my gospel.

    (7) God defers many judgments, which he will nonetheless execute at their convenient time by Jesus Christ, with a most candid examination, not only of words and deeds, but of thoughts also, be they ever so hidden or secret.
    (m) As my doctrine witnesses, which I am appointed to preach.

Ro 2:17

2:17 {8} Behold, thou art called a Jew, and restest in the law, and makest thy boast of God,

    (8) He proves by the testimony of David, and the other prophets, that God bestows greatest benefits upon the Jews, in giving them also the law, but that they are the most unthankful and unkind of all men.

Ro 2:18

2:18 And knowest [his] will, and {n} approvest the things that are more excellent, being instructed out of the law;

    (n) Can test and discern what things swerve from God's will.

Ro 2:20

2:20 An instructor of the foolish, a teacher of babes, which hast the {o} form of knowledge and of the truth in the {p} law.

    (o) The way to teach and to form others in the knowledge of the truth.
    (p) As though he said that the Jews under a pretence of an outward serving of God, attributed all to themselves, when in reality they did nothing less than observe the Law.

Ro 2:25

2:25 {9} For circumcision verily profiteth, if thou keep the law: but if thou be a breaker of the law, thy circumcision is made uncircumcision.

    (9) He precisely prevents their objection, who set a holiness in circumcision, and the outward observation of the law: so that he shows that the outward circumcision, if it is separated from the inward, does not justify, and also condemns those who are indeed circumcised, of whom it is required that they fulfil that which circumcision signifies, that is to say, cleanness of the heart and the whole life according to the commandment of the law, so that if there is a man uncircumcised according to the flesh, who is circumcised in heart, he is far better and to be more regarded than any Jew that is circumcised according to the flesh only.

Ro 2:26

2:26 Therefore if the {q} uncircumcision keep the righteousness of the law, shall not his {r} uncircumcision be counted for circumcision?

    (q) This is the figure of speech metonymy, and means "uncircumcised".
    (r) The state and condition of the uncircumcised.

Ro 2:27

2:27 And shall not {s} uncircumcision which is by nature, if it fulfil the law, judge thee, who by the {t} letter and circumcision dost transgress the law?

    (s) He who is uncircumcised by nature and race.
    (t) Paul often contrasts the letter against the Spirit: but in this place, the circumcision which is according to the letter is the cutting off of the foreskin, but the circumcision of the Spirit is the circumcision of the heart, that is to say, the spiritual result of the ceremony is true holiness and righteousness, by which the people of God are known from profane and heathen men.

Ro 2:28

2:28 For he is not a Jew, which is one {u} outwardly; neither [is that] circumcision, which is outward in the flesh:

    (u) By the outward ceremony only.

Ro 2:29

2:29 But he [is] a Jew, which is one inwardly; and circumcision [is that] of the heart, in the {x} spirit, [and] not in the letter; whose praise [is] not of men, but of God.

    (x) Whose power is inward, and in the heart.

Ro 3:1

3:1 What {1} advantage then hath the Jew? or what profit [is there] of circumcision?

    (1) The first address to the Jews, or the first anticipating of an objection by the Jews: what then, are the Jews preferred no more than the Gentiles? Indeed, they are, says the apostle, by the doing of God, for he committed the tables of the covenant to them, so that the unbelief of a few cannot cause the whole nation without exception to be cast away by God, who is true, and who also uses their unworthiness to commend and set forth his goodness.

Ro 3:2

3:2 Much every way: {a} chiefly, because that unto them were committed the {b} oracles of God.

    (a) The Jews' state and condition was of principal importance.
    (b) Words.

Ro 3:3

3:3 For what if some did not {c} believe? shall their unbelief make the {d} faith of God without effect?

    (c) Break the covenant.
    (d) The faith that God gave.

Ro 3:4

3:4 God forbid: yea, let God be true, but every man a liar; as it is written, That thou mightest be {e} justified in thy sayings, and mightest overcome {f} when thou art judged.

    (e) That your justice might be plainly seen.
    (f) Seeing that you showed forth an true token of your righteousness, steadfastness and faith, by preserving him who had broken his covenant.

Ro 3:5

3:5 {2} But if our {g} unrighteousness commend the righteousness of God, what shall we say? [Is] God unrighteous who taketh vengeance? (I speak as {h} a man)

    (2) Another objection resulting from the former answer: that the justice of God is commended and set forth by our unrighteousness in such a way that God does not therefore forget that he is the judge of the world, and therefore a most severe avenger of unrighteousness.
    (g) Treachery, and all the fruits of it.
    (h) Therefore I do not speak these words of my own accord, as though this is what I thought, but this is the talk of man's wisdom, which is not subject to the will of God.

Ro 3:7

3:7 {3} For if the {i} truth of God hath more abounded through my lie unto his glory; why yet am I also judged as a sinner?

    (3) A third objection, which adds somewhat to the former: if sins turn out to the glory of God, they are not only not to be punished, but we ought rather to give ourselves to them: and this blasphemy Paul, as he fights to curse and detest it, pronounces it to be a just punishment against such blasphemers.
    (i) The truth and unchangingness.

Ro 3:9

3:9 {4} What then? are we better [than they]? No, in no wise: for we have before proved both Jews and Gentiles, that they are all {k} under sin;

    (4) Another answer to the first objection: that the Jews, if they are considered in themselves, are no better than other men are: as it has been long since pronounced by the mouth of the Prophets.
    (k) Are guilty of sin.

Ro 3:17

3:17 And the {l} way of peace have they not known:

    (l) An innocent and peaceable life.

Ro 3:19

3:19 {5} Now we know that what things soever the {m} law saith, it saith to them who are under the law: that {6} every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become {n} guilty before God.

    (5) He proves that this grievous accusation which is uttered by David and Isaiah correctly refers to the Jews.
    (m) The Law of Moses.
    (6) A conclusion of all the former discussions, from Ro 1:18 on. "Therefore", says the apostle, "no man can hope to be justified by any law, whether it be that general law, or the particular law of Moses, and therefore to be saved: seeing it appears (as we have already proved) by comparing the law and man's life together, that all men are sinners, and therefore worthy of condemnation in the sight of God."
    (n) Be found guilty before God.

Ro 3:20

3:20 Therefore by the {o} deeds of the law there shall no {p} flesh be {q} justified in his {r} sight: for by the law [is] the knowledge of sin.

    (o) By those deeds by which the law can be done by us.
    (p) Flesh is here taken for man, as in many other places, and furthermore has greater force here: for it is given to show the contrast between God and man: as if one would say, "Man, who is nothing else but a piece of flesh defiled with sin, and God, who is most pure and most perfect in himself."
    (q) Absolved before the judgment seat of God.
    (r) Paul has in mind a contrasting of the righteousness of before men, be they ever so just, against the justice which can stand before God: now there is no righteousness that can stand before God, except the righteousness of Christ alone.

Ro 3:21

3:21 {7} But now the righteousness of God without the law is manifested, being witnessed by the law and the prophets;

    (7) "Therefore", says the apostle, "so that men would not perish, God now exhibits that which he promised from ancient time, that is to say, a way by which we may be instituted and saved before him without the law."

Ro 3:22

3:22 {8} Even the righteousness of God [which is] by faith of {s} Jesus Christ unto all and upon all them that believe: for there is no difference:

    (8) The matter, as it were, of this righteousness is Christ Jesus apprehended by faith, and for the sake of righteousness Christ is offered to all people, as without him all people are shut out from the kingdom of God.
    (s) Which we give to Jesus Christ, or which rests upon him.

Ro 3:23

3:23 For all have sinned, and come short of the {t} glory of God;

    (t) By the "glory of God" is meant that mark which we all aim for, that is, everlasting life, which consists in our being made partakers of the glory of God.

Ro 3:24

3:24 {9} Being justified {u} freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Jesus Christ:

    (9) Therefore this righteousness which we gain is altogether freely given, for its foundation is upon those things which we have not done ourselves, but rather those things which Christ has suffered for our sakes, to deliver us from sin.
    (u) By his free gift, and liberality.

Ro 3:25

3:25 {10} Whom God hath set forth [to be] a propitiation through faith in his {x} blood, to declare his righteousness for the remission of sins that {y} are past, through the {z} forbearance of God;

    (10) God then is the author of that free justification, because it pleased him: and Christ is he who suffered punishment for our sins, and in whom we have remission of them: and the means by which we apprehend Christ is faith. In short, the result is the setting forth of the goodness of God, that by this means it may appear that he is indeed merciful, and faithful in his promises, as he that freely, and of grace alone, justifies the believers.
    (x) The name of blood reminds us of the symbol of the old sacrifices, and that the truth and substance of these sacrifices is in Christ.
    (y) Of those sins which we committed when we were his enemies.
    (z) Through his patience, and his enduring nature.

Ro 3:26

3:26 To declare, [I say], {a} at this time his righteousness: that he might be {b} just, and the {c} justifier of him which {d} believeth in Jesus.

    (a) That is, when Paul wrote this.
    (b) That he might be found exceedingly truth and faithful.
    (c) Making him just and without blame, but putting Christ's righteousness to him.
    (d) Of the number of those who by faith lay hold upon Christ: contrary to whom are those who seek to be saved by circumcision, that is by the law.

Ro 3:27

3:27 {11} Where [is] boasting then? It is excluded. By what {e} law? of works? Nay: but by the law of faith.

    (11) An argument to prove this conclusion, that we are justified by faith without works, taken from the result of justification. The result of justification is the glory of God alone: therefore we are justified by faith without works: for if we were justified either by our own works alone, or partly by faith and partly by works, the glory of this justification would not be wholly given to God.
    (e) By what doctrine? Now the doctrine of works has this condition attached to it, that is, "if you do", and the doctrine of faith has this condition, that is, "if you believe".

Ro 3:29

3:29 {12} [Is he] the God of the {f} Jews only? [is he] not also of the Gentiles? Yes, of the Gentiles also:

    (12) Another absurd argument: if justification depended upon the law of Moses, then God would be a Saviour to the Jews only. Again, if he would save the Jews after one manner, and the Gentiles after another, he would not be consistent. Therefore he will justify both of them after the very same manner, that is to say, by faith. Moreover, this argument must be joined to that which follows next, so that his conclusion may be firm and evident.
    (f) God is said to be their God, after the manner of the scripture, whom he loves and cares for.

Ro 3:30

3:30 Seeing [it is] one God, which shall justify {g} the circumcision by faith, and uncircumcision through faith.

    (g) The circumcised.

Ro 3:31

3:31 {13} Do we then make {h} void the law through faith? God forbid: yea, we {i} establish the law.

    (13) The taking away of an objection: yet the law is not therefore taken away, but is rather established, as it will be declared in its proper place.
    (h) Vain, void, to no purpose, and of no power.
    (i) We make the law effectual and strong.

Ro 4:1

4:1 What {1} shall we then say that Abraham our father, as pertaining to the {a} flesh, hath found?

    (1) A new argument of great weight, taken from the example of Abraham the father of all believers: and this is the proposition: if Abraham is considered in himself by his works, he has deserved nothing with which to rejoice with God.
    (a) By works, as is evident from the next verse.

Ro 4:2

4:2 {2} For if Abraham were justified by works, he hath [whereof] to glory; but not before God.

    (2) A preventing of an objection. Abraham may well rejoice and extol himself among men, but not with God.

Ro 4:3

4:3 {3} For what saith the scripture? Abraham believed God, and it was counted unto him for righteousness.

    (3) A confirmation of the proposition: Abraham was justified by imputation of faith, and therefore freely, without any regard being give to his works.

Ro 4:4

4:4 {4} Now to him that {b} worketh is the reward not {c} reckoned of grace, but of debt.

    (4) The first proof of the confirmation, taken from opposites: to him who deserves anything by his labour, the wages are not counted as favour, but as debt: but to him that has done nothing but believe in him who freely promises, faith is imputed.
    (b) To him that has deserved anything from his work.
    (c) Is not reckoned or given to him.

Ro 4:5

4:5 But to him that worketh not, but believeth on him that {d} justifieth the ungodly, his faith is counted for righteousness.

    (d) That makes him who is wicked in himself to be just in Christ.

Ro 4:6

4:6 {5} Even as David also describeth the blessedness of the man, unto whom God imputeth righteousness without works,

    (5) Another proof of the same confirmation: David puts blessedness as a part of the free pardon of sins, and therefore justification also.

Ro 4:9

4:9 {6} [Cometh] this {e} blessedness then upon the circumcision [only], or upon the uncircumcision also? for we say that faith was reckoned to Abraham for righteousness.

    (6) A new proposition: that this manner of justification belongs both to uncircumcised and also to the circumcised, as is declared in the person of Abraham.
    (e) This saying of David, in which he pronounces them as blessed.

Ro 4:10

4:10 {7} How was it then reckoned? when he was in circumcision, or in uncircumcision? Not in circumcision, but in uncircumcision.

    (7) He proves that it belongs to the uncircumcised (for there was no doubt of the circumcised) in this way: Abraham was justified in uncircumcision, therefore this justification belongs also to the uncircumcised. Nay, it does not belong to the circumcised, in respect of the circumcision, much less are the uncircumcised shut out from it because of their uncircumcision.

Ro 4:11

4:11 {8} And he received the {f} sign of circumcision, a {g} seal of the righteousness of the faith which [he had yet] being uncircumcised: {9} that he might be the father of all them that believe, though they be not circumcised; that righteousness might be imputed unto them also:

    (8) A preventing of an objection: why then was Abraham circumcised, if he was already justified? That the gift of righteousness (he says) might be confirmed in him.
    (f) Circumcision, which is a sign: as we say the "ordinance of baptism", for "baptism", which is a ordinance.
    (g) Circumcision was previously called a sign, with respect to the outward ceremony. Now Paul shows the force and substance of that sign. That is, to what end it is used, that is, not only to signify, but also to seal up the righteousness of faith. By this we come to possess Christ himself: for the Holy Spirit works that inwardly indeed, which the ordinances being joined with the word, represent.
    (9) An applying of the example of Abraham to the uncircumcised believers, whose father he also makes Abraham.

Ro 4:12

4:12 {10} And the father of circumcision to them who are not of the circumcision only, but who also walk in the steps of that faith of our father Abraham, which [he had] being [yet] uncircumcised.

    (10) An applying of the same example to the circumcised believers, whose father is Abraham, but yet by faith.

Ro 4:13

4:13 {11} For the promise, that he should be the {h} heir of the world, [was] not to Abraham, or to his seed, through the {i} law, but through the righteousness of faith.

    (11) A reason why the seed of Abraham is to be considered to be by faith, because Abraham himself through faith was made partaker of the promise by which he was made the father of all nations.
    (h) That all the nations of the world should be his children: or by the "world" may be understood the land of Canaan.
    (i) For works that he had done, or upon this condition, that he should fulfil the Law.

Ro 4:14

4:14 {12} For if they which are of the {k} law [be] heirs, faith is made void, and the promise made of none effect:

    (12) A double confirmation of that reason: the one is that the promise cannot be apprehended by the law, and that if it could it would be made of no effect: the other, that the condition of faith would be joined in vain to the promise if it could be apprehended by works.
    (k) If they are heirs who have fulfilled the law.

Ro 4:15

4:15 {13} Because the law worketh wrath: for where no law is, [there is] no transgression.

    (13) A reason of the first confirmation, why the promise cannot be apprehended by the law: because the law does not reconcile God and us, but rather proclaims his anger against us, because no man can fully keep it.

Ro 4:16

4:16 {14} Therefore [it is] of faith, that [it might be] by grace; to the end the promise might be sure to all the {l} seed; {15} not to that only which is of the law, but to that also which is of the faith of Abraham; who is the father of us all,

    (14) The conclusion of this argument: the salvation and justification of the posterity of Abraham (that is, of the Church which is composed of all believers) proceeds from faith which lays hold on the promise made to Abraham, and which promise Abraham himself first of all laid hold on.
    (l) To all the believers.
    (15) That is to say, not only of those who believe and are also circumcised according to the law, but of those also who without circumcision and with respect of faith only, are counted among the children of Abraham.

Ro 4:17

4:17 (As it is written, I have made thee a {16} father of many nations,) before him whom he believed, [even] {m} God, who {n} quickeneth the dead, and {o} calleth those things which be not as though they were.

    (16) This fatherhood is spiritual, depending only upon the power of God, who made the promise.
    (m) Before God, that is by membership in his spiritual family, which has a place before God, and makes us acceptable to God.
    (n) Who restores to life.
    (o) With whom those things are already, which as yet are not indeed, as he can with a word make what he wishes out of nothing.

Ro 4:18

4:18 {17} Who against hope believed in hope, that he might become the father of many nations, according to that which was spoken, So shall thy seed be.

    (17) A description of true faith wholly resting in the power of God, and his good will, set forth in the example of Abraham.

Ro 4:19

4:19 And being {p} not weak in faith, he considered not his own body now {q} dead, when he was about an hundred years old, neither yet the deadness of Sara's womb:

    (p) Very strong and steadfast.
    (q) Void of strength, and unfit to have children.

Ro 4:20

4:20 He staggered not at the promise of God through unbelief; but was strong in faith, giving {r} glory to God;

    (r) Acknowledged and praised God, as most gracious and true.

Ro 4:21

4:21 And being {s} fully persuaded that, what he had promised, he was able also to perform.

    (s) A description of true faith.

Ro 4:23

4:23 {18} Now it was not written for his sake alone, that it was imputed to him;

    (18) The rule of justification is always the same, both in Abraham, and in all the faithful: that is to say, faith in God, who after there was made a full satisfaction for our sins in Christ our mediator, raised him from the dead, that we also being justified, might be saved in him.

Ro 4:25

4:25 Who was delivered for our {t} offences, and was raised again for our justification.

    (t) To pay the ransom for our sins.

Ro 5:1

5:1 Therefore being {1} justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ:

    (1) Another argument taken from the effects: we are justified with that which truly appeases our conscience before God: and faith in Christ does appease our conscience and not the law, as it was said before, therefore by faith we are justified, and not by the law.

Ro 5:2

5:2 {2} By whom also we {a} have access by faith into this grace {b} wherein we {c} stand, {3} and {d} rejoice in hope of the glory of God.

    (2) Whereas quietness of conscience is attributed to faith, it is to be referred to Christ, who is the giver of faith itself, and in whom faith itself is effectual.
    (a) We must know by this, that we still receive the same effect from faith.
    (b) By which grace, that is, by which gracious love and good will, or that state unto which we are graciously taken.
    (c) We stand steadfast.
    (3) A preventing of an objection against those who, beholding the daily miseries and calamities of the Church, think that the Christians dream when they brag of their felicity: to whom the apostle answers, that their felicity is laid up under hope of another place: which hope is so certain and sure, that they rejoice for that happiness just as if they presently enjoyed it.
    (d) Our minds are not only quiet and settled, but we are also marvellously glad, and have great joy because of the heavenly inheritance which awaits us.

Ro 5:3

5:3 {4} And not only [so], but we glory in tribulations also: {5} knowing that tribulation worketh patience;

    (4) Tribulation itself gives us different and various occasions to rejoice, and more than this it does not make us miserable.
    (5) Afflictions make us use to being patient, and patience assures us of the goodness of God, and this experience confirms and fosters our hope, which never deceives us.

Ro 5:5

5:5 {6} And hope maketh not ashamed; because the {e} love of God is shed abroad in our hearts by the Holy Ghost which is given unto us.

    (6) The foundation of hope is an assured testimony of the conscience, by the gift of the Holy Spirit, that we are loved by God, and this is nothing else but that which we call faith, from which it follows that through faith our consciences are quieted.
    (e) With which he loves us.

Ro 5:6

5:6 {7} For when we were yet without strength, in due {f} time Christ died for the ungodly.

    (7) A sure comfort in adversity, so that our peace and quietness of conscience are not troubled: for he that so loved them that were of no strength and while they were yet sinners, that he died for them, how can he neglect them, having now been sanctified and living in him?
    (f) At an appropriate and proper time which the Father had appointed.

Ro 5:7

5:7 {8} For scarcely {g} for a righteous man will one die: yet peradventure for a good man some would even dare to die.

    (8) An amplifying of the love of God towards us, so that we cannot doubt it, who delivered Christ to death for the unjust and for them from whom he could receive no useful thing, and, what is more, for his very enemies. How can it be then that Christ, being now alive, should not save them from destruction whom by his death he justifies and reconciles.
    (g) In the place of a just man.

Ro 5:8

5:8 But God {h} commendeth his love toward us, in that, while we were yet {i} sinners, Christ died for us.

    (h) He commends his love toward us, so that in the midst of our afflictions we may know assuredly that he will be present with us.
    (i) While sin reigned in us.

Ro 5:9

5:9 Much more then, being now justified by his blood, we shall be saved from {k} wrath through him.

    (k) From affliction and destruction.

Ro 5:11

5:11 {9} And not only [so], but we also joy in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom we have now received the atonement.

    (9) He now passes over to the other part of justification, which consists in the free imputation of the obedience of Christ: so that to the remission of sins, there is added moreover and besides, the gift of Christ's righteousness imputed or put upon us by faith, which swallows up that unrighteousness which flowed from Adam into us, and all the fruits of it: so that in Christ we do not only cease to be unjust, but we begin also to be just.

Ro 5:12

5:12 {10} Wherefore, as by {l} one man {m} sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, {n} for that all have sinned:

    (10) From Adam, in whom all have sinned, both guiltiness and death (which is the punishment of the guiltiness) came upon all.
    (l) By Adam, who is compared with Christ, and similar to him in this, that both of them make those who are theirs partakers of that which they have: but they are not the same in this, that Adam derives sin into them that are his, even into their very nature, and that to death: but Christ makes them that are his partakers of his righteousness by grace, and that to life.
    (m) By sin is meant that disease which is ours by inheritance, and men commonly call it original sin: for so he calls that sin in the singular number, whereas if he speaks of the fruits of it, he uses the plural number, calling them sins.
    (n) That is, in Adam.

Ro 5:13

5:13 {11} (For until {o} the law sin was in the world: but sin is not {p} imputed when there is no law.

    (11) That this is so, that both guiltiness and death began not after the giving and transgressing of law of Moses, is evident in that men died before that law was given: for in that they died, sin, which is the cause of death, existed then: and in such a way, that it was also imputed: because of this it follows that there was then some law, the breach of which was the cause of death.
    (o) Even from Adam to Moses.
    (p) Where there is no law made, no man is punished as faulty and guilty.

Ro 5:14

5:14 {12} Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over {q} them that had not sinned after the {r} similitude of Adam's transgression, {13} who is the figure of him that was to come.

    (12) But that this law was not the universal law, and that death did not proceed from any actual sin of everyone particularly, it appears by this, that the very infants which neither could ever know nor transgress that natural law, are nonetheless dead as well as Adam.
    (q) Our infants.
    (r) Nor after the manner of sin of those who are older, following their lusts: but yet the whole posterity was corrupted in Adam when he knowingly and willingly sinned.
    (13) Now that first Adam corresponds to the latter, who is Christ, as it is afterward declared.

Ro 5:15

5:15 {14} But not as the offence, so also [is] the free gift. For if through the offence of {s} one many be dead, much more the grace of God, and the gift by grace, [which is] by one man, Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto many.

    (14) Adam and Christ are compared together in this respect, that both of them give and yield to theirs that which is their own: but the first difference between them is this, that Adam by nature has spread his fault to the destruction of many, but Christ's obedience has be grace overflowed to many.
    (s) That is, Adam.

Ro 5:16

5:16 {15} And not as [it was] by one that sinned, [so is] the gift: for the judgment [was] by one to condemnation, but the free gift [is] of many offences unto {t} justification.

    (15) Another inequality consists in this, that by Adam's one offence men are made guilty, but the righteousness of Christ imputed unto us freely, does not only absolve us from that one fault, but from all others.
    (t) To the sentence of absolution, by which we are acquitted and pronounced righteous.

Ro 5:17

5:17 {16} For if by one man's offence death reigned by one; much more they which receive abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness shall {u} reign in life by one, Jesus Christ.)

    (16) The third difference is that the righteousness of Christ, being imputed to us by grace, is of greater power to bring life, than the offence of Adam is to condemn his posterity to death.
    (u) Be partakers of true and everlasting life.

Ro 5:18

5:18 {17} Therefore as by the offence of one [judgment came] upon all men to condemnation; even so by the righteousness of one [the free gift came] upon all men unto {x} justification of life.

    (17) Therefore, to be short, as by one man's offence the guiltiness came on all men to make them subject to death, so on the opposite side, the righteousness of Christ, which by God's mercy is imputed to all believers, justifies them, that they may become partakers of everlasting life.
    (x) Not only because our sins are forgiven us, but also because the righteousness of Christ is imputed to us.

Ro 5:19

5:19 {18} For as by one man's {y} disobedience {z} many were made sinners, so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous.

    (18) The foundation of this whole comparison is this, that these two men are set as two heads or roots, so that out of the one comes sin by nature, and from the other righteousness by grace springs forth upon others.
    (y) So then, sin enters not into us only by following the steps of our forefathers, but we receive corruption from him by inheritance.
    (z) The word "many" is contrasted with the words "a few".

Ro 5:20

5:20 {19} Moreover the law {a} entered, that the offence might abound. But where sin abounded, grace did much more {b} abound:

    (19) A preventing of an objection: why then did the law of Moses then enter? So that men might be so much more the guilty, and the benefit of God in Christ Jesus be all the more glorious.
    (a) In addition to that disease which all men were infected with by being defiled with one man's sin, the law entered.
    (b) Grace was poured so plentifully from heaven that it did not only counterbalance sin, but beyond this it surpassed it.

Ro 6:1

6:1 What {1} shall we say then? Shall we continue in {a} sin, that grace may abound?

    (1) He passes now to another benefit of Christ, which is called sanctification or regeneration.
    (a) In that corruption, for though the guiltiness of sin, is not imputed to us, yet the corruption still remains in us: and this is killed little by little by the sanctification that follows justification.

Ro 6:2

6:2 God forbid. {2} How shall we, that are {b} dead to sin, live any longer therein?

    (2) The benefits of justification and sanctification are always inseparable joined together, and both of them proceed from Christ by the grace of God: now sanctification is the abolishing of sin, that is, of our natural corruption, whose place is taken by the cleanness and pureness of a reformed nature.
    (b) They are said by Paul to be dead to sin, who are made partakers of the power of Christ, so that the natural corruption is dead in them, that is, the power of it is removed, and it does not bring forth its bitter fruits: and on the other hand, they are said to live to sin, who are in the flesh, that is, whom the Spirit of God has not delivered from the slavery of the corruption of nature.

Ro 6:3

6:3 {3} Know ye not, that so many of us as were baptized into {c} Jesus Christ were baptized into his death?

    (3) There are three parts of this sanctification: that is, the death of the old man or sin, his burial, and the resurrection of the new man, descending into us from the virtue of the death, burial, and resurrection of Christ, of which benefit our baptism is a sign and pledge.
    (c) To the end that growing up as one with him, we should receive his strength to extinguish sin in us, and to make us new men.

Ro 6:4

6:4 Therefore we are buried with him by baptism into death: that like as Christ was raised up from the dead {d} by the glory of the Father, even so {e} we also should walk in newness of life.

    (d) So that Christ himself, being released of his infirmity and weakness, might live in glory with God forever.
    (e) And we who are his members rise for this purpose, that being made partakers of the very same power, we should begin to lead a new life, as though we were already in heaven.

Ro 6:5

6:5 {4} For if we have been planted together in the {f} likeness of his death, we shall {g} be also [in the likeness] of [his] resurrection:

    (4) The death of sin and the life of righteousness, or our ingrafting into Christ, and growing up into one with him, cannot be separated by any means, neither in death nor life: by which it follows that no man is sanctified who lives still to sin, and therefore is no man made partaker of Christ by faith, who does not repent and turn from his wickedness: for as he said before, the law is not overturned but established by faith.
    (f) And by means of the strength which comes from him to us, so we die to sin, as he is dead.
    (g) For every day we become more perfect: for we will never be perfectly sanctified, as long as we live here.

Ro 6:6

6:6 Knowing this, that our {h} old man is crucified with {i} [him], that the {k} body of sin might be destroyed, that henceforth we should not {l} serve sin.

    (h) Our entire nature, as we are conceived and born into this world with sin, is called "old", partly by comparing that old Adam with Christ, and partly also in respect of the deformed state of our corrupt nature, which we change with a new.
    (i) Our corrupt nature is regarded as belonging to Christ, not because of what he has done, but by imputation.
    (k) That wickedness which remains in us.
    (l) The end of sanctification which we aim at, and will at length come to, that is, when God will be all in all.

Ro 6:7

6:7 {5} For he that is dead is freed from sin.

    (5) He proves it by the effects of death, comparing Christ the head with his members.

Ro 6:10

6:10 For in that he died, he died unto sin {m} once: but in that he liveth, he liveth unto {n} God.

    (m) Once for all.
    (n) With God.

Ro 6:12

6:12 {6} Let not sin therefore {o} reign in your mortal body, that ye should obey it in the lusts thereof.

    (6) An exhortation to contend and strive with corruption and all the effects of it.
    (o) By reigning Paul means that principal and high rule which no man strives against, and even if anyone does, it is in vain.

Ro 6:13

6:13 Neither {p} yield ye your {q} members [as] {r} instruments of unrighteousness unto sin: but yield yourselves unto God, as those that are alive from the dead, and your members [as] instruments of righteousness unto God.

    (p) To sin, as to a Lord or tyrant.
    (q) Your mind and all the powers of it.
    (r) As instruments to commit wickedness with them.

Ro 6:14

6:14 {7} For sin shall not have dominion over you: for ye are not under the law, but under grace.

    (7) He grants that sin is not yet so dead in us that it is utterly extinct: but he promises victory to those that contend bravely, because we have the grace of God given to us which works so that the law is not now in us the power and instrument of sin.

Ro 6:15

6:15 {8} What then? shall we sin, because we are not under the law, but under grace? God forbid.

    (8) To be under the law and under sin signifies the same thing, with respect to whose who are not sanctified, and on the other hand to be under grace and righteousness is in harmony with those that are regenerated. Now these are contraries, so that one cannot agree with the other: therefore let righteousness expel sin.

Ro 6:17

6:17 {9} But God be thanked, that ye were the servants of sin, but ye have obeyed from the heart that {s} form of doctrine which was delivered you.

    (9) By nature we are slaves to sin and free from righteousness, but by the grace of God we are made servants to righteousness, and therefore free from sin.
    (s) This type of speech has a special meaning in it: for he means by this that the doctrine of the gospel is like a certain mould in which we are cast, to be shaped and fashioned like it.

Ro 6:20

6:20 For when ye were the servants of sin, ye were {t} free from righteousness.

    (t) Righteousness had no rule over you.

Ro 6:21

6:21 {10} What fruit had ye then in those things whereof ye are now ashamed? for the {u} end of those things [is] death.

    (10) An exhortation to the study of righteousness and hatred of sin, the contrary results of both being set down before us.
    (u) The reward or payment.

Ro 6:23

6:23 {11} For the wages of sin [is] death; but the gift of God [is] eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.

    (11) Death is the punishment due to sin, but we are sanctified freely, to everlasting life.

Ro 7:1

7:1 Know {1} ye not, brethren, (for I speak to them that know the law,) how that the law hath dominion over a man as long as he liveth?

    (1) By expounding the similitude of marriage, he compares together the state of man both before and after regeneration. The law of matrimony, he says, is this, that as long as the husband lives, the marriage remains binding, but if he is dead, the woman may marry again.

Ro 7:3

7:3 So then if, while [her] husband liveth, she be married to another man, she shall be {a} called an adulteress: but if her husband be dead, she is free from that law; so that she is no adulteress, though she be married to another man.

    (a) That is, she will be an adulteress, by the consent and judgment of all men.

Ro 7:4

7:4 {2} Wherefore, my brethren, ye also are become dead to the law by the {b} body of Christ; that ye should be married to another, [even] to him who is raised from the dead, that we should bring forth {c} fruit unto {d} God.

    (2) An application of the similitude of marriage. "So", he says, "it is the same with us: for now we are joined to the Spirit, as it were to the second husband, by whom we must bring forth new children: we are dead with regard to the first husband, but with regard to the latter, we are as it were raised from the dead."
    (b) That is, in the body of Christ, to show us how intimate and near the fellowship is between Christ and his members.
    (c) He calls the children, which the wife has by her husband, fruit.
    (d) Which are acceptable to God.

Ro 7:5

7:5 {3} For when we {e} were in the flesh, the {f} motions of sins, which were by the {g} law, did {h} work in our members to bring forth fruit unto death.

    (3) A declaration of the former saying: for he says that the fleshly desires which the law stirred up in us were in us as if they were a husband, from whom we brought forth very deadly and cursed children: but now that husband is dead, and so consequently, being delivered from the force of that killing law, we have passed into the control of the Spirit, so that we bring forth now, not those rotten and dead children, but rather living children.
    (e) When we were in the state of the first marriage, which he calls in the following verse the oldness of the letter.
    (f) The motions that urged us to sin, which show their force even in our minds.
    (g) He does not say "of the law" but "by the law", because they spring from sin which dwells within us, and take occasion to work in us in this way, by reason of the restraint that the law makes, not that the fault is in the law, but in ourselves. {h} Worked by their strength.

Ro 7:6

7:6 But now we are delivered from the law, that {i} being dead {k} wherein we were {l} held; that we should serve in {m} newness of spirit, and not [in] the oldness of the {n} letter.

    (i) As if he said, "The bond which bound us is dead, and has disappeared, in as much that the sin which held us does not have anything to hold us with now."
    (k) For this husband is within us.
    (l) Satan is an unjust possessor, for he deceitfully brought us into bondage to sin and himself: and yet nonetheless, as long as we are sinners, we sin willingly.
    (m) As is appropriate for those who, after the death of their old husband, are joined to the Spirit, the ones whom the Spirit of God has made new men.
    (n) By the letter he means the law, with respect to that old condition: for before our will is shaped by the Holy Spirit, the law speaks but to deaf men, and therefore it is dumb and dead to us, with regard to the fulfilling of it.

Ro 7:7

7:7 {4} What shall we say then? [Is] the law sin? God forbid. Nay, I had not known sin, but by the law: for I had not known {o} lust, except the law had said, Thou shalt not covet.

    (4) An objection: What then? Are the law and sin the same thing, and do they agree together? No, he says: sin is reproved and condemned by the law. But because sin cannot abide to be reproved, and was not in a manner felt until it was provoked and stirred up by the law, it takes occasion by this to be more outrageous, and yet by no fault of the law.
    (o) By the word "lust" in this place he does not mean evil lusts themselves, but the fountain from which they come, for the heathen philosophers themselves condemned wicked lusts, though somewhat poorly. But as for the fountain of lust, they could not so much as determine it, and yet it is the very seat of the natural and unclean spot and filth.

Ro 7:8

7:8 But sin, taking occasion by the commandment, wrought in me all manner of concupiscence. For without the law sin [was] {p} dead.

    (p) Though sin is in us, yet it is not known as sin, neither does it rage in the same way that it rages after the law is known.

Ro 7:9

7:9 {5} For I was alive without the {q} law once: but when the commandment {r} came, sin revived, and I {s} died.

    (5) He sets himself before us as an example, in whom all men may behold, first what they are by nature before they earnestly think upon the law of God: that is, stupid, and prone to sin and wickedness, without any true sense and feeling of sin, and second what manner of persons they become, when their conscience is reproved by the testimony of the Law, that is, stubborn and more inflamed with the desire for sin than they ever were before.
    (q) When I did not know the law, then I thought that I indeed lived: for my conscience never troubled me, because it was not aware of my disease.
    (r) When I began to understand the commandment.
    (s) In sin, or by sin.

Ro 7:12

7:12 {6} Wherefore the law [is] holy, and the {t} commandment holy, and just, and good.

    (6) The conclusion: that the law is holy in itself, and that all the fault is in us, the ones who abuse the law.
    (t) Concerning the commandment, not to covet.

Ro 7:13

7:13 {7} Was then that which is good {u} made death unto me? God forbid. But sin, that it might {x} appear sin, working death in me by that which is good; that sin by the commandment might {y} become exceeding sinful.

    (7) The proposition: that the law is not the cause of death, but our corrupt nature being with the law not only discouraged, but also stirred up: and it took occasion by this to rebel, and the more that things are forbidden it, the more it desires them, and the result of this is guiltiness, and occasion of death.
    (u) Does it bear the blame for my death?
    (x) That sin might show itself to be sin, and betray itself to be that which it is indeed.
    (y) As evil as it could be, showing all the venom it could.

Ro 7:14

7:14 {8} For we know that the law is spiritual: but I am carnal, sold under sin.

    (8) The law is the cause of this matter because the it requires a heavenly purity, but when men are born, they are bondslaves of corruption, which they willingly serve.

Ro 7:15

7:15 {9} For that which I do I {10} allow not: for what I {11} would, that do I not; but what I hate, that do I.

    (9) He sets himself before us as an example, since he has been regenerated, and in whom may easily appear the strife of the Spirit and the flesh, and therefore of the law of God, and our wickedness. For since the law in a man who has not been regenerated brings forth only death, therefore in him it may easily be accused: but seeing that in a man who is regenerated it brings forth good fruit, it better appears that evil actions proceed not from the law but from sin, that is, from our corrupt nature: and therefore the apostle teaches also what the true use of the law is by reproving sin in the regenerated, unto the end of the chapter: as a little before (that is, from the seventh verse until now) Ro 7:7-15 , he declared the use of it in those who are not regenerated.
    (10) The deeds of my life, he says, are not in accordance to my will, rather they are contrary to it. Therefore by the consent of my will with the law, and repugnancy with the deeds of my life, it plainly appears that the law and a properly controlled will induce us to do one thing, but corruption, which also has its seat in the regenerated, another thing.
    (11) It is to be noted that the very same man is said to will and not to will, in different respects: that is, he is said to will in that he is regenerated by grace: and not to will in that he is not regenerated, or in that he is in the same state into which he was born. But because the part which is regenerated at length becomes conqueror, therefore Paul, speaking on behalf of the regenerated, speaks in such a way as if the corruption which willingly sins were something outside of a man: although afterward he grants that this evil is in his flesh, or in his members.

Ro 7:17

7:17 Now then it is no more I that do it, but {z} sin that dwelleth in me.

    (z) That natural corruption, which adheres strongly even to those that are regenerated, and is not completely gone.

Ro 7:18

7:18 {12} For I know that in me (that is, in my flesh,) dwelleth no good thing: for to will is present with me; but {a} [how] to perform that which is good I find not.

    (12) This vice, or sin, or law of sin, wholly possesses those men who are not regenerated, and hinders them or holds those back who are regenerated.
    (a) This indeed is appropriate to the man whom the grace of God has made a new man: for where the Spirit is not, how can there be any strife there?

Ro 7:21

7:21 {13} I find then a law, that, when I would do good, evil is present with me.

    (13) The conclusion: as the law of God exhorts to goodness, so does the law of sin (that is, the corruption in which we are born) force us to wickedness: but the spirit, that is, our mind, in that it is regenerated, coexists with the law of God: but the flesh, that is, the whole natural man, is bondslave to the law of sin. Therefore, in short, wickedness and death are not of the law, but of sin, which reigns in those that are not regenerated: for they neither wish to do good, neither do they do good, but they wish and do evil: but in those that are regenerated, it strives against the spirit or law of the mind, so that they cannot live at all as well as they want to, or be as free of sin as they want to.

Ro 7:22

7:22 For I delight in the law of God after the {b} inward man:

    (b) The inner man and the new man are the same, and are compared and contrasted with the old man; and neither do these words "inward man" signify man's mind and reason, and the "old man" the physical body that is subject to them, as the philosophers imagine: but by the outward man is meant whatever is either without or within a man from top to bottom, as long as that man is not born again by the grace of God.

Ro 7:23

7:23 But I see another law in my members, warring against the law of my {c} mind, and bringing me into captivity to the law of sin which is in my members.

    (c) The law of the mind in this place is not to be understood as referring to the mind as it is naturally, and as our mind is from our birth, but of the mind which is renewed by the Spirit of God.

Ro 7:24

7:24 {14} O {d} wretched man that I am! who shall deliver me from the body of this death?

    (14) It is a miserable thing to be yet in part subject to sin, which of its own nature makes us guilty of death: but we must cry to the Lord, who will by death itself at length make us conquerors, as we are already conquerors in Christ.
    (d) Wearied with miserable and continual conflicts.

Ro 7:25

7:25 I {e} thank God through Jesus Christ our Lord. So then with the mind I {f} myself serve the law of God; but with the flesh the law of sin.

    (e) He recovers himself, and shows us that he rests only in Christ.
    (f) This is the true perfection of those that are born again, to confess that they are imperfect.

Ro 8:1

8:1 [There is] {1} therefore now no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus, who {2} walk not after the {a} flesh, but after the Spirit.

    (1) A conclusion of all the former discussion, from Ro 1:16 to this verse: seeing that we, being justified by faith in Christ, obtain remission of sins and imputation of righteousness, and are also sanctified, it follows from this that those who are grafted into Christ by faith, need have no fear of condemnation.
    (2) The fruits of the Spirit, or effects of sanctification, which are begun in us, do not ingraft us into Christ, but declare that we are grafted into him.
    (a) Do not follow the flesh as their guide: for he is not said to live after the flesh that has the Holy Spirit for his guide, even though he sometimes takes a step off of the path.

Ro 8:2

8:2 {3} For the {b} law of the Spirit of {c} life in {d} Christ Jesus hath {e} made me free from the law of sin and death.

    (3) A preventing of an objection: seeing that the power of the Spirit is in us is so weakly, how may we gather by this that there is no condemnation for those that have that power? Because, he says, that power of the life-giving Spirit which is so weak in us, is most perfect and most mighty in Christ, and being imputed to us who believe, causes us to be thought of as though there were no relics of corruption and death in us. Therefore until now Paul reasons of remission of sins, and imputation of fulfilling the Law, and also of sanctification which is begun in us: but now he speaks of the perfect imputation of Christ's manhood, which part was necessarily required for the full appeasing of our consciences: for our sins are destroyed by the blood of Christ, and the guiltiness of our corruption is covered with the imputation of Christ's obedience, and the corruption itself (which the apostle calls sinful sin) is healed in us little by little, by the gift of sanctification: but yet it is not complete, in that it still lacks another remedy, that is, the perfect sanctification of Christ's own flesh, which is also imputed to us.
    (b) The power and authority of the Spirit, against which is set the tyranny of sin.
    (c) Which kills the old man, and brings the new man to life.
    (d) That is, absolutely and perfectly.
    (e) For Christ's sanctification being imputed to us perfects our sanctification which is begun in us.

Ro 8:3

8:3 {4} For what the law {f} could not do, in that it was weak through the {g} flesh, God sending his own Son in the likeness of {h} sinful flesh, and for {i} sin, {k} condemned sin in the flesh:

    (4) He does not use an argument here, but expounds the mystery of sanctification, which is imputed to us: because, he says, the power of the law was not such (and that by reason of the corruption of our nature) that it could make man pure and perfect, and because it rather kindled the flame of sin than put it out and extinguish it, therefore God clothed his Son with flesh just like our sinful flesh, in which he utterly abolished our corruption, that being accounted thoroughly pure and without fault in him, apprehended and laid hold of by faith, we might be found to fully have the singular perfection which the law requires, and therefore that there might be no condemnation in us.
    (f) Which is not the fault of the law, but is due to our fault.
    (g) In man when he is not born again, whose disease the law could point out, but it could not heal it.
    (h) Of man's nature which is corrupt through sin, until Christ sanctified it.
    (i) To abolish sin in our flesh.
    (k) Showed that sin has no right to be in us.

Ro 8:4

8:4 That the {l} righteousness of the law might be fulfilled {5} in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit.

    (l) The very substance of the law of God might be fulfilled, or that same which the law requires, that we may be found just before God: for if with our justification there is joined that sanctification which is imputed to us, we are just, according to the perfect form which the Lord requires.
    (5) He returns to that which he said, that the sanctification which is begun in us is a sure testimony of our ingrafting into Christ, which is a most plentiful fruit of a godly and honest life.

Ro 8:5

8:5 {6} For they that are after the {m} flesh do mind the things of the flesh; but they that are after the Spirit the things of the Spirit.

    (6) A reason why walking after the flesh does not agree to those who are grafted into Christ, but to walk after the Spirit agrees and is proper for them: because, he says, those who are after the flesh savour the things of the flesh, but those who are after the Spirit, the things of the Spirit.
    (m) They that live as the flesh leads them.

Ro 8:6

8:6 {7} For to be carnally minded [is] death; but to be spiritually minded [is] life and peace.

    (7) He demonstrates what follows from his argument: because whatever the flesh savours, that brings about death: and whatever the Spirit savours, that is conducive to joy and everlasting life.

Ro 8:7

8:7 {8} Because the carnal mind [is] enmity against God: {9} for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be.

    (8) A reason and proof why the wisdom of the flesh is death: because, he says, it is the enemy of God.
    (9) A reason why the wisdom of the flesh is enmity to God, because it neither wants to nor can be subject to him, and by flesh he means a man that is not regenerated.

Ro 8:8

8:8 {10} So then they that are in the flesh cannot please God.

    (10) The conclusion. Therefore they that walk after the flesh cannot please God: by which it follows that they are not grafted into Christ.

Ro 8:9

8:9 {11} But ye are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit, if so be that the Spirit of God dwell in you. Now if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his.

    (11) He addresses the others, that is, those who walk after the Spirit, of whom we have to understand contrary things to the former: and first of all, he defines what it is to be in the Spirit, or to be sanctified: that is, to have the Spirit of God dwelling in us. Then he declares that sanctification is so joined and knit to our grafting into Christ, that it can by no means be separated.

Ro 8:10

8:10 {12} And if Christ [be] in you, the {n} body [is] dead because of sin; but the Spirit [is] life because of righteousness.

    (12) He confirms the faithful against the relics of flesh and sin, granting that these things are yet (as appears by the corruption which is in them) having effects on one of their parts (which he calls the body, that is to say, a lump) which is not yet purged from this earthly filthiness in death: but in addition not wanting to doubt at all of the happy success of this combat, because even this little spark of the Spirit (that is, of the grace of regeneration), which is evidently in them as appears by the fruits of righteousness, is the seed of life.
    (n) The flesh, or all that which as yet remains fast in the grips of sin and death.

Ro 8:11

8:11 {13} But if the Spirit of him that raised up Jesus from the dead dwell in you, he that raised up Christ from the dead shall also quicken your mortal bodies by his Spirit that {o} dwelleth in you.

    (13) A confirmation of the former sentence. You have the very same Spirit which Christ has: therefore at length he will do the same in you, that he did in Christ, that is, when all infirmities being utterly laid aside, and death overcome, he will clothe you with heavenly glory.
    (o) By the strength and power of him, who showed the same might first in our head, and daily works in his members.

Ro 8:12

8:12 {14} Therefore, brethren, we are debtors, not to the flesh, to live after the flesh.

    (14) An exhortation to oppress the flesh daily more and more by the power of the Spirit of regeneration, because (he says) you are debtors to God, in that you have received so many benefits from him.

Ro 8:13

8:13 {15} For if ye live after the flesh, ye shall die: but if ye through the Spirit do mortify the deeds of the body, ye shall live.

    (15) Another reason for the profit that follows: for those who battle and fight valiantly will have everlasting life.

Ro 8:14

8:14 {16} For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God.

    (16) A confirmation of this reason: for they are the children of God who are governed by his Spirit, therefore they will have everlasting life.

Ro 8:15

8:15 {17} For ye have not received the {p} spirit of bondage again {q} to fear; but ye have received the Spirit of {r} adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father.

    (17) He declares and expounds (as an aside) in these two verses by what right this name, to be called the children of God, is given to the believers: and it is because, he says, they have received the grace of the gospel, in which God shows himself, not (as before in the proclaiming of the law) terrible and fearful, but a most gentle and loving Father in Christ, so that with great boldness we call him Father, the Holy Spirit sealing this adoption in our hearts by faith.
    (p) By the "Spirit" is meant the Holy Spirit whom we are said to receive, when he works in our minds.
    (q) Which fear the Spirit stirred up in our minds by the preaching of the law.
    (r) Who seals our adoption in our minds, and therefore opens our mouths.

Ro 8:17

8:17 {18} And if children, then {s} heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ; {19} if so be that we suffer with [him], that we may be also glorified together.

    (18) A proof of what follows from the confirmation: because he who is the son of God enjoys God with Christ.
    (s) Partakers of our Father's goods, and that freely, because we are children by adoption.
    (19) Now Paul teaches by what way the sons of God come to that happiness, that is, by the cross, as Christ himself did: and in addition declares to them fountains of comfort: firstly, that we have Christ a companion and associate of our afflictions: secondly, that we will also be his companions in everlasting glory.

Ro 8:18

8:18 {20} For I {t} reckon that the sufferings of this present time [are] not worthy [to be compared] with the glory which shall be revealed in us.

    (20) Thirdly, that this glory which we look for surpasses a thousand times the misery of our afflictions.
    (t) All being well considered, I gather.

Ro 8:19

8:19 {21} For the earnest expectation of the {u} creature waiteth for the manifestation of the sons of God.

    (21) Fourthly, he plainly teaches us that we will certainly be renewed from that confusion and horrible deformation of the whole world, which cannot be continual, as it was not this way at the beginning: but as it had a beginning by the sin of man, for whom it was made by the ordinance of God, so will it at length be restored with the elect.
    (u) All this world.

Ro 8:20

8:20 For the creature was made subject to {x} vanity, not {y} willingly, but by reason {z} of him who hath subjected [the same] in {a} hope,

    (x) Is subject to a vanishing and disappearing state.
    (y) Not by their natural inclination.
    (z) That they should obey the Creator's commandment, whom it pleased to show by their sickly state, how greatly he was displeased with man.
    (a) God would not make the world subject to be cursed forever because of the sin of man, but gave it hope that it would be restored.

Ro 8:21

8:21 Because the creature itself also shall be delivered from the {b} bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God.

    (b) From the corruption which they are now subject to, they will be delivered and changed into the blessed state of incorruption, which will be revealed when the sons of God will be advanced to glory.

Ro 8:22

8:22 For we know that the whole creation groaneth and {c} travaileth in pain together until now.

    (c) By this word is meant not only exceeding sorrow, but also the fruit that follows from it.

Ro 8:23

8:23 {22} And not only [they], but ourselves also, which have the firstfruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within {d} ourselves, waiting for the adoption, [to wit], {e} the redemption of our body.

    (22) Fifthly, if the rest of the world looks for a restoring, groaning as it were for it and that not in vain, let us also sigh, indeed, let us be more certainly persuaded of our redemption to come, for we already have the first fruits of the Spirit.
    (d) Even from the bottom of our hearts.
    (e) The last restoring, which will be the accomplishment of our adoption.

Ro 8:24

8:24 {23} For we are saved by hope: but {f} hope that is seen is not hope: for what a man seeth, why doth he yet hope for?

    (23) Sixthly, hope is necessarily joined with faith: seeing then that we believe those things which we are not yet in possession of, and hope does not refer to the thing that is present, we must therefore hope and patiently wait for that which we believe will come to pass.
    (f) This is spoken by the figure of speech metonymy, that is, "hope", which stands for that which is hoped for.

Ro 8:26

8:26 {24} Likewise the Spirit also {g} helpeth our infirmities: for we know not what we should pray for as we ought: but the Spirit itself maketh {h} intercession for us with groanings which cannot be uttered.

    (24) Seventhly, there is no reason why we should faint under the burden of afflictions, seeing that prayers minister to us a most sure help: which cannot be frustrated, seeing that they proceed from the Spirit of God who dwells in us.
    (g) Bears our burden, as it were, so that we do not faint under it.
    (h) Incites us to pray, and tells us as it were within, what we will say, and how we will speak.

Ro 8:27

8:27 And he that searcheth the hearts knoweth what [is] the {i} mind of the Spirit, because he maketh intercession for the saints {k} according to [the will of] God.

    (i) What sighs and sobs proceed from the impulse of his Spirit.
    (k) Because he teaches the godly to pray according to God's will.

Ro 8:28

8:28 {25} And we know that {l} all things work together for good to them that love God, to them who are the called according to [his] {m} purpose.

    (25) Eighthly, we are not afflicted, either by chance or to our harm, but by God's providence for our great profit: who as he chose us from the beginning, so has he predestined us to be made similar to the image of his Son: and therefore will bring us in his time, being called and justified, to glory, by the cross.
    (l) Not only afflictions, but whatever else.
    (m) He calls that "purpose" which God has from everlasting appointed with himself, according to his good will and pleasure.

Ro 8:30

8:30 Moreover whom he did {n} predestinate, them he also called: and whom he called, them he also justified: and whom he justified, them he also glorified.

    (n) He uses the past tense for the present time, as the Hebrews use, who sometimes describe something that is to come by using the past tense, to signify the certainty of it: and he also is referring to God's continual working.

Ro 8:31

8:31 {26} What shall we then say to these things? If God [be] for us, who [can be] against us?

    (26) Ninethly, we have no reason to fear that the Lord will not give us whatever is profitable for us, seeing that he has not spared his own Son to save us.

Ro 8:32

8:32 He that spared not his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, how shall he not with him also freely {o} give us all things?

    (o) Give us freely.

Ro 8:33

8:33 {27} Who shall lay any thing to the charge of God's elect? [It is] {p} God that justifieth.

    (27) A most glorious and comfortable conclusion of the whole second part of this epistle, that is of the treatise of justification. There are no accusers that we have need to be afraid of before God, seeing that God himself absolves us as just: and therefore much less need we to fear damnation, seeing that we rest upon the death and resurrection, the almighty power and defence of Jesus Christ. Therefore what can there be so weighty in this life, or of so great force and power, that might cause us to fear, as though we might fall from the love of God, with which he loves us in Christ? Surely nothing, seeing that it is in itself most constant and sure, and also in us being confirmed by steadfast faith.
    (p) Who pronounces us not only guiltless, but also perfectly just in his Son.

Ro 8:35

8:35 Who shall separate us from the love of {q} Christ? [shall] tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword?

    (q) With which Christ loves us.

Ro 8:37

8:37 {r} Nay, in all these things we are more than conquerors through him that loved us.

    (r) We not only overcome so great and many miseries and calamities, but are also more than conquerors in all of them.

Ro 9:1

9:1 I say {1} the truth in Christ, I lie not, my conscience also bearing me witness in the Holy Ghost,

    (1) The third part of this epistle, which goes to the twelfth chapter, in which Paul ascends to the higher causes of faith: and first of all, because he purposed to speak much of the casting off of the Jews, he uses a declaration, saying by a double or triple oath, and by witnessing of his great desire towards their salvation, his singular love towards them, and in addition granting to them all their privileges.

Ro 9:3

9:3 For I could wish that myself were {a} accursed from Christ for my brethren, my kinsmen according to the {b} flesh:

    (a) The apostle loved his brethren so completely that if it had been possible he would have been ready to have redeemed the castaways of the Israelites with the loss of his own soul forever: for this word "accursed" signifies as much in this place.
    (b) Being brethren by flesh, as from one nation and country.

Ro 9:4

9:4 Who are Israelites; to whom [pertaineth] the adoption, and the {c} glory, and the {d} covenants, and the giving of the {e} law, and the {f} service [of God], and the {g} promises;

    (c) The ark of the covenant, which was a token of God's presence.
    (d) The tables of the covenant, and this is spoken by the figure of speech metonymy.
    (e) Of the judicial law.
    (f) The ceremonial law.
    (g) Which were made to Abraham and to his posterity.

Ro 9:5

9:5 Whose [are] the fathers, and of whom as concerning the flesh Christ [came], {2} who is over all, God blessed for ever. Amen.

    (2) Or, "who is God over all, blessed for ever." A most manifest testimony of the Godhead and divinity of Christ.

Ro 9:6

9:6 {3} Not as though the word of God hath taken none effect. For they [are] not all {h} Israel, which are of Israel:

    (3) He enters into the handling of predestination, by means of presenting an objection: How may it be that Israel is cast off, and that in addition we must also make the covenant which God made with Abraham and his seed, frustrated and void? He answers therefore that God's word is true, although Israel is cast off: for the election of the people of Israel is so general and common, that nonetheless the same God chooses by his secret council those as it pleases him. So then this is the proposition and state of this treatise: the grace of salvation is offered generally in such a way, that in spite of how it is offered, the efficacy of it pertains only to the elect.
    (h) Israel in the first place, is taken for Jacob: and in the second, for the Israelites.

Ro 9:7

9:7 Neither, because they are the seed of Abraham, [are they] all children: {4} but, In {i} Isaac shall thy seed be called.

    (4) The first proof is taken from the example of Abraham's own house, in which Isaac only was considered the son, and that by God's ordinance: although Ishmael also was born of Abraham, and circumcised before Isaac.
    (i) Isaac will be your true and natural son, and therefore heir of the blessing.

Ro 9:8

9:8 {5} That is, They which are the children of the {k} flesh, these [are] not the children of God: but the children of the {l} promise are counted for the seed.

    (5) A general application of the former proof or example.
    (k) Who are born of Abraham by the course of nature.
    (l) Who are born by virtue of the promise.

Ro 9:9

9:9 {6} For this [is] the word of promise, At this time will I come, and Sara shall have a son.

    (6) A reason of that application: because Isaac was born by the power of the promise, and therefore he was not chosen, no, he was not at all, except by the free will of God: by which it follows that the promise is the fountain of predestination, and not the flesh, from which promise the particular election proceeds, that is, that the elect are born elect, and not that they are first born, and then after elected, by God who predestinates.

Ro 9:10

9:10 {7} And not only [this]; but when Rebecca also had conceived by one, [even] by our father Isaac;

    (7) Another strong and persuasive proof taken from the example of Esau and Jacob, who were both born of the same Isaac, who was the son of promise of one mother, and were born at the same time, and not at different times as Ishmael and Isaac were: and yet nonetheless, as Esau was cast off, only Jacob was chosen: and that before their birth, that neither any goodness of Jacob's might be thought to be the cause of his election, neither any wickedness of Esau to be the cause of his casting away.

Ro 9:11

9:11 (For [the children] being not yet born, neither having done any good or evil, that the {m} purpose of God according to election might {8} stand, not of works, but of him that calleth;)

    (m) God's decree which proceeds from only his good will, by which it pleases him to choose one, and refuse the other.
    (8) Paul does not say, "might be made", but "being made might remain". Therefore they are deceived who make foreseen faith the cause of election, and foreknown infidelity the cause of reprobation.

Ro 9:12

9:12 {9} It was said unto her, The elder shall serve the younger.

    (9) He proves the casting away of Esau in that he was made servant to his brother: and proves the choosing of Jacob in that he was made lord of his brother, although his brother was the first begotten. And in order that no man might take what God had said, and refer it to external things, the apostle shows out of Malachi, who is a good interpreter of Moses, that the servitude of Esau was joined with the hatred of God, and the lordship of Jacob with the love of God.

Ro 9:14

9:14 {10} What shall we say then? [Is there] {n} unrighteousness with God? God forbid.

    (10) The first objection: if God loves or hates without any consideration of worthiness or unworthiness, then is he unjust, because he may love those who are unworthy, and hate those who are worthy? The apostle detests this blasphemy, and afterward responds to it in depth, point by point.
    (n) Man knows no other causes of love or hatred, but those that are in the persons, and thereupon this objection arises.

Ro 9:15

9:15 {11} For he saith to Moses, I will {o} have mercy on whom I will have mercy, and I will have {p} compassion on whom I will have compassion.

    (11) He answers first with regard to those who are chosen to salvation, in the choosing of whom he denies that God may seem unjust, although he chooses and predestinates to salvation those that are not yet born, without any respect of worthiness: because he does not bring the chosen to the appointed end except by the means of his mercy, which is a cause discussed under predestination. Now mercy presupposes misery, and again, misery presupposes sin or voluntary corruption of mankind, and corruption presupposes a pure and perfect creation. Moreover, mercy is shown by her degrees: that is, by calling, by faith, by justification and sanctification, so that at length we come to glorification, as the apostle will show afterwards. Now all these things orderly following the purpose of God, do clearly prove that he can by no means seem unjust in loving and saving his.
    (o) I will be merciful and favourable to whom I wish to be favourable.
    (p) I will have compassion on whoever I wish to have compassion.

Ro 9:16

9:16 {12} So then [it is] not of him that {q} willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that sheweth mercy.

    (12) The conclusion of the answer: therefore God is not unjust in choosing and saving from his free goodness, such as it pleases him: as he also answered Moses when he prayed for all of the people.
    (q) By "will" he means the thought and endeavour of heart, and by "running", good works, to neither of which he gives the praise, but only to the mercy of God.

Ro 9:17

9:17 {13} For the {r} scripture saith unto Pharaoh, Even for this same purpose have I {s} raised thee up, that I might {14} shew my power in thee, and that my name might be declared throughout all the earth.

    (13) Now he answers concerning the reprobate, or those whom God hates who are not yet born, and has appointed to destruction, without any respect of unworthiness. And first of all he proves this to be true, by alleging the testimony of God himself concerning Pharaoh, whom he stirred up to this purpose, that he might be glorified in Pharaoh's hardening and just punishing.
    (r) God speaks unto Pharaoh in the scripture, or, the scripture in talking about God, in this way talks to Pharaoh.
    (s) Brought you into this world.
    (14) Secondly, he brings the goal of God's counsel, to show that there is no unrighteousness in him. Now the main goal is not properly and simply the destruction of the wicked, but God's glory which appears in their rightful punishment.

Ro 9:18

9:18 {15} Therefore hath he mercy on whom he {t} will [have mercy], and whom he will he hardeneth.

    (15) A conclusion of the full answer to the first objection: therefore seeing that God does not save those whom he freely chose according to his good will and pleasure, but by justifying and sanctifying them by his grace, his counsels in saving them cannot seem unjust. And again, there is not injustice in the everlasting counsel of God, with regard to the destruction of those whom he lifts to destroy, because he hardens before he destroys: therefore the third answer for the maintenance of God's justice in the everlasting counsel of reprobation, consists in this word "hardening": which nonetheless he concealed in the former verse, because the history of Pharaoh was well known. But the force of the word is great, for hardening, which is set against "mercy", presupposes the same things that mercy did, that is, a voluntary corruption, in which the reprobate are hardened: and again, corruption presupposes a perfect state of creation. Moreover, this hardening also is voluntary, for God hardens in such a way, being offended with corruption, that he uses their own will whom he hardens, for the executing of that judgment. Then follow the fruits of hardening, that is, unbelief and sin, which are the true and proper causes of the condemnation of the reprobate. Why does he then appoint to destruction? Because he wishes: why does he harden? Because they are corrupt: why does he condemn? Because they are sinners. Where then is unrighteousness? Nay, if he would destroy all after this manner, to whom would he do injury?
    (t) Whom it pleased him to appoint, to show his favour upon.

Ro 9:19

9:19 {16} Thou wilt say then unto me, Why doth he yet find fault? For who hath resisted his will?

    (16) Another objection, but only for the reprobate, rising upon the former answer. If God appoints to everlasting destruction, such as he wishes, and if that which he has decreed cannot be hindered nor withstood, how does he justly condemn those who perish by his will?

Ro 9:20

9:20 {17} Nay but, O man, who art thou that repliest against God? {18} Shall the thing {u} formed say to him that formed [it], Why hast thou made me thus?

    (17) The apostle does not answer that it is not God's will, or that God does not either reject or elect according to his pleasure, which thing the wicked call blasphemy, but he rather grants his adversary both the antecedents, that is, that it is God's will, and that is must of necessity so happen, yet he denies that God is therefore to be thought an unjust avenger of the wicked: for seeing that it appears by manifest proof that this is the will of God, and his doing, what impudency is it for man, who is but dust and ashes, to dispute with God, and as it were to call him into judgment? Now if any man say that the doubt is not so dissolved and answered, I answer, that there is no surer demonstration in any matter, because it is grounded upon this principle, that the will of God is the rule of righteousness.
    (18) An amplification of the former answer, taken from a comparison, by which it also appears that God's determinate counsel is set by Paul as the highest of all causes: so that it depends not in any way on the second causes, but rather shapes and directs them.
    (u) This similitude agrees very properly to the first creation of mankind.

Ro 9:21

9:21 {19} Hath not the potter power over the clay, of the same lump to make one {20} vessel unto {x} honour, and another unto {21} dishonour?

    (19) Alluding to the creation of Adam, he compares mankind not yet made (but who are in the creators mind) to a lump of clay: who afterwards God made, and daily makes, according as he purposed from everlasting, both such as should be elect, and such as should be reprobate, as also this word "make" declares.
    (20) Whereas in the objection propounded, mention was only made of vessels to dishonour, yet he speaks of the others also in this answer, because he proves the Creator to be just in either of them.
    (x) To honest uses.
    (21) Seeing then, that in the name of dishonour the shame of everlasting death is signified, those agree with Paul, who say that some are made by God for most just destruction: and they that are offended with this kind of speech betray their own folly.

Ro 9:22

9:22 {22} [What] if God, willing to shew [his] wrath, and to make his power known, endured with much longsuffering the {y} vessels of wrath fitted to {23} destruction:

    (22) The second answer is this, that God, moreover and besides that he justly decrees whatever he decrees, uses that moderation in executing his decrees, as is declared his singular mercifulness even in the reprobate, in that he endures them a long time, and permits them to enjoy many and singular benefits, until at length he justly condemns them: and that to good end and purpose, that is, to show himself to be an enemy and avenger of wickedness, that it may appear what power he has by these severe judgments, and finally by comparison of contraries to set forth indeed, how great his mercy is towards the elect.
    (y) By vessels, the Hebrews understand all types of instruments.
    (23) Therefore again, we may say with Paul, that some men are made by God the creator for destruction.

Ro 9:23

9:23 And that he might make known the {z} riches of his glory on the vessels of mercy, which he had afore prepared unto glory,

    (z) The unmeasurable and marvellous greatness.

Ro 9:24

9:24 {24} Even us, whom he hath called, not of the {a} Jews only, but also of the Gentiles?

    (24) Having established the doctrine of the eternal predestination of God on both parts, that is, on the part of the reprobate as well as of the elect, he comes now to show its use, teaching us that we ought not to seek its testimony in the secret counsel of God, but by the calling which is made manifest, and set forth in the Church, propounding to us the example of the Jews and Gentiles, that the doctrine may be better perceived.
    (a) He does not say that each and every one of the Jews are called, but some of the Jews, and some of the Gentiles.

Ro 9:25

9:25 {25} As he saith also in Osee, I will call them my people, which were not my people; and her beloved, which was not beloved.

    (25) Our vocation or calling is free, and of grace, even as our predestination is: and therefore there is no reason why either our own unworthiness, or the unworthiness of our ancestors should cause us to think that we are not the elect and chosen of God, if we are called by him, and so embrace through faith the salvation that is offered us.

Ro 9:27

9:27 {26} Esaias also crieth concerning Israel, Though the number of the children of Israel be as the sand of the sea, a remnant shall be saved:

    (26) Contrary to this, neither any outward general calling, neither any worthiness of our ancestors, is a sufficient witness of election, unless by faith and belief we answer God's calling: which thing came to pass in the Jews, as the Lord had foretold.

Ro 9:28

9:28 For he will finish the work, and cut [it] {b} short in righteousness: because a short work will the Lord make upon the earth.

    (b) God chooses and goes about to reduce the unkind and unthankful people to a very small number.

Ro 9:29

9:29 And as Esaias said before, Except the Lord of {c} Sabaoth had left us a {d} seed, we had been as Sodoma, and been made like unto Gomorrha.

    (c) Armies, by which word the greatest power that exists is attributed to God.
    (d) Even as very few.

Ro 9:30

9:30 {27} What shall we say then? That the Gentiles, which followed {e} not after righteousness, have attained to righteousness, even the righteousness which is of faith.

    (27) The declaration and manifestation of our election is our calling apprehended by faith, as it came to pass in the Gentiles.
    (e) So then, the Gentiles had no works to prepare and procure God's mercy before hand: and that the Gentiles attained to that which they did not seek, the mercy of God is to be thanked for it: and in that the Jews did not attain that which they sought after, they can only thank themselves, because they did not seek for it in the proper way.

Ro 9:31

9:31 {28} But Israel, which followed after the law of righteousness, hath not attained to the law of righteousness.

    (28) The pride of men is the reason that they reject their calling, so that the cause of their damnation need not to be sought for in any other place but themselves.

Ro 9:32

9:32 Wherefore? Because [they sought it] not by faith, but as it were by the {s} works of the law. For they stumbled at that stumblingstone;

    (s) Seeking to attain righteousness, they followed the law of righteousness.

Ro 10:1

10:1 Brethren, {1} my heart's desire and prayer to God for Israel is, that they might be saved.

    (1) Purposing to set forth in the Jews an example of marvellous obstinacy, he uses this declaration.

Ro 10:3

10:3 {2} For they {a} being ignorant of God's righteousness, and going about to {b} establish their own righteousness, have not submitted themselves unto the righteousness of God.

    (2) The first entrance into the calling to salvation, is to renounce our own righteousness by faith, which God freely offers us in the Gospel.
    (a) The ignorance of the law (which we ought to know) does not excuse anyone before God, especially those that are of his household.
    (b) Ignorance always has pride associated with it.

Ro 10:4

10:4 {3} For Christ [is] the {c} end of the law for righteousness to {d} every one that believeth.

    (3) The proof: the law itself points to Christ, that those who believe in him should be saved. Therefore the calling to salvation by the works of the law, is vain and foolish: but Christ is offered for salvation to every believer.
    (c) The end of the law is to justify those that keep the law: but seeing that we do not observe the law through the fault of our flesh, we do not attain this end: but Christ heals this disease, for he fulfils the law for us.
    (d) Not only to the Jews, but also to the Gentiles.

Ro 10:5

10:5 {4} For Moses describeth the righteousness which is of the law, That the man which doeth those things shall live by them.

    (4) That the law is points to Christ and is inclined to him is manifestly proved, because it propounds such a condition as can be and is fulfilled, by none but Christ alone: which being imputed to us by faith, our conscience is quieted, so that now no man can ask, "Who can ascend up into heaven, or bring us from hell?", seeing that the gospel teaches that both of these is done by Christ and that for their sake's, who with true faith embrace him who calls them.

Ro 10:6

10:6 But the righteousness which is of faith speaketh on this wise, {e} Say not in thine heart, Who shall ascend into heaven? (that is, to bring Christ down [from above]:)

    (e) Do not think to yourself, as men that are doubting do.

Ro 10:8

10:8 {5} But what saith it? The {f} word is nigh thee, [even] in thy mouth, and in thy heart: that is, the word of faith, which we preach;

    (5) Calling comes by the word preached.
    (f) By "word", Moses understood the law which the Lord proclaimed with his own voice: and Paul applied it to the preaching of the Gospel, which was the perfection of the law.

Ro 10:9

10:9 {6} That if thou shalt {g} confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that {h} God hath raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved.

    (6) That is indeed true faith which is settled not only in the head, but also in the heart of man, of which we also give testimony by our outward life, and which serves Christ as our one and only Saviour, even as he sets forth himself in his word.
    (g) If you profess plainly, sincerely, and openly, that you take Jesus alone to be thy Lord and Saviour.
    (h) The Father, who is said to have raised the Son from the dead: and this is not spoken to exclude the divinity of the Son, but to set forth the Father's plan, with regard to our redemption in the resurrection of the Son.

Ro 10:10

10:10 For with the heart man {i} believeth unto righteousness; and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation.

    (i) Faith is said to justify, and furthermore seeing the confession of the mouth is an effect of faith, and confession in the way to come to salvation, it follows that faith is also said to save.

Ro 10:11

10:11 {7} For the scripture saith, Whosoever {k} believeth on him shall not be ashamed.

    (7) Now he proves the other part which he propounded before in the fourth verse, that is, that Christ calls whoever he wishes without any difference, and this confirms by a twofold testimony, Ro 10:4 .
    (k) To believe in God is to yield and consent to God's promise of our salvation by Christ, and that not only in general, but when we know that the promises pertain to us, from which arises a sure trust.

Ro 10:13

10:13 {8} For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved.

    (8) True calling upon the name of God is the testimony of true faith, and true faith of true vocation or calling, and true calling of true election.

Ro 10:14

10:14 How then shall they call on him in whom they have not believed? {9} and how shall they believe in him of whom they have not heard? and how shall they hear without a preacher?

    (9) That is, true faith, which seeks God in his word, and that preached: and this preaching God has appointed in the Church.

Ro 10:16

10:16 {10} But they have not {l} all obeyed the gospel. For Esaias saith, Lord, who hath believed our report?

    (10) Wherever faith is, there is also the word, but not the opposite, namely, wherever the word is, there may not necessarily be faith: for many refuse and reject the word.
    (l) He says this because of the Jews.

Ro 10:17

10:17 {11} So then faith [cometh] by hearing, and hearing by the {m} word of God.

    (11) A conclusion of the former discussion: we must ascend from faith to our calling, for by our calling we came to the testimony of our election.
    (m) By God's commandment.

Ro 10:18

10:18 {12} But I say, Have they not heard? Yes verily, their sound went into all the earth, and their words unto the ends of the world.

    (12) An objection: if calling is a testimony of election, were not the Jews called? Why should I not grant that, says the apostle, seeing that there is no nation which has not been called? Much less can I say that the Jews were not called.

Ro 10:19

10:19 {13} But I say, Did not Israel know? First Moses saith, I will provoke you to jealousy by {n} [them that are] no people, [and] by a foolish nation I will anger you.

    (13) The defender and maintainer of the Jew's cause goes on still to ask whether the Jews also did not know God, the one who called them. Isaiah, says the apostle, denies it: and witnesses that the Gospel was taken from them and given to the Gentiles, because the Jews rejected it. In addition the apostle teaches that the outward and universal calling, which is set forth by the creation of the world, is not sufficient for the knowledge of God: indeed, and that the particular calling also which is by the preaching of the word of God, is of itself of little or no efficacy, unless it is apprehended or laid hold of by faith, which is the gift of God: otherwise by unbelief it is made unprofitable, and that by the only fault of man, who can pretend no ignorance.
    (n) He calls all profane people "[them that are] no people", as they are not said to live but to die, who are appointed for everlasting condemnation.

Ro 10:20

10:20 But Esaias is very {o} bold, and saith, I was found of them that sought me not; I was made manifest unto them that asked not after me.

    (o) Speaks without fear.

Ro 11:1

11:1 I say then, {1} Hath God cast away his people? God forbid. For {2} I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, [of] the tribe of Benjamin.

    (1) Now the apostle shows how this doctrine is to be applied to others, remaining still in his propounded cause. Therefore he teaches us that all the Jews in particular are not cast away, and therefore we ought not to pronounce rashly of individual persons, whether they are of the number of the elect or not.
    (2) The first proof: I am a Jew, and yet elected, therefore we may and ought fully to be sure of our election, as has been said before: but of another man's we cannot be so certainly sure, and yet ours may cause us to hope well of others.

Ro 11:2

11:2 {3} God hath not cast away his people which he {a} foreknew. {4} Wot ye not what the scripture saith of Elias? how he maketh intercession to God against Israel, saying,

    (3) The second proof: because God is faithful in his league or covenant, even though men are unfaithful: so then, seeing that God has said that he will be the God of his own to a thousand generations, we must take heed that we do not think that the whole race and offspring is cast off, by reason of the unbelief of a few, but rather that we hope well of every member of the Church.
    (a) Whom he loved and chose from eternity past.
    (4) The third proof taken from the answer that was made to Elijah: even then also, when there appeared openly to the face of the world no elect, yet God knew his elect and chosen, and also that they were a great amount and number. Whereupon this also is concluded, that we ought not rashly to pronounce of any that he is a reprobate, seeing that the Church is often brought to that state, that even the most watchful and sharp-sighted pastors, think that it is completely extinct and put out.

Ro 11:4

11:4 But what saith the answer of God unto him? I have {b} reserved to myself seven thousand men, who have not bowed the knee to [the image of] {c} Baal.

    (b) He speaks of remnants and reserved people who were chosen from everlasting, and not of remnants that should be chosen afterwards: for they are not chosen, because they were not idolaters: but rather they were not idolaters, because they were chosen and elect.
    (c) "Baal" signifies as much as "master" or "patron", or one in whose power another is, which name the idolaters in this day give their idols, naming them "patrons", and "patronesses" or "ladies".

Ro 11:5

11:5 Even so then at this present time also there is a remnant according to the {d} election of grace.

    (d) The election of grace is not that by which men chose grace, but by which God chose us of his grace and goodness.

Ro 11:6

11:6 {5} And if by grace, then [is it] {e} no more of works: otherwise grace is no more grace. But if [it be] of works, then is it no more grace: otherwise work is no more work.

    (5) Even though all are not elect and chosen, yet let those that are elected remember that they are freely chosen: and let those that stubbornly refuse the grace and free mercy of God impute it to themselves.
    (e) This saying demolishes the doctrine of all kinds and manner of works, by which our justifiers of themselves teach that works are either wholly or partly the cause of our justification.

Ro 11:7

11:7 What then? Israel hath not obtained that which he seeketh for; but the election hath obtained it, and the rest were {f} blinded

    (f) See Mr 3:5 .

Ro 11:8

11:8 {6} (According as it is written, God hath given them the spirit of {g} slumber, eyes that they {h} should not see, and ears that they should not hear;) unto this day.

    (6) And yet this hardness of heart does not come except by God's just decree and judgment, and yet without fault, when he so punishes the unthankful by taking from them all sense and perseverance and by doubling their darkness, that the benefits of God which are offered to them, do result in their just destruction.
    (g) A very sound sleep, which takes away all sense.
    (h) That is, eyes unfit to see.

Ro 11:9

11:9 And David saith, {i} Let their table be made a snare, and a trap, and a stumblingblock, and a recompence unto them:

    (i) As unhappy birds are enticed by that which is their sustenance, and then killed, and so did that thing turn to the Jew's destruction, out of which they sought life, that is, the law of God, for the preposterous zeal of which they refused the Gospel.

Ro 11:11

11:11 {7} I say then, Have they stumbled that they should fall? God forbid: but [rather] through their fall salvation [is come] unto the Gentiles, for to provoke them to jealousy.

    (7) God appointed this casting off of the Jews, that it might be an occasion to call the Gentiles: and again might turn this calling of the Gentiles, to be an occasion to restore the Jews, that is, that they being inflamed and provoked by jealousy of the Gentiles, then might themselves at length embrace the Gospel. And by this we may learn that the severity of God serves for the setting forth of his glory as well as his mercy does, and also that God prepares himself a way to show mercy by his severity: so that we ought not rashly to despair of any man, nor proudly triumph over other men, but rather provoke them to a holy jealousy, that God may be glorified in them also.

Ro 11:12

11:12 Now if the fall of them [be] the {k} riches of the world, and the diminishing of them the riches of the Gentiles; how much more their {l} fulness?

    (k) By "riches" he means the knowledge of the Gospel to everlasting life: and by the "world", all nations dispersed throughout the whole world.
    (l) Of the Jews, when the whole nation without exception will come to Christ.

Ro 11:13

11:13 {8} For I speak to you Gentiles, inasmuch as I am the apostle of the Gentiles, {m} I magnify mine office:

    (8) He witnesses by his own example, that he goes before all others in this regard.
    (m) I make noble and famous.

Ro 11:15

11:15 For if the casting away of them [be] the reconciling of the world, what [shall] the receiving [of them be], {n} but life from the dead?

    (n) It will come to pass that when the Jews come to the Gospel, the world will as it were come to life again, and rise up from death to life.

Ro 11:16

11:16 {9} For if the {o} firstfruit [be] holy, the lump [is] also [holy]: and if the root {p} [be] holy, so [are] the branches.

    (9) The nation of the Jews being considered in their head and root, that is, in Abraham, is holy, although many of the branches are cut off. Therefore in judging of our brethren, we must not dwell on their unworthiness, to think that they are at once all cast off, but we ought to consider the root of the covenant, and rather go back to their ancestors who were faithful, that we may know that the blessing of the covenant rests in some of their posterity, as we also find proof here in ourselves.
    (o) He alludes to the first fruits of those loaves, by the offering of which the whole crop of corn was sanctified, and they might use the rest of the crop for that year with good conscience.
    (p) Abraham.

Ro 11:17

11:17 {10} And if some of the branches be broken off, and thou, being a wild olive tree, wert graffed in {q} among them, and with them {r} partakest of the root and fatness of the olive tree;

    (10) There is no reason why the Gentiles who have obtained mercy, should triumph over the Jews who condemn the grace of God, seeing they are grafted in place of the Jews. But let them rather take heed, that also in them is not found that which is worthily condemned in the Jews. And from this also the general doctrine may be gathered and taken, that we ought to be zealous for God's glory, even in regards to our neighbours: and we should be very far from bragging and glorying because we are preferred before others by a singular grace.
    (q) In place of those branches which are broken off.
    (r) It is against the common manner of farming, that the barren juice of the young shoot is changed with the juice of the good tree.

Ro 11:18

11:18 {s} Boast not against the branches. But if thou boast, thou bearest not the root, but the root thee.

    (s) We may rejoice in the Lord, but in such a way that we do not despise the Jews, whom we ought rather to encourage to join in the good battle with us.

Ro 11:20

11:20 Well; because of unbelief they were broken off, and thou standest by faith. Be not highminded, but {t} fear:

    (t) See that you stand in awe of God modestly, and carefully.

Ro 11:21

11:21 For if God spared not the {u} natural branches, [take heed] lest he also spare not thee.

    (u) He calls them natural, not because they had any holiness by nature, but because they were born of those whom the Lord set apart for himself from other nations, by his league and covenant which he freely made with them.

Ro 11:22

11:22 {11} Behold therefore the {x} goodness and severity of God: on them which fell, severity; but toward thee, goodness, if thou continue in [his] {y} goodness: otherwise thou also shalt be cut off.

    (11) Seeing that the matter itself declares that election comes not by inheritance (although the fault is in men, and not in God, why the blessing of God is not perpetual) we must take good heed that those things are not found in ourselves, which we think blameworthy in others, for the election is sure, but those that are truly elect and ingrafted, are not proud in themselves with contempt of others, but with due reverence to God, and love towards their neighbour, run to the mark which is set before them.
    (x) The tender and loving heart.
    (y) In that state which God's bountifulness has advanced you to: and we must mark here that he is not speaking of the election of every individual man, which remains steadfast forever, but of the election of the whole nation.

Ro 11:23

11:23 {12} And they also, if they abide not still in unbelief, shall be graffed in: for God is able to graff them in again.

    (12) Many are now for a season cut off, that is, are without the root, who in their time will be grafted in: and again there are a great number who after a certain manner, and with regard to the outward show seem to be ingrafted, who nonetheless through their own fault afterwards are cut off, and completely cast away: which thing is especially to be considered in nations and peoples, as in the Gentiles and Jews.

Ro 11:24

11:24 For if thou wert cut out of the olive tree which is wild by {z} nature, and wert graffed contrary to nature into a {a} good olive tree: how much more shall these, which be the natural [branches], be graffed into their own olive tree?

    (z) Understand nature, not as it was first made, but as it was corrupted in Adam, and so passed on from him to his posterity.
    (a) Into the people of the Jews, whom God had sanctified only by his grace: and he speaks of the whole nation, not of any one part.

Ro 11:25

11:25 {13} For I would not, brethren, that ye should be ignorant of this mystery, lest ye should be wise in your {b} own conceits; that blindness in part is happened to Israel, until the fulness of the Gentiles be {c} come in.

    (13) The blindness of the Jews is neither so universal that the Lord has no elect in that nation, neither will it be continual: for there will be a time in which they also (as the prophets have foretold) will effectually embrace that which they now so stubbornly for the most part reject and refuse.
    (b) That you are not proud within yourselves.
    (c) Into the Church.

Ro 11:28

11:28 {14} As concerning the {d} gospel, [they are] enemies for your sakes: but as touching the {e} election, [they are] beloved for the fathers' sakes.

    (14) Again, that he may join the Jews and Gentiles together as it were in one body, and especially may teach what duty the Gentiles owe to the Jews, he emphasises, that the nation of the Jews is not utterly cast off without hope of recovery.
    (d) Since they do not receive it.
    (e) In that God does not give them what they deserve, but what he promised to Abraham.

Ro 11:29

11:29 {15} For the gifts and calling of God [are] without repentance.

    (15) The reason or proof: because the covenant made with that nation of everlasting life cannot be frustrated or in vain.

Ro 11:30

11:30 {16} For as ye in times past have not believed God, yet have now obtained mercy through their unbelief:

    (16) Another reason: because even though they who are hardened are worthily punished, yet this stubbornness of the Jews has not so that there would be a hatred of that nation, but so that an entry might be as it were opened to bring in the Gentiles, and afterward the Jews being inflamed with jealousy of that mercy which is shown to the Gentiles might themselves also be partakers of the same benefit, and so it might appear that both Jews and Gentiles are saved only by the free mercy and grace of God, which could not have been so manifest if at the beginning God had brought all together into the Church, or if he had saved the nation of the Jews without this interruption.

Ro 11:32

11:32 For God hath concluded them {f} all in unbelief, that he might have mercy upon all.

    (f) Both Jews and Gentiles.

Ro 11:33

11:33 {17} O the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! how unsearchable [are] his {g} judgments, and his {h} ways past finding out!

    (17) The apostle cries out as one astonished with this wonderful wisdom of God, which he teaches us to revere in a religious manner, and not curiously and profanely to be searched beyond the boundary of that which God has revealed unto us.
    (g) The course that he holds in governing all things both generally and particularly.
    (h) The order of his counsels and doings.

Ro 11:34

11:34 {18} For who hath known the mind of the Lord? or who hath been his counsellor?

    (18) He bridles the wicked boldness of man in three ways: firstly, because God is above all most wise, and therefore it is very absurd and plainly godless to measure him by our folly. Secondly, because he is debtor to no man, and therefore no man can complain of injury done to him. Thirdly, because all things are made for his glory, and therefore we must ascribe all things to his glory, much less may we contend and debate the matter with him.

Ro 11:35

11:35 Or who hath {i} first given to him, and it shall be recompensed unto him again?

    (i) This saying overthrows the doctrine of foreseen works and merits.

Ro 11:36

11:36 For of him, and through him, and to {k} him, [are] all things: to whom [be] glory for ever. Amen.

    (k) That is, for God, to whose glory all things are ascribed, not only things that were made, but especially his new works which he works in his elect.

Ro 12:1

12:1 I beseech {1} you therefore, brethren, {a} by the mercies of God, that ye {b} present your {c} bodies a {d} living sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God, [which is] your {e} reasonable service.

    (1) The fourth part of this epistle, which after the finishing of the principal points of Christian doctrine, consists in the declaring of precepts of the Christian life. And first of all he gives general precepts and grounds: the principal of which is this, that every man consecrate himself wholly to the spiritual service of God, and do as it were sacrifice himself, trusting the grace of God.
    (a) By this preface he shows that God's glory is the utmost goal of everything we do.
    (b) In times past the sacrifices were presented before the altar: but now the altar is everywhere.
    (c) Yourselves: in times past other bodies besides our own, but now our own must be offered.
    (d) In times past, dead sacrifices were offered, but now we must offer those which have the spirit of life in them.
    (e) Spiritual.

Ro 12:2

12:2 {2} And be not conformed to this world: but be ye transformed by the renewing of your {f} mind, that ye may prove what [is] that good, and acceptable, and perfect, will of God.

    (2) The second precept is this, that we do not take other men's opinions or conduct as a rule for life, but that we wholly renounce this world, and set before us as our mark the will of God as is manifested and revealed to us in his word.
    (f) This is the reason that there is no room left for reason, which the heathen philosophers place as a queen in a castle, nor for man's free will, which the popish scholars dream of, because the mind must be renewed; Eph 1:18 2:3 4:17 Col 1:21

Ro 12:3

12:3 {3} For I {g} say, through the grace given unto me, to every man that is among you, not {h} to think [of himself] more highly than he ought to think; but to think {i} soberly, according as God hath dealt to every man the measure of {k} faith.

    (3) Thirdly, he admonishes us very earnestly that every man keep himself within the bounds of his calling, and that every man be wise according to the measure of grace that God has given him.
    (g) I charge.
    (h) That he does not please himself too much, as those do who persuade themselves they know more than they actually do.
    (i) We will be sober if we do not take that upon us which we do not have, and if we do not brag of that which we do have.
    (k) By faith he means the knowledge of God in Christ, and the gifts which the Holy Spirit pours upon the faithful.

Ro 12:4

12:4 {4} For as we have many members in one body, and all members have not the same office:

    (4) There are two reasons for the previous precept: the first is because God has not committed everything to be done by every man: and therefore he does backwardly, and unprofitably, and also to the great disservice of others, wearying himself and others, who passes the bounds of his calling: the second is because this diversity and inequality of vocations and gifts results in our being benefitted: seeing that this is therefore instituted and appointed, so that we should be bound one to another. From which it follows that no man ought to be grieved at this, seeing that the use of every private gift is common.

Ro 12:6

12:6 {5} Having then gifts differing according to the grace that is given to us, whether prophecy, [let us prophesy] according to the {l} proportion of faith;

    (5) That which he spoke before in general, he applies particularly to the holy functions, in which men are in greater danger if they sin. And he divides them into two types: that is, into prophets and deacons: and again he divides the prophets into teachers and pastors. And of deacons he makes three types: that is, those who are to be
    (as it were) treasurers of the Church, whom he calls deacons in the most proper sense: the others to be the governors of discipline, who are called seniors or elders: the third, those who properly serve in the help of the poor, such as the widows.
    (l) That every man observe the measure of that which is revealed to him.

Ro 12:7

12:7 Or ministry, [let us wait] on [our] ministering: or he that {m} teacheth, on teaching;

    (m) Whose office is only to expound the scriptures.

Ro 12:8

12:8 Or he that {n} exhorteth, on exhortation: he that {o} giveth, [let him do it] with simplicity; he that {p} ruleth, with diligence; he that {q} sheweth mercy, with cheerfulness.

    (n) Who in other passages is called the "pastor".
    (o) That is, the alms, that he distributes them faithfully, and without any favouritism.
    (p) The elders of the church.
    (q) Those that are occupied with the care of the poor must do it with cheerfulness, lest they add sorrow upon sorrow.

Ro 12:9

12:9 {6} [Let] love be without dissimulation. Abhor that which is evil; cleave to that which is good.

    (6) Now he comes to the duties of the second table of the ten commandments, which he derives from charity, which is as it were the fountain of them all. And he defines Christian charity as sincerity, hatred of evil, earnest study of good things, good affection to help our neighbour, and whose final goal is the glory of God.

Ro 12:11

12:11 Not slothful in business; fervent in spirit; {r} serving the Lord;

    (r) This verse is well put, for it makes a distinction between Christian duties, and philosophical duties.

Ro 12:12

12:12 {7} Rejoicing in hope; patient in tribulation; continuing instant in prayer;

    (7) He reckons up different virtues together with their effects, that is, hope, patience in tribulation, evenness of mind, continuance in prayer, liberality towards the saints, hospitality, moderation of mind even in helping our enemies, feeling the same as others in their adversity as well as their prosperity, modesty, endeavouring to maintain honest agreement as much as we are able with all men, which cannot be extinguished by any man injuring us.

Ro 12:13

12:13 {s} Distributing to the {t} necessity of saints; given to hospitality.

    (s) A true rule of charity, that we feel for other men's wants as we do for our own, and having that feeling, to help them as much as we can.
    (t) Not upon pleasures and needless duties, but upon necessary uses.

Ro 12:16

12:16 [Be] of the same mind one toward another. Mind not high things, but condescend to men of {u} low estate. Be not {x} wise in your own conceits.

    (u) There is nothing that disrupts harmony as much as seeking glory, when every man detests a base estate, and ambitiously seeks to be exalted.
    (x) Do not be puffed up with an opinion of your own wisdom.

Ro 12:20

12:20 Therefore if thine enemy hunger, feed him; if he thirst, give him drink: for in so doing thou shalt heap {y} coals of fire on his head.

    (y) In this manner Solomon points out the wrath of God which hangs over a man.

Ro 13:1

13:1 Let {1} every {a} soul be subject unto the higher {2} powers. {3} For there is no power but of God: the powers that be are {b} ordained of God.

    (1) Now he distinctly shows what subjects owe to their magistrates, that is, obedience: from which he shows that no man is free: and the obedience we owe is such that it is not only due to the highest magistrate himself, but also even to the lowest, who has any office under him.
    (a) Indeed, though an apostle, though an evangelist, though a prophet; Chrysostom. Therefore the tyranny of the pope over all kingdoms must be thrown down to the ground.
    (2) A reason taken from the nature of the thing itself: for to what purpose are they placed in higher degree, but in order that the inferiors should be subject to them?
    (3) Another argument of great force: because God is author of this order: so that those who are rebels ought to know that they make war with God himself: and because of this they purchase for themselves great misery and calamity.
    (b) Be distributed: for some are greater, some smaller.

Ro 13:3

13:3 {4} For rulers are not a terror to good works, but to the evil. {5} Wilt thou then not be afraid of the power? do that which is good, and thou shalt have praise of the same:

    (4) The third argument, taken from the reason for which they were made, which is that they are to be most profitable: because God by this means preserves the good and bridles the wicked: by which words the magistrates themselves are put in mind of that duty which they owe to their subjects.
    (5) An excellent way to bear this yoke, not only without grief, but also with great profit.

Ro 13:4

13:4 For he is the minister of God to thee for good. {6} But if thou do that which is evil, be afraid; for he beareth not the sword in vain: for he is the minister of God, a {c} revenger to [execute] wrath upon him that doeth evil.

    (6) God has armed the magistrate even with an avenging sword.
    (c) By whom God avenges the wicked.

Ro 13:5

13:5 {7} Wherefore [ye] must needs be subject, not only for wrath, but {d} also for conscience sake.

    (7) The conclusion: we must obey the magistrate, not only for fear of punishment, but much more because (although the magistrate has no power over the conscience of man, yet seeing he is God's minister) he cannot be resisted by any good conscience.
    (d) So far as we lawfully may: for if unlawful things are commanded to us, we must answer as Peter teaches us, "It is better to obey God than men."

Ro 13:6

13:6 {8} For this cause pay ye tribute also: for they are God's ministers, attending continually upon this very thing.

    (8) He sums up the main thing, in which consists the obedience of subjects.

Ro 13:7

13:7 Render therefore to all their dues: tribute to whom tribute [is due]; custom to whom custom; fear to whom {e} fear; honour to whom {f} honour.

    (e) Obedience, and that from the heart.
    (f) Reverence, which (as we have reason) we must give to the magistrate.

Ro 13:8

13:8 {9} Owe no man any thing, but to love one another: {10} for he that loveth another hath fulfilled the {g} law.

    (9) He shows how very few judgments need to be executed, that is, if we so order our life as no man may justly require anything from us, besides only that which we owe one to another, by the perpetual law of charity.
    (10) He commends charity as a concise statement of the whole law.
    (g) Has not only done one commandment, but performed generally that which the law commands.

Ro 13:9

13:9 For this, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, Thou shalt not covet; and if [there be] any other commandment, it is {h} briefly comprehended in this saying, namely, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.

    (h) For the whole law commands nothing else but that we love God and our neighbour. But seeing that Paul speaks here of the duties we owe one to another, we must restrain this word "law" to the second table of the ten commandments.

Ro 13:11

13:11 {11} And that, knowing the time, that now [it is] high time to awake out of sleep: for now [is] our salvation nearer than when we believed.

    (11) An application taken from the circumstances of the time: which also itself puts us in mind of our duty, seeing that this remains, after which the darkness of ignorance and wicked affections by the knowledge of God's truth is driven out of us, that we order our life according to that certain and sure rule of all righteousness and honesty, being fully grounded upon the power of the Spirit of Christ.

Ro 13:12

13:12 The night is far spent, the day is {i} at hand: let us therefore cast off the works {k} of darkness, and let us put on the armour of light.

    (i) In other places we are said to be in the light, but yet so that it does not yet appear what we are, for as yet we see but as it were in the twilight.
    (k) That kind of life which those lead that flee the light.

Ro 13:14

13:14 But {l} put ye on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make not provision for the flesh, to [fulfil] the lusts [thereof].

    (l) To put on Christ is to possess Christ, to have him in us, and us in him.

Ro 14:1

14:1 Him {1} that is weak in the faith {a} receive ye, [but] not to {b} doubtful disputations.

    (1) Now he shows how we ought to behave ourselves toward our brethren in matters and things indifferent, who offend in the use of them not from malice or damnable superstition, but for lack of knowledge of the benefit of Christ. And thus he teaches that they are to be instructed gently and patiently, and so that we apply ourselves to their ignorance in such matters according to the rule of charity.
    (a) Do not for a matter or thing which is indifferent, and such a thing as you may do or not do, shun his company, but take him to you.
    (b) To make him by your doubtful and uncertain disputations go away in more doubt than he came, or return back with a troubled conscience.

Ro 14:2

14:2 {2} For one {c} believeth that he may eat all things: another, who is weak, eateth herbs.

    (2) He propounds for an example the difference of meats, which some thought was necessarily to be observed as a thing prescribed by the law (not knowing that it was taken away) whereas on the other hand those who had profited in the knowledge of the gospel knew well that this position of the law as the schoolmaster was abolished.
    (c) Knows by faith.

Ro 14:3

14:3 {3} Let not him that eateth despise him that eateth not; and let not him which eateth not judge him that eateth: for {4} God hath received him.

    (3) In such a matter, says the apostle, let neither those who know their liberty proudly despise their weak brother, neither let the unlearned wickedly or perversely condemn that which they do not understand.
    (4) The first reason: because both he that eats and he that does not eat is nonetheless the member of Christ, neither he who does not eat can justly be condemned, neither he who eats be justly condemned: now the first proposition is declared in the sixth verse which follows Ro 14:6 .

Ro 14:4

14:4 {5} Who art thou that judgest another man's servant? to his own master he standeth or falleth. Yea, he shall be holden up: for God is able to make him stand.

    (5) Another reason which depends upon the former: why the novice and more unlearned ought not to be condemned by the more experienced, as men without hope of salvation: because, says the apostle, he that is ignorant today, may be endued tomorrow with further knowledge, so that he may also stand sure: therefore it belongs to God, and not to man, to pronounce the sentence of condemnation.

Ro 14:5

14:5 {6} One man esteemeth one day above another: another esteemeth every day [alike]. {7} Let {d} every man be fully persuaded in his own mind.

    (6) Another example of the difference of days according to the law.
    (7) He sets against this contempt, and hasty or rash judgments, a continual desire to profit, that the strong may be certainly persuaded of their liberty, of what manner and sort it is, and how they ought to use it: and again the weak may profit daily, in order that they do not abuse the gift of God, or please themselves in their infirmity.
    (d) That he may say in his conscience that he knows and is persuaded by Jesus Christ, that nothing is unclean of itself: and this persuasion must be grounded upon the word of God.

Ro 14:6

14:6 {8} He that {e} regardeth the day, regardeth [it] unto the Lord; and he that regardeth not the day, to the {f} Lord he doth not regard [it]. He that {g} eateth, eateth to the Lord, {9} for he giveth God thanks; and he that eateth {h} not, to the Lord he eateth not, and giveth God thanks.

    (8) A reason taken from the nature of indifferent things, which a man may do with good conscience, and omit: for seeing that the difference of days and meats was appointed by God, how could those who as yet did not understand the abrogation of the law, and yet otherwise acknowledge Christ as their Saviour, with good conscience neglect that which they knew was commanded by God? And on the other hand, those who knew the benefit of Christ in this behalf, did with good conscience neither observe days nor meats: therefore, says the apostle in verse ten, "Let not the strong condemn the weak for these things, seeing that the weak brethren are brethren nonetheless." Ro 14:10 Now if any man would apply this doctrine to our times and ages, let him know that the apostle speaks of indifferent things, and that those who thought them not to be indifferent, had a basis in the law, and were deceived by simple ignorance, and not from malice (for to such the apostle does not yield, no not for a moment) nor superstition, but by a religious fear of God.
    (e) Precisely observes.
    (f) God will judge whether he does well or not: and therefore you should rather strive about this, how every one of you will be considered by God, than to think upon other men's doings.
    (g) He that makes no difference between meats.
    (9) So the apostle shows that he speaks of the faithful, both strong and weak: but what if we have to deal with the unfaithful? Then we must take heed of two things, as also is declared in the epistle to the Corinthians. The first is that we do not consider their superstition as something indifferent, as they did who sat down to eat meat in idol's temples: the second is that then also when the matter is indifferent (as to buy a thing offered to idols, in the butcher's store, and to eat it at home or at a private meal) we do not wound the conscience of our weak brother.
    (h) He that does not touch meats which he considers to be unclean by the law.

Ro 14:7

14:7 {10} For none of us liveth to {i} himself, and no man dieth to himself.

    (10) We must not rest, he says, in the meat itself, but in the use of the meat, so that he is justly to be reprehended that lives in such a way that he does not cast his eyes upon God, for both our life and our death is dedicated to him, and for this cause Christ has properly died, and not simply that we might eat this meat or that.
    (i) Has respect to himself only, which the Hebrews say in this manner, "Do well to his own soul."

Ro 14:10

14:10 {11} But why dost thou judge thy brother? or why dost thou set at nought thy brother? for we shall all stand before the judgment seat of Christ.

    (11) The conclusion: we must leave to God his right, and therefore in matters which are either good or evil according to the conscience of the individual, the strong must not despise their weak brethren, much less condemn them. But this consequent cannot be taken of equal force in the contrary, that is, that the weak should not judge the strong, because the weak do not know that those who do not observe a day and eat, observe it not to the Lord, and eat to the Lord, as the strong men know that the weak who observe a day and do not eat, observe the day to the Lord, and eat not to the Lord.

Ro 14:11

14:11 For it is written, [As] I {k} live, saith the Lord, every knee shall bow to me, and every tongue shall {l} confess to God.

    (k) This is a form of an oath, proper to God alone, for he and none but he lives, and has his being of himself.
    (l) Will acknowledge be to be from God.

Ro 14:13

14:13 {12} Let us not therefore judge one another any more: but judge {m} this rather, that no man put a stumblingblock or an occasion to fall in [his] brother's way.

    (12) After he has concluded what is not to be done, he shows what is to be done: that is, we must take heed that we do not utterly abuse our liberty and cast down our brother who is not yet strong.
    (m) He rebukes along the way these malicious judgers of others who occupy their heads about nothing, but to find fault with their brethren's life, whereas they should rather focus their minds upon this, that they do not with disdainfulness either cast their brethren completely down, or give them any offence.

Ro 14:14

14:14 {13} I know, and am persuaded by the {n} Lord Jesus, that [there is] nothing unclean of {o} itself: but to him that esteemeth any thing to be unclean, to him [it is] unclean.

    (13) The preventing of an objection: it is true that the right of the law to be schoolmaster is taken away by the benefit of Christ, to those who know it, but yet nonetheless we have to consider in the use of this liberty what is expedient, that we may have regard to our weak brother, seeing that our liberty is not lost in doing this.
    (n) By the Spirit of the Lord Jesus, or by the Lord Jesus, who broke down the wall at his coming.
    (o) By nature.

Ro 14:15

14:15 But if thy brother be grieved with [thy] meat, now walkest thou not charitably. {14} Destroy not him with thy meat, for whom {15} Christ died.

    (14) It is the part of a cruel mind to make more account of meat than of our brother's salvation. Which thing those do who eat with the intent of giving offence to any brother, and so give him occasion to turn back from the Gospel.
    (15) Another argument: we must follow Christ's example: and Christ was so far from destroying the weak with meat that he gave his life for them.

Ro 14:16

14:16 {16} Let not then your good be evil spoken of:

    (16) Another argument: because by this means evil is spoken of the liberty of the gospel, as though it opens the way to attempt anything whatever, and gives us boldness to do all things.

Ro 14:17

14:17 {17} For the kingdom of God is not meat and drink; but righteousness, and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost.

    (17) A general reason, and the foundation of the entire argument: the kingdom of heaven consists not in these outward things, but in the study of righteousness, and peace, and comfort of the Holy Spirit.

Ro 14:18

14:18 For he that in {p} these things serveth Christ [is] acceptable to God, and approved of men.

    (p) He that lives peaceably, and does righteously, through the Holy Spirit.

Ro 14:19

14:19 {18} Let us therefore follow after the things which make for peace, and things wherewith one may edify another.

    (18) A general conclusion: the use of this liberty, indeed, and our whole life, ought to be concerned with the edifying of one another, insomuch that we consider that thing unlawful, by reason of the offence of our brother, which is of itself pure and lawful.

Ro 14:22

14:22 {19} Hast thou {q} faith? have [it] to thyself before God. Happy [is] he that condemneth not himself in that thing which he {r} alloweth.

    (19) He gives a double warning in these matters: one, which pertains to the strong, that he who has obtained a sure knowledge of this liberty, keep that treasure to the end that he may use it wisely and profitably, as has been said: the second, which respects the weak, that they do nothing rashly by other men's example with a wavering conscience, for it cannot be done without sin if we are not persuaded by the word of God that he likes and approves it.
    (q) He showed before in Ro 14:14 what he means by faith, that is, for a man to be certain and without doubt in matters and things indifferent.
    (r) Embraces.

Ro 14:23

14:23 And he that {s} doubteth is damned if he eat, because [he eateth] not of faith: for whatsoever [is] not of faith is sin.

    (s) Reasons with himself.

Ro 15:1

15:1 We {1} then that are strong ought to bear the infirmities of the weak, and not to {a} please ourselves.

    (1) Now the apostle reasons generally of tolerating or bearing with the weak by all means, in so far that it may be for their profit.
    (a) And despise others.

Ro 15:2

15:2 Let every one of us please [his] neighbour for [his] {b} good to edification.

    (b) For his profit and edification.

Ro 15:3

15:3 {2} For even Christ pleased not himself; but, as it is written, The reproaches of them that reproached thee fell on me.

    (2) A confirmation taken from the example of Christ, who suffered all things, to bring not only the weak, but also his most cruel enemies, overcoming them with patience, to his Father.

Ro 15:4

15:4 {3} For whatsoever things were written {c} aforetime were written for our learning, that we through patience and comfort of the {d} scriptures might have hope.

    (3) The preventing of an objection: such things as are cited out of the examples of the ancients, are propounded unto us to this end and purpose, that according to the example of our fathers we should in patience and hope bear one with another.
    (c) By Moses and the prophets.
    (d) The scriptures are said to teach and comfort, because God uses them to teach and comfort his people with them.

Ro 15:5

15:5 {4} Now the God of patience and consolation grant you to be likeminded one toward another according to Christ Jesus:

    (4) We must take an example of patience from God: that both the weak and the strong, serving God with a mutual consent, may bring one another to God, as Christ also received us to himself, although we were ever so unworthy.

Ro 15:7

15:7 Wherefore receive ye one another, as Christ also {e} received us to the glory of God.

    (e) He did not shun us, but received us of his own accord, to make us partakers of God's glory.

Ro 15:8

15:8 {5} Now I say that Jesus Christ was a minister of the {f} circumcision for the {g} truth of God, to confirm the promises [made] unto the fathers:

    (5) An applying of the example of Christ to the Jews, whom he granted this honour for the promises which he made to their fathers, although they were ever so unworthy, in that he executed the office of a minister among them with marvellous patience: therefore much less ought the Gentiles despise them for certain faults, whom the Son of God esteemed so much.
    (f) Of the circumcised Jews, for as long as he lived, he never went out of their midst.
    (g) That God might be seen to be true.

Ro 15:9

15:9 {6} And that the Gentiles might glorify God for [his] mercy; as it is written, For this cause I will {h} confess to thee among the Gentiles, and sing unto thy name.

    (6) An applying of the same to the Gentiles, whom also the Lord by his incomprehensible goodness had regard for, so that they are not to be condemned by the Jews as strangers.
    (h) I will openly confess and set forth your name.

Ro 15:13

15:13 {7} Now the God of {i} hope fill you with {k} all joy and peace in believing, that ye may abound in hope, through the power of the Holy Ghost.

    (7) He seals up as it were all the former treatise with prayers, wishing all that to be given them by the Lord, that he had commanded them.
    (i) In whom we hope.
    (k) Abundantly and plentifully.

Ro 15:14

15:14 {8} And I myself also am persuaded of you, my brethren, that {l} ye also are full of goodness, filled with all knowledge, able also to admonish one another.

    (8) The conclusion of the epistle, in which he first excuses himself, that he has written somewhat at length to them, rather to warn them than to teach them, and that of necessity, by reason of his calling, which binds him in a special way to the Gentiles.
    (l) Of your own accord, and by yourselves.

Ro 15:16

15:16 That I should be the minister of Jesus Christ to the Gentiles, ministering the gospel of God, that the {m} offering up of the Gentiles might be acceptable, being sanctified by the Holy Ghost.

    (m) By the offering up of the Gentiles, he means the Gentiles themselves, whom he offered to God as a sacrifice.

Ro 15:17

15:17 {9} I have therefore whereof I may glory through Jesus Christ in those things which pertain to God.

    (9) He commends his apostleship highly by the effects, but yet in such a way that even though he speaks all things truly, he gives all the glory to God as the only author: and he does not do this for his own sake, but this rather, that men might doubt less of the truth of the doctrine which he propounds to them.

Ro 15:18

15:18 For I will not dare to speak of any of those things which {n} Christ hath not wrought by me, to make the Gentiles obedient, by word and deed,

    (n) Christ was so with me in all things, and by all means, that even if I had wanted to, yet I cannot say what he has done by me to bring the Gentiles to obey the gospel.

Ro 15:19

15:19 Through {o} mighty signs and wonders, by the power of the Spirit of God; so that from Jerusalem, and round about unto Illyricum, I have fully preached the gospel of Christ.

    (o) In the first place this word "mighty" signifies the force and working of the wonders in piercing men's minds: and in the latter, it signifies God's mighty power which was the worker of those wonders.

Ro 15:22

15:22 {10} For which cause also I have been much hindered from coming to you.

    (10) He writes in general to the Romans, and that familiarly, his singular good will towards them, and the state of his affairs, but in such a way that he does not swerve in the least way from the end of apostolic doctrine: for he declares nothing but that which appertains to his office, and is godly: and commending by a little digression as it were, the liberality of the churches of Macedonia, he modestly incites them to follow their godly deed.

Ro 15:25

15:25 But now I go unto Jerusalem to {p} minister unto the saints.

    (p) Doing his duty for the saints, to carry to them that money which was gathered for their use.

Ro 15:27

15:27 {11} It hath pleased them verily; and their debtors they are. For if the Gentiles have been made partakers of their spiritual things, their duty is also to {q} minister unto them in carnal things.

    (11) Alms are voluntary, but yet we at the same time owe these by the law of charity.
    (q) To serve their turns.

Ro 15:28

15:28 When therefore I have performed this, and have {r} sealed to them this {s} fruit, I will come by you into Spain.

    (r) Performed it faithfully, and sealed it as it were with my ring.
    (s) This money which was gathered for the use of the poor: and these alms are very fitly called fruit.

Ro 15:29

15:29 {12} And I am sure that, when I come unto you, I shall come in the fulness of the blessing of the gospel of Christ.

    (12) He promises them through the blessing of God, not to come empty to them: and requiring of them the duty of prayers, he shows what thing we ought mainly to rest upon in all difficulties and adversities.

Ro 15:30

15:30 Now I beseech you, brethren, for the Lord Jesus Christ's sake, and for the {t} love of the Spirit, that ye strive together with me in [your] prayers to God for me;

    (t) For the mutual union, with which the Holy Spirit has united our hearts and minds together.

Ro 16:1

16:1 I {1} commend unto you Phebe our sister, which is a servant of the church which is at Cenchrea:

    (1) Having made an end of the whole discussion, he comes now to familiar commendations and salutations, and that to good consideration and purpose, that is, that the Romans might know who are most to be honoured and to be considered among them: and also whom they ought to set before them to follow: and therefore he attributes to every of them individual and singular testimonies.

Ro 16:2

16:2 That ye receive her in the {a} Lord, as becometh saints, and that ye assist her in whatsoever business she hath need of you: for she hath been a succourer of many, and of myself also.

    (a) For Christ's sake, which appropriately belongs to the Christians, for the heathen philosophers have a resemblance of the same virtues.

Ro 16:5

16:5 Likewise [greet] the {b} church that is in their house. Salute my wellbeloved Epaenetus, who is the {c} firstfruits of Achaia unto Christ.

    (b) The company of the faithful, for in so great a city as that was, there were different companies.
    (c) For he was the first of Achaia that believed in Christ: and this type of speech is an allusion to the ceremonies of the law.

Ro 16:7

16:7 Salute Andronicus and Junia, my kinsmen, and my fellowprisoners, who are of note among the apostles, who also were in {d} Christ before me.

    (d) Ingrafted by faith.

Ro 16:16

16:16 Salute one another with an holy {e} kiss. The churches of Christ salute you.

    (e) He calls that a holy kiss which proceeds from a heart that is full of that holy love: now this is to be understood as referring to the manner used in those days.

Ro 16:17

16:17 {2} Now I beseech you, brethren, {f} mark them which cause divisions and offences contrary to the doctrine which ye have learned; and avoid them.

    (2) As by describing by name those who were worthy of commendation he sufficiently declared whom they ought to hear and follow, so does he now point out to them whom they ought to take heed of, yet he does not name them, because it was not necessary.
    (f) Watchfully and diligently, as though you should scout for your enemies in a watch tower.

Ro 16:18

16:18 For they that are such serve not our Lord Jesus Christ, but their own belly; and by {g} good words and fair speeches deceive the hearts of the simple.

    (g) The word which he uses signifies a promising which accomplishes nothing, and if you hear any such, you may assure yourself that he who promises to you is more concerned about receiving from you than he is concerned about giving to you.

Ro 16:19

16:19 {3} For your obedience is come abroad unto all [men]. I am glad therefore on your behalf: but yet I would have you {h} wise unto that which is good, and {i} simple concerning evil.

    (3) Simplicity must be joined with wisdom.
    (h) Furnished with the knowledge of the truth and wisdom, so that you may embrace good things, and avoid evil, beware of the deceits and snares of false prophets, and resist them openly: and this place plainly destroys the papists faith of credit, whereas they maintain it to be sufficient for one man to believe as another man believes, without further knowledge or examination what the matter is, or what ground it has: using these daily speeches, "We believe as our fathers believed, and we believe as the Church believes."
    (i) As men that know no way to deceive, much less deceive indeed.

Ro 16:20

16:20 {4} And the God of peace shall bruise Satan under your feet shortly. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ [be] with you. Amen.

    (4) We must fight with a certain hope of victory.

Ro 16:21

16:21 {5} Timotheus my workfellow, and Lucius, and Jason, and Sosipater, my kinsmen, salute you.

    (5) He adds salutations, partly to renew mutual friendship, and partly to the end that this epistle might be of some weight with the Romans, having the confirmation of so many that subscribed to it.

Ro 16:22

16:22 I Tertius, who {k} wrote [this] epistle, salute you in the Lord.

    (k) Wrote it as Paul uttered it.

Ro 16:24

16:24 {6} The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ [be] with you all. Amen.

    (6) Now taking his leave of them this third time, he wishes that to them, upon which all the force of the former doctrine depends.

Ro 16:25

16:25 {7} Now to him that is of power to stablish you according to my gospel, and the preaching of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the {l} mystery, which was kept secret since the world began,

    (7) He sets forth the power and wisdom of God with great thanksgiving, which especially appears in the gospel, and makes mention also of the calling of the Gentiles, to confirm the Romans in the hope of this salvation.
    (l) That secret and hidden thing, that is to say, the calling of the Gentiles.

Ro 16:26

16:26 But now is made manifest, and by the scriptures of the prophets, according to the commandment of the everlasting God, {m} made known to all nations for the obedience of faith:

    (m) Offered and exhibited to all nations to be known.

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