1 Samuel
2 Samuel
1 Kings
2 Kings
1 Chronicles
2 Chronicles

Song of Songs



1 Corinthians
2 Corinthians
1 Thessalonians
2 Thessalonians
1 Timothy
2 Timothy

1 Peter
2 Peter
1 John
2 John
3 John

Revelation 1-11
Revelation 12-22

Notes on Daniel
From the Original 1599 Geneva Bible Notes

Da 1:1

1:1 In the {a} third year of the reign of Jehoiakim king of Judah came Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon unto Jerusalem, and besieged it.

The Argument - The great providence of God, and his singular mercy towards his Church are set forth here most vividly, who never leaves his own destitute, but now in their greatest miseries and afflictions gives them Prophets, such as Ezekiel and Daniel, whom he adorned with special graces of his Holy Spirit. And Daniel above all others had most special revelations of such things as would come to the Church, even from the time that they were in captivity, to the last end of the world, and to the general resurrection, as of the four Monarchies and empires of all the world, that is, of the Babylonians, Persians, Grecians, and Romans. Also of the certain number of the times even until Christ, when all ceremonies and sacrifices would cease, because he would be the accomplishment of them: moreover he shows Christ's office and the reason of his death, which was by his sacrifice to take away sins, and to bring everlasting life. And as from the beginning God always exercised his people under the cross, so he teaches here, that after Christ is offered, he will still leave this exercise to his Church, until the dead rise again, and Christ gathers his own into his kingdom in the heavens.

      (a) Read 2Ki 24:1, Jer 25:1 .

Da 1:2

1:2 And the Lord gave Jehoiakim king of Judah into his hand, with part of the vessels of the house of God: which he carried into the land of {b} Shinar to the house of his god; and he brought the vessels into the treasure house of his god.

      (b) Which was a plain by Babylon, where the temple of their great god was, and is here taken for Babylon.

Da 1:3

1:3 And the king spake unto {c} Ashpenaz the master of his {d} eunuchs, that he should bring [certain] of the children of Israel, and of the {e} king's seed, and of the princes;

      (c) Who was as master of the guards.
      (d) He calls them "eunuchs" whom the King nourished and brought up to be rulers of other countries afterwards.
      (e) His purpose was to keep them as hostages, and so that he might show himself victorious, and also by their good entreaty and learning of his religion, they might favour him rather than the Jews, and so to be able to serve him as governors in their land. Moreover by this means the Jews might be better kept in subjection, fearing otherwise to bring hurt upon these noble men.

Da 1:4

1:4 Children in whom [was] no blemish, but well {f} favoured, and skilful in all wisdom, and cunning in knowledge, and understanding science, and such as [had] ability in them to stand in the king's palace, and whom they might teach the {g} learning and the tongue of the Chaldeans.

      (f) The King required three things: that they should be of noble birth, that they should be intelligent and learned, and that they should be of a strong and handsome nature, so that they might do him better service. This he did for his own benefit, therefore it is not to praise his liberality: yet in this he is worthy of praise, that he esteemed learning, and knew that it was a necessary means to govern by.
      (g) That they might forget their own religion and country fashions to serve him the better to his purpose: yet it is not to be thought that Daniel learned any knowledge that was not godly. In all points he refused the abuse of things and superstition, insomuch that he would not eat the meat which the King appointed him, but was content to learn the knowledge of natural things.

Da 1:5

1:5 And the king appointed them a {h} daily provision of the king's meat, and of the wine which he drank: so nourishing them {i} three years, that at the end thereof they might stand {k} before the king.

      (h) That by their good entertainment they might learn to forget the mediocrity of their own people.
      (i) With the intent that in this time they might learn both the manners of the Chaldeans, and also their language.
      (k) As well as to serve at the table as in other offices.

Da 1:7

1:7 Unto whom the prince of the eunuchs {l} gave names: for he gave unto Daniel [the name] of Belteshazzar; and to Hananiah, of Shadrach; and to Mishael, of Meshach; and to Azariah, of Abednego.

      (l) That they might altogether forget their religion: for the Jews gave their children names which might always put them in remembrance of some point of religion. Therefore this was a great temptation and a sign of servitude, which they were not able to resist.

Da 1:8

1:8 But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not {m} defile himself with the portion of the king's meat, nor with the wine which he drank: therefore he requested of the prince of the eunuchs that he might not defile himself.

      (m) Not that he thought any religion to be in the meat or drink (for afterwards he did eat), but because the king should not entice him by this sweet poison to forget his religion and accustomed sobriety, and that in his meat and drink he might daily remember of what people he was from. And Daniel brings this in to show how God from the beginning assisted him with his Spirit, and at length called him to be a Prophet.

Da 1:10

1:10 And the prince of the eunuchs said unto Daniel, {n} I fear my lord the king, who hath appointed your meat and your drink: for why should he see your faces worse liking than the children which [are] of your sort? then shall ye make [me] endanger my head to the king.

      (n) He supposed they did this for their religion, which was contrary to the Babylonians, and therefore in this he represents those who are of no religion: for neither would he condemn theirs, nor maintain his own.

Da 1:12

1:12 Prove thy servants, I beseech thee, {o} ten days; and let them give us {p} pulse to eat, and water to drink.

      (o) Meaning that within this space he might have the test, and that no man would be able to know about it: and thus he spoke, being moved by the Spirit of God.
      (p) Not that it was a thing abominable to eat dainty meats, and to drink wine, as both before and after they did, but if they would have by this been won to the King, and had refused their own religion, that meat and drink would have been accursed.

Da 1:15

1:15 And at the end of ten days their {q} countenances appeared fairer and fatter in flesh than all the children which did eat the portion of the king's meat.

      (q) This bare feeding and that also of Moses, when he fled from the court of Egypt, declares that we must live in such sobriety as God calls us to, seeing that he will make it more profitable to us than all dainties: for his blessing alone suffices.

Da 1:17

1:17 As for these four children, God gave them knowledge and skill in all learning {r} and wisdom: and Daniel had understanding in all {s} visions and dreams.

      (r) Meaning in the liberal sciences, and natural knowledge, and not in the magical areas which are forbidden; De 18:11 .
      (s) So that he alone was a Prophet, and none of the others: for by dreams and visions God appeared to his Prophets; Nu 12:6

Da 1:18

1:18 Now at the {t} end of the days that the king had said he should bring them in, then the prince of the eunuchs brought them in before Nebuchadnezzar.

      (t) Of the three years mentioned above as in Dan 1:5 .

Da 1:21

1:21 And Daniel continued [even] unto {u} the first year of king Cyrus.

      (u) That is, he was esteemed in Babylon as a Prophet as long as that commonwealth stood.

Da 2:1

2:1 And in the {a} second year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar Nebuchadnezzar dreamed {b} dreams, wherewith his spirit was {c} troubled, and {d} his sleep brake from him.

      (a) The father and the son were both called by this name, so that this is meant of the son, when he reigned alone: for he also reigned in a way with his father.
      (b) Not that he had many dreams, but because many matters were contained in this dream.
      (c) Because it was so rare and strange a dream, that he had had nothing similar.
      (d) Or, "his sleep was upon him", that is, that he was so heavy with sleep, that he began to sleep again.

Da 2:2

2:2 Then the king commanded to call the magicians, and the astrologers, and the sorcerers, and the {e} Chaldeans, for to shew the king his dreams. So they came and stood before the king.

      (e) For all these astrologers and sorcerers called themselves by this name of honour, as though all the wisdom and knowledge of the country depended upon them, and that all other countries were void of such wisdom and knowledge.

Da 2:4

2:4 Then spake the Chaldeans to the king in {f} Syriack, O king, live for ever: tell thy servants the dream, and we will shew the interpretation.

      (f) That is, in the Syrian language, which differed not much from the Chaldeans, except it seemed to be more eloquent, and therefore the learned used to speak it, as the Jewish writers do to this day.

Da 2:5

2:5 The king answered and said to the Chaldeans, The thing is gone from me: if ye will not make known unto me the dream, with the interpretation thereof, ye {g} shall be cut in pieces, and your houses shall be made a dunghill.

      (g) This is a just reward of their arrogance (who boasted of themselves that they had knowledge of all things), that they should be proved fools, and that to their perpetual shame and confusion.

Da 2:7

2:7 They answered again and said, Let the king tell {h} his servants the dream, and we will shew the interpretation of it.

      (h) In this appears their ignorance, that despite their braggings, yet they were not able to tell the dream, unless he told them of it. And if he did tell them, they would pretend knowledge where there was but mere ignorance, and so as deluders of the people they were worthy to die.

Da 2:13

2:13 And the decree went forth that the wise [men] should be slain; and they {i} sought Daniel and his fellows to be slain.

      (i) Which declares that God would not have his servant united in the company of these sorcerers and astrologers, whose arts were wicked, and therefore justly ought to die, even though the king did it upon a rage and not from zeal.

Da 2:22

2:22 He revealeth the deep and secret things: he knoweth what [is] in the darkness, and the {k} light dwelleth with him.

      (k) He shows that man has neither wisdom nor knowledge, but very dark blindness and ignorance of himself: for it comes only from God that man understands anything.

Da 2:23

2:23 I thank thee, and praise thee, O thou God of my {l} fathers, who hast given me wisdom and {m} might, and hast made known unto me now what we desired of thee: for thou hast [now] made known unto us the king's matter.

      (l) To whom you made your promise, and who lived in fear of you: by which he excludes all other gods.
      (m) Meaning power to interpret it.

Da 2:24

2:24 Therefore Daniel went in unto Arioch, whom the king had ordained to destroy the wise [men] of Babylon: he went and said thus unto him; Destroy not {n} the wise [men] of Babylon: bring me in before the king, and I will shew unto the king the interpretation.

      (n) By which appears that many were slain, as in verse thirteen, and the rest at Daniel's offer were preserved on condition. Not that Daniel favoured their wicked profession, but that he had respect to fairness, because the King proceeded according to his wicked affection, and not considering if their profession was morally correct or not.

Da 2:28

2:28 But there is a God in {o} heaven that revealeth secrets, and maketh known to the king Nebuchadnezzar what shall be in the latter days. Thy dream, and the visions of thy head upon thy bed, are these;

      (o) He affirms that man by reason and craft is not able to attain to the cause of God's secrets, but the understanding only of them must come from God: by which he smites the king with a certain fear and reverence of God, that he might be the more able to receive the high mysteries that would be revealed.

Da 2:30

2:30 But as {p} for me, this secret is not revealed to me for [any] wisdom that I have more than any living, but for [their] sakes that shall make known the interpretation to the king, and that thou mightest know the thoughts of thy heart.

      (p) Because he had said that God alone must reveal the signification of this dream, the King might have asked why Daniel undertook to interpret it: and therefore he shows that he was but God's minister, and had no gifts but those which God had given him to set forth his glory.

Da 2:32

2:32 This image's head [was] of fine {q} gold, his breast and his arms of silver, his belly and his thighs of brass,

      (q) By gold, silver, brass, and iron are meant the Chaldean, Persian, Macedonian, and Roman kingdoms, which would successively rule all the world until Christ (who is here called the stone) himself comes, and destroys the last. And this was to assure the Jews that their affliction would not end with the empire of the Chaldeans, but that they should patiently await the coming of the Messiah, who would be at the end of this fourth monarchy.

Da 2:38

2:38 And wheresoever the children of men dwell, the beasts of the field and the fowls of the heaven hath he given into thine hand, and hath made thee ruler over them all. Thou [art] {r} this head of gold.

      (r) Daniel leaves out the kingdom of the Assyrians, which was before the Babylonian, both because it was not a monarchy and general empire, and also because he would declare the things that were to come, until the coming of Christ, for the comfort of the elect among these wonderful alterations. And he calls the Babylonian kingdom the golden head, because in respect of the other three, it was the best, and yet it was of itself wicked and cruel.

Da 2:39

2:39 And after thee shall arise another kingdom {s} inferior to thee, and another {t} third kingdom of brass, which shall bear rule over all the earth.

      (s) Meaning, the Persians who were not inferior in dignity, power, or riches, but were worse with regard to ambition, cruelty, and every type of vice, showing that the world would grow worse and worse, until it was restored by Christ.
      (t) That is, those of the Macedonians will be of brass, not alluding to the hardness of it, but to the vileness with regard to silver.

Da 2:40

2:40 And the fourth kingdom shall be strong as iron: forasmuch as iron breaketh in pieces and subdueth all [things]: and as iron that breaketh all these, shall it break in {u} pieces and bruise.

      (u) That is, the Roman empire will subdue all these others, which after Alexander were divided into the Macedonians, Grecians, Syrians, and Egyptians.

Da 2:41

2:41 And whereas thou sawest the feet and toes, part of potters' clay, and part of iron, the kingdom shall be {x} divided; but there shall be in it of the strength of the iron, forasmuch as thou sawest the iron mixed with miry clay.

      (x) They will have civil wars, and continual discords among themselves.

Da 2:43

2:43 And whereas thou sawest iron mixed with miry clay, they shall mingle themselves with {y} the seed of men: but they shall not cleave one to another, even as iron is not mixed with clay.

      (y) They will be marriages and affinities think to make themselves strong: yet they will never by united in heart.

Da 2:44

2:44 And in the days of these kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom, which {z} shall never be destroyed: and the kingdom shall not be left to other people, [but] it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand for ever.

      (z) His purpose is to show that all the kingdoms of the world are transitory, and that the kingdom of Christ alone will remain forever.

Da 2:45

2:45 Forasmuch as thou sawest that the {a} stone was cut out of the mountain without hands, and that it brake in pieces the iron, the brass, the clay, the silver, and the gold; the great God hath made known to the king what shall come to pass hereafter: and the dream [is] certain, and the interpretation thereof sure.

      (a) Meaning Christ, who was sent by God, and not set up by man, whose kingdom at the beginning would be small and without beauty to man's judgment, but would at length grow and fill the whole earth, which he calls a great mountain, as in Dan 2:35 . And this kingdom, which is not only referred to the person of Christ, but also to the whole body of his Church, and to every member of it, will be eternal: for the Spirit that is in them is eternal life; Ro 8:10 .

Da 2:46

2:46 Then the king Nebuchadnezzar fell upon his face, and {b} worshipped Daniel, and commanded that they should offer an oblation and sweet odours unto him.

      (b) Though this humbling of the king seemed to deserve commendation, yet because he united God's honour with the Prophets, it is to be reproved, and Daniel would have erred, if he allowed it: but it is to his credit that Daniel admonished him of his fault, and did not allow it.

Da 2:47

2:47 The king answered unto Daniel, and said, Of a truth [it is], that your {c} God [is] a God of gods, and a Lord of kings, and a revealer of secrets, seeing thou couldest reveal this secret.

      (c) This confession was but a sudden motion, as it was also in Pharaoh, Ex 9:28 , but his heart was not touched, as appeared soon afterwards.

Da 2:48

2:48 Then the king made Daniel a great man, and gave him many great {d} gifts, and made him ruler over the whole province of Babylon, and chief of the governors over all the wise [men] of Babylon.

      (d) Not that the Prophet was desirous of gifts or honour, but because by this means he might relieve his poor brethren, who were grievously oppressed in this their captivity, and he also received them, lest he should offend this cruel king, who willingly gave them.

Da 2:49

2:49 Then Daniel {e} requested of the king, and he set Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, over the affairs of the province of Babylon: but Daniel [sat] in the {f} gate of the king.

      (e) He did not do this for their personal profit, but that the whole Church, which was then there in affliction, might have some release and ease by this benefit.
      (f) Meaning that either he was a judge, or that he had the whole authority, so than no one could be admitted to the king's presence but by him.

Da 3:1

3:1 Nebuchadnezzar the king made {a} an image of gold, whose height [was] threescore cubits, [and] the breadth thereof six cubits: he set it up in the plain of Dura, in the province of Babylon.

      (a) Under pretence of religion, and holiness in making an image to his idol Bel, he sought his own ambition and vain glory: and this declares that he was not touched with the true fear of God before, but that he confessed him on a sudden motion, as the wicked when they are overcome with the greatness of his works. The Greek interpreters write that this was done eighteen years after the dream, and as may appear, the King feared lest the Jews by their religion should have altered the state of his commonwealth: therefore he meant to bring all to one type of religion, and so rather sought his own peace than God's glory.

Da 3:2

3:2 Then Nebuchadnezzar the king sent to gather together the princes, the governors, and the captains, the judges, the treasurers, the counsellors, the sheriffs, and all the rulers of the provinces, to come to the {b} dedication of the image which Nebuchadnezzar the {c} king had set up.

      (b) Showing that the idol is not known for an idol as long as he is with workmen: but when the ceremonies and customs are recited and used, and the consent of the people is there, then they think they have made a god out of a block.
      (c) This was sufficient with the wicked at all times to approve their religion, if the king's authority were alleged for the establishment of it, not considering in the meantime what God's word allowed.

Da 3:4

3:4 Then an herald cried aloud, To you it is commanded, O people, {d} nations, and languages,

      (d) These are the two dangerous weapons, which Satan used to fight against the children of God, the consent of the multitude, and the cruelty of the punishment. For even though some feared God, yet the multitude who consented to the wickedness persuaded them: and here the King required not an inward consent, but an outward gesture, that the Jews might by little and little learn to forget their true religion.

Da 3:12

3:12 There are certain Jews whom thou hast set over the affairs of the province of Babylon, {e} Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego; these men, O king, have not regarded thee: they serve not thy gods, nor worship the golden image which thou hast set up.

      (e) It seems that they named not Daniel, because he was greatly in the king's favour, thinking if these three had been destroyed, they might have had better occasion to accuse Daniel. And this declares that this policy of erecting this image was invented by the malicious flatterers who sought nothing but the destruction of the Jews, whom they accused of rebellion and ingratitude.

Da 3:15

3:15 {f} Now if ye be ready that at what time ye hear the sound of the cornet, flute, harp, sackbut, psaltery, and dulcimer, and all kinds of musick, ye fall down and worship the image which I have made; [well]: but if ye worship not, ye shall be cast the same hour into the midst of a burning fiery furnace; and who [is] that God that shall deliver you out of my hands?

      (f) Signifying that he would receive them to grace if they would now obey his decree.

Da 3:16

3:16 Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, answered and said to the king, O Nebuchadnezzar, we {g} [are] not careful to answer thee in this matter.

      (g) For they would have done injury to God, if they would have doubted in this holy cause, and therefore they say that they are resolved to die for God's cause.

Da 3:17

3:17 If it be [so], our God whom we serve is {h} able to deliver us from the burning fiery furnace, and he will deliver [us] out of thine hand, O king.

      (h) They have two points as their foundation: first on the power and providence of God over them, and second on their cause, which was God's glory, and the testifying of his true religion with their blood. And so they make open confession, that they will not so much as outwardly consent to idolatry.

Da 3:19

3:19 Then was Nebuchadnezzar full of fury, and the form of his visage was changed against Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego: [therefore] he spake, and commanded that they should heat the furnace one seven {i} times more than it was wont to be heated.

      (i) This declares that the more that tyrants rage, and the more crafty they show themselves in inventing strange and cruel punishments, the more is God glorified by his servants, to whom he gives patience and constancy to abide the cruelty of their punishment. For either he delvers them from death, or else for this life gives them better.

Da 3:25

3:25 He answered and said, Lo, I see four men loose, walking in the midst of the fire, and they have no hurt; and the form of the fourth is like the {k} Son of God.

      (k) For the angels were called the sons of God because of their excellency. Therefore the king called this angel whom God sent to comfort his own in these great torments, the son of God.

Da 3:26

3:26 Then Nebuchadnezzar came near to the mouth of the burning fiery furnace, [and] spake, and said, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, ye servants of the most high God, come forth, and come [hither]. Then Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, {l} came forth of the midst of the fire.

      (l) This commends their obedience to God, that they would not because of any fear depart out of this furnace until the appointed time, as Noah remained in the ark, until the Lord called him forth.

Da 3:28

3:28 [Then] Nebuchadnezzar spake, and said, {m} Blessed [be] the God of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, who hath sent his angel, and delivered his servants that trusted in him, and have changed the king's word, and yielded their bodies, that they might not serve nor worship any god, except their own God.

      (m) He was moved by the greatness of the miracle to praise God, but his heart was not touched. And here we see that miracles are not sufficient to convert men to God, but that doctrine most chiefly be joined with them, without which there can be no faith.

Da 3:29

3:29 Therefore I make a decree, That every people, nation, and language, which speak {n} any thing amiss against the God of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, shall be cut in pieces, and their houses shall be made a dunghill: because there is no other God that can deliver after this sort.

      (n) If this heathen king moved by God's Spirit would punish blasphemy, and made a law and set a punishment for such transgressors, much more ought all they that profess religion make sure that such impiety does not happen, lest according as their knowledge and responsibility is greater, so they suffer double punishment.

Da 4:1

4:1 Nebuchadnezzar the king, unto all people, nations, and languages, that dwell in all the {o} earth; Peace be multiplied unto you.

      (o) Meaning, as far as his dominion extended.

Da 4:3

4:3 How great [are] his signs! and how mighty [are] his wonders! {p} his kingdom [is] an everlasting kingdom, and his dominion [is] from generation to generation.

      (p) Read Geneva "Da 2:44"

Da 4:4

4:4 I Nebuchadnezzar was at {a} rest in mine house, and flourishing in my palace:

      (a) There was no trouble that might cause me to dream, and therefore it came only from God.

Da 4:5

4:5 I saw a {b} dream which made me afraid, and the thoughts upon my bed and the visions of my head troubled me.

      (b) This was another dream besides that which he saw of the four empires, for Daniel both declared what that dream was, and what it meant, and here he expounds this dream.

Da 4:7

4:7 Then came in the magicians, the astrologers, the Chaldeans, and the soothsayers: and I told the dream before them; but {c} they did not make known unto me the interpretation thereof.

      (c) In that he sent abroad to others, whose ignorance in times past he had experienced, and left Daniel who was ever ready at hand, it declares the nature of the ungodly, who never seek for the servants of God unless they absolutely have to, and then they flatter to a great extent.

Da 4:8

4:8 But at the last Daniel came in before me, whose name [was] {d} Belteshazzar, according to the name of my god, and in whom [is] the spirit of the holy gods: and before him I told the dream, [saying],

      (d) This no doubt was a great grief to Daniel not only to have his name changed, but to be called by the name of a vile idol, which thing Nebuchadnezzar did to make him forget the true religion of God.

Da 4:9

4:9 O Belteshazzar, {e} master of the magicians, because I know that the spirit of the holy gods [is] in thee, and no secret troubleth thee, tell me the visions of my dream that I have seen, and the interpretation thereof.

      (e) Which also was a great grief to the Prophet, to be numbered among the sorcerers and men whose practices were wicked and contrary to God's word.

Da 4:10

4:10 Thus [were] the visions of mine head in my bed; I saw, and behold a {f} tree in the midst of the earth, and the height thereof [was] great.

      (f) By the tree is signified the dignity of a king whom God ordains to be a defence for every type of man, and whose state is profitable for mankind.

Da 4:13

4:13 I saw in the visions of my head upon my bed, and, behold, a {g} watcher and an holy one came down from heaven;

      (g) Meaning the angel of God, who neither eats nor sleeps, but is always ready to do God's will, and is not infected with man's corruption, but is always holy. And in that he commands to cut down this tree, he knew that it would not be cut down by man, but by God.

Da 4:16

4:16 {h} Let his heart be changed from man's, and let a beast's heart be given unto him; and let seven times pass over him.

      (h) By this he means that Nebuchadnezzar would not only for a time lose his kingdom, but be like a beast.

Da 4:17

4:17 {i} This matter [is] by the decree of the watchers, and the demand by the word of the holy ones: to the intent that the living may know that the most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, and giveth it to whomsoever he will, and setteth up over it the basest of men.

      (i) God has decreed this judgment and the whole army of heaven has as it were joined in being a part of it, just as they also desire the execution of his decree against all those that lift up themselves against God.

Da 4:19

4:19 Then Daniel, whose name [was] Belteshazzar, was {k} astonied for one hour, and his thoughts troubled him. The king spake, and said, Belteshazzar, let not the dream, or the interpretation thereof, trouble thee. Belteshazzar answered and said, My lord, the dream [be] to them that hate thee, and the interpretation thereof to thine enemies.

      (k) He was troubled because of the great judgment of God, which he saw ordained against the king. And so the Prophets on the one hand used to make known God's judgments for the zeal they had for his glory, and on the other hand had compassion upon man. And they also considered that they would be subject to God's judgments, if he did not regard them with pity.

Da 4:23

4:23 And whereas the king saw a watcher and an holy one coming down from heaven, and saying, Hew the tree down, and destroy it; yet leave the stump of the roots thereof in the earth, even with a band of iron and brass, in the tender grass of the field; and let it be wet with the dew of heaven, and [let] his portion [be] with the beasts of the field, {l} till seven times pass over him;

      (l) By which he means a long space, as seven years. Some interpret seven months, and others seven weeks, but it seems he means seven years.

Da 4:25

4:25 That they shall drive thee from men, and thy dwelling shall be with the beasts of the field, and they shall make thee to eat grass as {m} oxen, and they shall wet thee with the dew of heaven, and seven times shall pass over thee, till thou know that {n} the most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, and giveth it to whomsoever he will.

      (m) Not that his shape or form was changed into a beast, but that he was either stricken mad, and so avoided man's company, or was cast out because of his tyranny, and so wandered among the beasts, and ate herbs and grass.
      (n) Daniel shows the reason why God punished him in this way.

Da 4:27

4:27 Wherefore, O king, let my counsel be acceptable unto thee, and {o} break off thy sins by righteousness, and thine iniquities by shewing mercy to the poor; if it may be a {p} lengthening of thy tranquillity.

      (o) Cease from provoking God to anger any longer by your sins, that he may reduce the severity of his punishment, if you show by your upright life that you have true faith and repentance.
      (p) Allow the errors of your former life to be made up for.

Da 4:29

4:29 At the end of twelve {q} months he walked in the palace of the kingdom of Babylon.

      (q) After Daniel had declared this vision: and this pride of his declares that it is not in man to convert to God, unless his Spirit moves him, seeing that these terrible threatenings could not move him to repent.

Da 4:34

4:34 And at the end of the {r} days I Nebuchadnezzar lifted up mine eyes unto heaven, and mine understanding returned unto me, and I blessed the most High, and I praised and honoured him that liveth for ever, whose dominion [is] an everlasting dominion, and his kingdom [is] from generation to generation:

      (r) When the term of these seven years was accomplished.

Da 4:35

4:35 And all the inhabitants of the earth [are] reputed as nothing: and he doeth according to his {s} will in the army of heaven, and [among] the inhabitants of the earth: and none can stay his hand, or say unto him, What doest thou?

      (s) He confesses God's will to be the rule of all justice, and a most perfect law, by which he governs both man and angels and devils, so that none ought to murmur or ask a reason for his doings, but only to stand content with them and give him the glory.

Da 4:36

4:36 At the same time my reason returned unto me; and for the glory of my kingdom, mine honour and brightness returned unto me; and my counsellors and {t} my lords sought unto me; and I was established in my kingdom, and excellent majesty was added unto me.

      (t) By whom it seems that he had been put from his kingdom before.

Da 4:37

4:37 Now I Nebuchadnezzar {u} praise and extol and honour the King of heaven, all whose works [are] truth, and his ways judgment: and those that walk in pride he is able to abase.

      (u) He not only praises God for his deliverance, but also confesses his fault, so that God alone may have the glory, and man the shame, and so that God may be exalted and man cast down.

Da 5:1

5:1 {a} Belshazzar the king made a great feast to a thousand of his lords, and drank wine {b} before the thousand.

      (a) Daniel recites this history of King Belshazzar, Evilmerodach's son, to show God's judgments against the wicked for the deliverance of his Church, and how the prophecy of Jeremiah was true, that they would be delivered after seventy years.
      (b) The kings of the east part then used to commonly sit alone, and disdained that any should sit in their company: and now to show his power, and how little he thought of his enemy, which then besieged Babylon, made a solemn banquet, and used excess in their company, which is meant here by drinking wine: thus the wicked are very lax in morals and negligent, when their destruction is at hand.

Da 5:2

5:2 Belshazzar, whiles he tasted the wine, commanded to bring the golden and silver vessels which his {c} father Nebuchadnezzar had taken out of the temple which [was] in Jerusalem; that the king, and his princes, his wives, and his concubines, might drink therein.

      (c) Meaning his grandfather.

Da 5:4

5:4 They drank wine, and praised the {d} gods of gold, and of silver, of brass, of iron, of wood, and of stone.

      (d) In contempt of the true God they praise their idols, not that they thought that the gold or silver were gods, but that there was a certain strength and power in them to do them good, which is also the opinion of all idolaters.

Da 5:5

5:5 In the same hour came forth fingers of a man's hand, and wrote over {e} against the candlestick upon the plaister of the wall of the king's palace: and the king saw the part of the hand that wrote.

      (e) That it might the better be seen.

Da 5:6

5:6 Then the king's countenance was changed, and his thoughts troubled him, so that the joints of his loins were loosed, and his {f} knees smote one against another.

      (f) So he that before condemned God, was moved by this sight to tremble for fear of God's judgments.

Da 5:7

5:7 The king cried aloud to bring in {g} the astrologers, the Chaldeans, and the soothsayers. [And] the king spake, and said to the wise [men] of Babylon, Whosoever shall read this writing, and shew me the interpretation thereof, shall be clothed with scarlet, and [have] a chain of gold about his neck, and shall be the third ruler in the kingdom.

      (g) Thus the wicked in their troubles seek many means, which draw them from God, because they do not seek for him who is the only comfort in all afflictions.

Da 5:10

5:10 [Now] the {h} queen, by reason of the words of the king and his lords, came into the banquet house: [and] the queen spake and said, O king, live for ever: let not thy thoughts trouble thee, nor let thy countenance be changed:

      (h) That is, his grandmother, Nebuchadnezzar's wife, who because of her age was not at the feast before, but came there when she heard of this strange news.

Da 5:11

5:11 There is a man in thy kingdom, in whom [is] the spirit of the holy gods; and in the days of thy father light and understanding and wisdom, like the wisdom of the gods, was found in him; whom the king Nebuchadnezzar thy father, the king, [I say], thy father, made master of the {i} magicians, astrologers, Chaldeans, [and] soothsayers;

      (i) Read Da 4:6 ; and this declares that both this name was odious to him, and also he did not use these vile practises, because he was not among them when all were called.

Da 5:14

5:14 I have even heard of thee, that {k} the spirit of the gods [is] in thee, and [that] light and understanding and excellent wisdom is found in thee.

      (k) For the idolaters thought that the angels had power as God, and therefore held them in the same estimation that they held God, thinking that the spirit of prophecy and understanding came from them.

Da 5:18

5:18 O thou king, the most high God gave {l} Nebuchadnezzar thy father a kingdom, and majesty, and glory, and honour:

      (l) Before he read the writing, he declares to the king his great ingratitude toward God, who could not be moved to give him the glory, considering God's wonderful work toward his grandfather, and so shows that he does not sin from ignorance but from malice.

Da 5:24

5:24 {m} Then was the part of the hand sent from him; and this writing was written.

      (m) After God had for such a long time deferred his anger, and patiently waited for your repentance.

Da 5:25

5:25 And this [is] the writing that was written, {n} MENE, MENE, TEKEL, UPHARSIN.

      (n) This word is written twice because of the certainty of the thing, showing that God had most surely decided: it signifies also that God has appointed a term for all kingdoms, and that a miserable end will come on all that raise themselves against him.

Da 5:31

5:31 And Darius {o} the Median took the kingdom, [being] about threescore and two years old.

      (o) Cyrus his son-in-law gave him this title of honour, even though Cyrus in effect had the dominion.

Da 6:1

6:1 It pleased Darius to set over the kingdom {a} an hundred and twenty princes, which should be over the whole kingdom;

      (a) Read Es 1:1 .

Da 6:3

6:3 Then this Daniel {b} was preferred above the presidents and princes, because an excellent spirit [was] in him; and the king thought to set him over the whole realm.

      (b) This heathen king preferred Daniel a stranger to all his nobles and those he was familiar with, because the graces of God were more excellent in him than in others.

Da 6:4

6:4 Then the presidents and princes {c} sought to find occasion against Daniel concerning the kingdom; but they could find none occasion nor fault; forasmuch as he [was] faithful, neither was there any error or fault found in him.

      (c) Thus the wicked cannot abide the graces of God in others, but seek by every occasion to deface them: therefore against such assaults there is no better remedy than to walk upright in the fear of God, and to have a good conscience.

Da 6:9

6:9 Wherefore king Darius {d} signed the writing and the decree.

      (d) In this is condemned the wickedness of the king, who would be set up as a god, and did not care what wicked laws he approved for the maintenance of it.

Da 6:10

6:10 Now when Daniel knew that the writing was signed, he went into his house; and his {e} windows being open in his chamber toward Jerusalem, he kneeled upon his knees three times a day, and prayed, and gave thanks before his God, as he did aforetime.

      (e) Because he would not by his silence show that he consented to this wicked decree, he set open his windows toward Jerusalem when he prayed: both to stir up himself with the remembrance of God's promises to his people, when they should pray toward that temple, and also that others might see that he would neither consent in heart nor deed for these few days to anything that was contrary to God's glory.

Da 6:15

6:15 Then these men assembled unto the king, and said unto the king, Know, O king, that the law of the Medes and Persians [is], That no decree nor statute which the king establisheth may be {f} changed.

      (f) Thus the wicked maintain evil laws by constancy and authority, which is often either weakness, or stubbornness, and the innocent as a result perish by them: and these governors neither ought to fear, nor be ashamed to break such laws.

Da 6:20

6:20 And when he came to the den, he cried with a lamentable voice unto Daniel: [and] the king spake and said to Daniel, O Daniel, servant of the living God, is thy God, whom thou servest continually, {g} able to deliver thee from the lions?

      (g) This declares that Darius was not touched with the true knowledge of God, because he doubted of his power.

Da 6:22

6:22 My God hath sent his angel, and hath shut the lions' mouths, that they have not hurt me: forasmuch as before him {h} innocency was found in me; and also before thee, O king, have I done {i} no hurt.

      (h) My just cause and uprightness in this thing in which I was charged, is approved by God.
      (i) For he disobeyed the kings's wicked commandment in order to obey God, and so he did no injury to the king, who ought to command nothing by which God would be dishonoured.

Da 6:23

6:23 Then was the king exceeding glad for him, and commanded that they should take Daniel up out of the den. So Daniel was taken up out of the den, and no manner of hurt was found upon him, because he {k} believed in his God.

      (k) Because he committed himself wholly to God whose cause he defended, he was assured that nothing but good could come to him: and in this we see the power of faith, as in He 11:33 .

Da 6:24

6:24 And the king commanded, and they brought those men which had accused Daniel, and they {l} cast [them] into the den of lions, them, their children, and their wives; and the lions had the mastery of them, and brake all their bones in pieces or ever they came at the bottom of the den.

      (l) This is a terrible example against all the wicked who do against their conscience make cruel laws to destroy the children of God, and also admonishes princes how to punish such when their wickedness is come to light: though not in every point, or with similar circumstances, but yet to execute true justice upon them.

Da 6:26

6:26 I make a decree, That in every dominion of my kingdom men tremble and fear {m} before the God of Daniel: for he [is] the {n} living God, and stedfast for ever, and his kingdom [that] which shall not be destroyed, and his dominion [shall be even] unto the end.

      (m) This does not prove that Darius worshipped God properly, or was converted: for then he would have destroyed all superstition and idolatry, and not only given God the chief place, but also have set him up, and caused him to be honoured according to his word. But this was a specific confession of God's power, unto which he was compelled by this wonderful miracle.
      (n) Who not only has life in himself, but is the only fountain of life, and quickens all things, so that without him there is no life.

Da 7:1

7:1 In the first year of Belshazzar king of Babylon Daniel had a dream and visions of his head upon his bed: {a} then he wrote the dream, [and] told the sum of the matters.

      (a) Whereas the people of Israel looked for a continual peace, after the seventy years which Jeremiah had declared, he shows that this rest will not be a deliverance from all troubles, but a beginning. And therefore he encourages them to look for a continual affliction until the Messiah is uttered and revealed, by whom they would have a spiritual deliverance, and all the promises would be fulfilled. And they would have a certain experience of this in the destruction of the Babylonian kingdom.

Da 7:2

7:2 Daniel spake and said, I saw in my vision by night, and, behold, the four winds of the heaven strove upon {b} the great sea.

      (b) Which signified that there wold be horrible troubles and afflictions in the world in all corners of the world, and at various times.

Da 7:4

7:4 The first [was] like a {c} lion, and had eagle's wings: I beheld till the wings thereof were plucked, and it was lifted up from the earth, and made stand upon the feet as a man, and a man's heart was given to it.

      (c) Meaning the Assyrian and Chaldean empire, which was most strong and fierce in power, and most soon to come to their authority, as though they had wings to fly: yet their wings were pulled off by the Persians, and they went on their feet, and were made like other men, which is meant here by man's heart.

Da 7:5

7:5 And behold another beast, a second, like to a {d} bear, and it raised up itself on {e} one side, and [it had] three ribs in the {f} mouth of it between the teeth of it: {g} and they said thus unto it, Arise, devour much flesh.

      (d) Meaning the Persians who were barbarous and cruel.
      (e) They were small in the beginning, and were shut up in the mountains, and had no strength.
      (f) That is, destroyed many kingdoms and whose hunger could not be satisfied.
      (g) That is, the angels by God's commandment, who by this means punished the ingratitude of the world.

Da 7:6

7:6 After this I beheld, and lo another, like a {h} leopard, which had upon the back of it {i} four wings of a fowl; the beast had also four heads; and {k} dominion was given to it.

      (h) Meaning Alexander the king of Macedonia.
      (i) That is, his four chief captains, which had the empire among them after his death. Selencus had Asia the great, Antigonus the less, Cassander and after him Antipater was king of Macedonia, and Ptolemeus had Egypt.
      (k) It was not of himself nor of his own power that he gained all these countries: for his army contained only thirty thousand men, and he overcame in one battle Darius, who had one million, when he was so heavy with sleep that his eyes were hardly open, as the stories report: therefore this power was given to him from God.

Da 7:7

7:7 After this I saw in the night visions, and behold a {l} fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great {m} iron teeth: it devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped {n} the residue with the feet of it: and it [was] diverse from all the beasts that [were] before it; and it had {o} ten horns.

      (l) That is, the Roman empire which was a monster, and could not be compared to any beast, because there was no beast that was even comparable.
      (m) Signifying the tyranny and greediness of the Romans.
      (n) That which the Romans could not quietly enjoy in other countries, they would give it to other kings and rulers, so that whenever they wanted to, they might take it again: which liberality is here called the stamping of the rest under the feet.
      (o) That is, various and different provinces which were governed by the deputies and proconsuls: and each one of these might be compared to a king.

Da 7:8

7:8 I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among them another little {p} horn, before whom there were {q} three of the first horns plucked up by the roots: and, behold, in this horn [were] {r} eyes like the eyes of man, and a mouth speaking great things.

      (p) Which is meant of Julius Caesar, Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero, etc., who were as kings in effect, but because they could not rule, except by the consent of the senate, their power is compared to a little horn. For Muhammad did not come from the Roman Empire, and the pope has no vocation of government: therefore this cannot be applied to them, and also in this prophecy the Prophet's purpose is chiefly to comfort the Jews until the revelation of Christ. Some take it for the whole body of antichrist.
      (q) Meaning a certain portion of the ten horns: that is, a part from the whole estate was taken away. For Augustus took from the senate the liberty of choosing the deputies to send into the provinces, and took the governing of certain countries to himself.
      (r) These Roman emperors at the first used a certain humanity and gentleness, and were content that others, as the consuls, and senate, should bear the names of dignity, so that they might have the profit. And therefore in election and counsels they would behave themselves according as did other senators: yet against their enemies and those that would resist them, they were fierce and cruel, which is here meant by the proud mouth.

Da 7:9

7:9 I beheld till the {s} thrones were cast down, and the {t} Ancient of days did sit, whose garment [was] white as snow, and the hair of his head like the pure wool: his throne [was like] the fiery flame, [and] his wheels [as] burning fire.

      (s) Meaning, the places where God and his angels would come to judge these monarchies, which judgment would begin at the first coming of Christ.
      (t) That is, God who was before all times, and is here described in a way such that man's nature is able to comprehend some portion of his glory.

Da 7:10

7:10 A fiery stream issued and came forth from before him: thousand thousands ministered unto him, and ten thousand {u} times ten thousand stood before him: the judgment was set, and the {x} books were opened.

      (u) That is, an infinite number of angels, who were ready to execute his commandment.
      (x) This is meant of the first coming of Christ, when the will of God was plainly revealed by his Gospel.

Da 7:11

7:11 I beheld then {y} because of the voice of the great words which the horn spake: I beheld [even] till the beast was slain, and his body destroyed, and given to the burning flame.

      (y) Meaning that he was astonished when he saw these emperors in such dignity and pride, so suddenly destroyed at the coming of Christ, when this fourth monarchy was subject to men of other nations.

Da 7:12

7:12 As {z} concerning the rest of the beasts, they had their dominion taken away: yet their lives were prolonged for a season and time.

      (z) As the three former monarchies had an end at the time that God appointed, even though they flourished for a time, so will this fourth have an end, and they that patiently wait for God's appointment, will enjoy the promises.

Da 7:13

7:13 I saw in the night visions, and, behold, {a} [one] like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and {b} came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him.

      (a) Which is meant of Christ, who had not yet taken upon him man's nature, neither was he yet the son of David according to the flesh, as he was afterward: but he appeared then in a figure, and that in the clouds, that is, being separated from the common sort of men by manifest signs of his divinity.
      (b) That is, when he ascended into the heavens, and his divine majesty appeared, and all power was given to him, in respect that he was our mediator.

Da 7:14

7:14 And there was given him {c} dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and languages, should serve him: his dominion [is] an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom [that] which shall not be destroyed.

      (c) This is meant of the beginning of Christ's kingdom, when God the Father gave unto him all dominion, as the the Mediator, with the intent that he would continually govern his Church which is here on earth, until the time that he brought them to eternal life.

Da 7:15

7:15 I Daniel was {d} grieved in my spirit in the midst of [my] body, and the visions of my head troubled me.

      (d) Because of the strangeness of the vision.

Da 7:16

7:16 I came near unto {e} one of them that stood by, and asked him the truth of all this. So he told me, and made me know the interpretation of the things.

      (e) Meaning one of the angels, as in Geneva "Dan 7:10"

Da 7:18

7:18 But the saints of the {f} most High shall take the {g} kingdom, and possess the kingdom for ever, even for ever and ever.

      (f) That is, of the most high things, because God has chosen them out of this world, that they should look up to the heavens, upon which all their hope depends.
      (g) Because Abraham was appointed heir of all the world, Ro 4:13 , and in him all the faithful, therefore the kingdom of him is theirs by right, which these four beasts or tyrants would invade, and usurp until the world were restored by Christ. And this was to strengthen and encourage those that were in troubles, that their afflictions would eventually have an end.

Da 7:19

7:19 Then I would know the truth of the fourth beast, which was {h} diverse from all the others, exceeding dreadful, whose teeth [were of] iron, and his nails [of] brass; [which] devoured, brake in pieces, and stamped the {i} residue with his feet;

      (h) For the other three monarchies were governed by a king, and the Roman empire by consuls: the Romans changed their governors yearly, and the other monarchies retained them for term of life: also the Romans were the strongest of all the others, and were never at peace among themselves.
      (i) Read Dan 7:7 .

Da 7:20

7:20 And of the ten horns that [were] in his head, and [of] the other which came up, and before whom three fell; even [of] that horn that had eyes, and a mouth that spake very great things, whose {k} look [was] more stout than his fellows.

      (k) This is meant of the fourth beast, which was more terrible than the others.

Da 7:21

7:21 I beheld, and the same {l} horn made war with the saints, and prevailed against them;

      (l) Meaning the Roman emperors, who were most cruel against the Church of God, both of the Jews and of the Gentiles.

Da 7:22

7:22 Until {m} the Ancient of days came, and judgment was given to the saints of the most High; and the time came that the saints possessed the kingdom.

      (m) Until God showed his power in the person of Christ, and by the preaching of the Gospel gave unto his own some rest, and so obtained a famous name in the world, and were called the Church of God, or the kingdom of God.

Da 7:24

7:24 And the ten horns out of this kingdom [are] ten kings [that] shall arise: and another shall rise after them; and he shall be diverse from the first, and he shall subdue {n} three kings.

      (n) Read Geneva "Dan 7:8"

Da 7:25

7:25 And he shall speak [great] words against {o} the most High, and shall wear out the saints of the most High, and think to {p} change times and laws: and they shall be given into his hand until a {q} time and times and the dividing of time.

      (o) That is, will make wicked decrees and proclamations against God's word, and send throughout all their dominion, to destroy all that did profess it.
      (p) These emperors will not consider that they have their power from God, but think it is in their own power to change God's laws and man's, and as it were the order of nature, as appears by Octavius, Tiberius, Calligula, Nero, Domitianus, etc.
      (q) God will allow them to rage in this way against his saints for a long time, the time and times, but at length he will soften these troubles, and shorten the time for his elect's sake, Mt 24:22 , which is here meant by the dividing of time.

Da 7:26

7:26 But the {r} judgment shall sit, and they shall take away his dominion, to consume and to destroy [it] unto the end.

      (r) God by his power will restore things that were out of order, and destroy this little horn in such a way that it will never rise up again.

Da 7:27

7:27 And the {s} kingdom and dominion, and the greatness of the kingdom under the whole heaven, shall be given to the people of the saints of the most High, whose kingdom [is] an everlasting kingdom, and all {t} dominions shall serve and obey him.

      (s) He shows why the beast would be destroyed, that is, so that his Church might have rest and quietness, which though they do not fully enjoy here, yet they have it in hope, and by the preaching of the Gospel enjoy the beginning of it, which is meant by these words, "under the whole heaven". And therefore he speaks here of the beginning of Christ's kingdom in this world, which kingdom the faithful have by the participation that they have with Christ their head.
      (t) That is, some of every type that rule.

Da 7:28

7:28 Hitherto [is] the end of the matter. As for me Daniel, my {u} cogitations much troubled me, and my countenance changed in me: but I kept the matter in my heart.

      (u) Even though he had many motions in his heart which moved him to and fro to seek out this matter curiously, yet he was content with that which God revealed, and kept it in memory, and wrote it for the use of the Church.

Da 8:1

8:1 In the third year of the reign of king Belshazzar a vision appeared unto me, [even unto] me Daniel, {a} after that which appeared unto me at the first.

      (a) After the general vision, he comes to certain particular visions with regard to the destruction of the monarchy of the Persians, and Macedonians: for the ruin of the Babylonians was at hand, and also he had sufficiently spoken of it.

Da 8:2

8:2 And I saw in a vision; and it came to pass, when I saw, that I [was] at Shushan [in] the palace, which [is] in the province {b} of Elam; and I saw in a vision, and I was by the river of Ulai.

      (b) That is, of Persia.

Da 8:3

8:3 Then I lifted up mine eyes, and saw, and, behold, there stood before the river a {c} ram which had [two] horns: and the [two] horns [were] high; but one [was] {d} higher than the other, and the higher came up last.

      (c) Which represented the kingdom of the Persians and Medes, which were united together.
      (d) Meaning Cyrus, who after grew greater in power than Darius his uncle and father-in-law.

Da 8:4

8:4 I saw the ram pushing westward, and northward, and southward; so that no {e} beasts might stand before him, neither [was there any] that could deliver out of his hand; but he did according to his will, and became great.

      (e) That is, no kings or nations.

Da 8:5

8:5 And as I was considering, behold, {f} an he goat came from the west on the face of the whole earth, and touched not the ground: and the goat [had] a notable {g} horn between his eyes.

      (f) Meaning Alexander that came from Greece with great speed and warlike undertaking.
      (g) Even though he came in the name of all Greece, yet he bore the title and dignity of the general captain, so that the strength was attributed to him, which is meant by this horn.

Da 8:7

8:7 And I saw him come close unto the ram, and he was moved with choler against him, and {h} smote the ram, and brake his two horns: and there was no power in the ram to stand before him, but he cast him down to the ground, and stamped upon him: and there was none that could deliver the ram out of his hand.

      (h) Alexander overcame Darius in two different battles, and so had the two kingdoms of the Medes and Persians.

Da 8:8

8:8 Therefore the he goat waxed very great: and when he was strong, the great {i} horn was broken; and for it came up four {k} notable ones toward the four winds of heaven.

      (i) Alexander's great power was broken: for when he had overcome all the East, he thought to return towards Greece to subdue those that had rebelled, and so died along the way.
      (k) That is, who were famous: for almost in the space of fifteen years there were fifteen different successors before this monarchy was divided to these four, of which Cassander had Macedonia, Seleucus had Syria, Antigonus had Asia the less, and Ptolemeus had Egypt.

Da 8:9

8:9 And out of one of them came forth a {l} little horn, which waxed exceeding great, toward the {m} south, and toward the {n} east, and toward the {o} pleasant [land].

      (l) Which was Antiochus Epiphanes, who was of a servile and flattering nature, and also there were others between him and the kingdom: and therefore he is here called the little horn, because neither princely conditions, nor any other thing was in him, why he should obtain this kingdom.
      (m) That is, towards Egypt.
      (n) By which he means Ptolemais.
      (o) That is, Judea.

Da 8:10

8:10 And it waxed great, [even] to the {p} host of heaven; and it cast down [some] of the host and of the stars to the ground, and stamped upon them.

      (p) Antiochus raged against the elect of God, and tread his precious stars underfoot, who are so called because they are separated from the world.

Da 8:11

8:11 Yea, he magnified [himself] even to the {q} prince of the host, and by him the {r} daily [sacrifice] was taken away, and the place of his sanctuary was cast down.

      (q) That is, God, who governs and maintains his Church.
      (r) He laboured to abolish all religion, and therefore cast God's service out of his temple, which God had chosen as a little corner from all the rest of the world to have his name there truly called upon.

Da 8:12

8:12 And {s} an host was given [him] against the daily [sacrifice] by reason of transgression, and it {t} cast down the truth to the ground; and it practised, and prospered.

      (s) He shows that their sins are the cause of these horrible afflictions: and yet comforts them, in that he appoints this tyrant for a time, whom he would not allow to utterly abolish his religion.
      (t) This horn will abolish for a time the true doctrine, and so corrupt God's service.

Da 8:13

8:13 Then I heard one {u} saint speaking, and another saint said unto that certain [saint] which spake, How long [shall be] the vision [concerning] the daily [sacrifice], and the transgression of {x} desolation, to give both the sanctuary and the {y} host to be trodden under foot?

      (u) Meaning that he heard one of the angels asking this question of Christ, whom he called a certain one, or a secret one, or a marvellous one.
      (x) That is, the Jews' sins, which were the cause of its destruction.
      (y) That is, which suppresses God's religion and his people.

Da 8:14

8:14 And {z} he said unto me, Unto {a} two thousand and three hundred days; then shall the sanctuary be cleansed.

      (z) Christ answered me for the comfort of the Church.
      (a) That is, until so many natural days have passed, which make six years, and three and a half months: for the temple was profaned this long under Antiochus.

Da 8:15

8:15 And it came to pass, when I, [even] I Daniel, had seen the vision, and sought for the meaning, then, behold, there stood before me {b} as the appearance of a man.

      (b) Who was Christ who in this manner declared himself to the old fathers, how he would be God manifest in flesh.

Da 8:16

8:16 And I heard a man's voice between [the banks of] Ulai, which called, and said, Gabriel, {c} make this [man] to understand the vision.

      (c) This power to command the angel, declared that he was God.

Da 8:17

8:17 So he came near where I stood: and when he came, I was afraid, and fell upon my face: but he said unto me, Understand, O son of man: for {d} at the time of the end [shall be] the vision.

      (d) The effect of this vision will not yet appear, until a long time after.

Da 8:19

8:19 And he said, Behold, I will make thee know what shall be in the last {e} end of the indignation: for at the time appointed the end [shall be].

      (e) Meaning that great rage which Antiochus would show against the Church.

Da 8:22

8:22 Now that being broken, whereas four stood up for it, four kingdoms shall stand up {f} out of the nation, but not {g} in his power.

      (f) That is, out of Greece.
      (g) They will not have similar power as Alexander had.

Da 8:23

8:23 And in the latter time of their kingdom, when the transgressors are come to the full, a king of {h} fierce countenance, and understanding dark sentences, shall stand up.

      (h) Noting that this Antiochus was impudent and cruel, and also crafty so that he could not be deceived.

Da 8:24

8:24 And his power shall be mighty, but not {i} by his own power: and he shall destroy wonderfully, and shall prosper, and practise, and shall destroy the {k} mighty and the holy people.

      (i) That is, not like Alexander's strength.
      (k) Both the Gentiles that dwelt around him, and also the Jews.

Da 8:25

8:25 And through his {l} policy also he shall cause craft to prosper in his hand; and he shall magnify [himself] in his heart, and by {m} peace shall destroy many: he shall also stand up against the {n} Prince of princes; but he shall be broken {o} without hand.

      (l) Whatever he goes about by his craft, he will bring it to pass.
      (m) That is, under pretence of peace, or as it were in sport.
      (n) Meaning, against God.
      (o) For God would destroy him with a notable plague, and so comfort his Church.

Da 8:26

8:26 And the vision of the {p} evening and the morning which was told [is] true: wherefore shut thou up the vision; for it [shall be] for many days.

      (p) Read Dan 8:14 .

Da 8:27

8:27 And I Daniel fainted, and was sick {q} [certain] days; afterward I rose up, and did the king's business; and I was astonished at the vision, but none understood [it].

      (q) Because of fear and astonishment.

Da 9:1

9:1 In the first year of Darius the son of {a} Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes, which was made king over the {b} realm of the Chaldeans;

      (a) Who was also called Astyages.
      (b) For Cyrus led with ambition, and went about wars in other countries, and therefore Darius had the title of the kingdom, even though Cyrus was king in effect.

Da 9:2

9:2 In the first year of his reign I Daniel understood by {c} books the number of the years, whereof the word of the LORD came to Jeremiah the prophet, that he would accomplish seventy years in the desolations of Jerusalem.

      (c) For even though he was an excellent Prophet, yet he daily increased in knowledge by the reading of the scriptures.

Da 9:3

9:3 And I set my face unto the Lord God, to {d} seek by prayer and supplications, with fasting, and sackcloth, and ashes:

      (d) He does not speak of that ordinary prayer, which he used in his house three times a day, but of a rare and vehement prayer, lest their sins should cause God to delay the time of their deliverance prophesied by Jeremiah.

Da 9:4

9:4 And I prayed unto the LORD my God, and made my confession, and said, O Lord, the {e} great and dreadful God, keeping the covenant and mercy to them that love him, and to them that keep his commandments;

      (e) That is, has all power in yourself to execute your terrible judgments against obstinate sinners, as you are rich in mercy to comfort those who obey your word and love you.

Da 9:7

9:7 O Lord, {f} righteousness [belongeth] unto thee, but unto us confusion of faces, as at this day; to the men of Judah, and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and unto all Israel, [that are] near, and [that are] far off, through all the countries whither thou hast driven them, because of their trespass that they have trespassed against thee.

      (f) He shows that whenever God punishes, he does it for just cause: and thus the godly never accuse him of rigour as the wicked do, but acknowledge that in themselves there is just cause why he should so treat them.

Da 9:8

9:8 O Lord, to us [belongeth] confusion of face, to our {g} kings, to our princes, and to our fathers, because we have sinned against thee.

      (g) He does not excuse the kings because of their authority, but prays chiefly for them as the chief occasions of these great plagues.

Da 9:10

9:10 Neither have we obeyed the {h} voice of the LORD our God, to walk in his laws, which he set before us by his servants the prophets.

      (h) He shows that they rebel against God, who do not serve him according to his commandment and word.

Da 9:11

9:11 Yea, all Israel have transgressed thy law, even by departing, that they might not obey thy voice; therefore the {i} curse is poured upon us, and the oath that [is] written in the law of Moses the servant of God, because we have sinned against him.

      (i) As in De 27:15 , or the curse confirmed by an oath.

Da 9:16

9:16 O Lord, according to all thy {k} righteousness, I beseech thee, let thine anger and thy fury be turned away from thy city Jerusalem, thy holy mountain: because for our sins, and for the iniquities of our fathers, Jerusalem and thy people [are become] a reproach to all [that are] about us.

      (k) That is, according to all your merciful promises and the performance of them.

Da 9:17

9:17 Now therefore, O our God, hear the prayer of thy servant, and his supplications, and cause thy face to {l} shine upon thy sanctuary that is desolate, for the {m} Lord's sake.

      (l) Show yourself favourable.
      (m) That is, for your Christ's sake, in whom you will accept all of our prayers.

Da 9:18

9:18 O my God, incline thine ear, and hear; open thine eyes, and behold our desolations, and the city which is called by thy name: for we do not present our supplications before thee for our {n} righteousnesses, but for thy great mercies.

      (n) Declaring that the godly flee only to God's mercies, and renounce their own works, when they seek for remission of their sins.

Da 9:19

9:19 O Lord, hear; O Lord, forgive; O Lord, {o} hearken and do; defer not, for thine own sake, O my God: for thy city and thy people are called by thy name.

      (o) Thus he could not content himself with any vehemency of words: for he was so led with a fervent zeal, considering God's promise made to the city in respect of his Church, and for the advancement of God's glory.

Da 9:24

9:24 Seventy {p} weeks are determined upon {q} thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the {r} transgression, and to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most Holy.

      (p) He alludes to Jeremiah's prophecy, who prophesied that their captivity would be seventy years: but now God's mercy would exceed his judgment seven times as much, which would be 490 years, even until the coming of Christ, and so then it would continue forever.
      (q) Meaning Daniel's nation, over whom he was careful.
      (r) To show mercy and to put sin out of remembrance.

Da 9:25

9:25 Know therefore and understand, [that] from {s} the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince [shall be] seven {t} weeks, and {u} threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times.

      (s) That is, from the time that Cyrus gave them permission to depart.
      (t) These weeks make forty-nine years, of which forty-six are referred to the time of the building of the temple, and three to the laying of the foundation.
      (u) Counting from the sixth year of Darius, who gave the second commandment for the building of the temple are sixty-two weeks, which make 434 years, which comprehend the time from the building of the temple until the baptism of Christ.

Da 9:26

9:26 And after threescore and two {x} weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but {y} not for himself: and the people of the {z} prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof [shall be] with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined.

      (x) In this week of the seventy, will Christ come and preach and suffer death.
      (y) He will seem to have no beauty, nor to be of any estimation; Isa 53:2 .
      (z) Meaning Titus, Vespasians's son, who would come and destroy both the temple, and the people, without any hope of recovery.

Da 9:27

9:27 And he {a} shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to {b} cease, {c} and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make [it] desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate.

      (a) By the preaching of the Gospel he affirmed his promise, first to the Jews, and after to the Gentiles.
      (b) Christ accomplished this by his death and resurrection.
      (c) Meaning that Jerusalem and the sanctuary would be utterly destroyed because of their rebellion against God, and their idolatry: or as some read, that the plague will be so great, that they will all be astonished at them.

Da 10:1

10:1 In the {a} third year of Cyrus king of Persia a thing was revealed unto Daniel, whose name was called Belteshazzar; and the thing [was] true, but the time appointed [was] {b} long: and he understood the thing, and had understanding of the vision.

      (a) He notes this third year, because at this time the building of the temple began to be hindered by Cambyses, Cyrus's son, when the father made war in Asia minor against the Scythians, which was discouraging to the godly, and fearful to Daniel.
      (b) Which is to declare that the godly should not hasten too much, but patiently abide the fulfilment of God's promise.

Da 10:4

10:4 And in the four and twentieth day of the {c} first month, as I {d} was by the side of the great river, which [is] Hiddekel;

      (c) Called Abib, which contains part of March, and part of April.
      (d) Being carried by the Spirit of prophecy so that he could see the river Tigris.

Da 10:5

10:5 Then I lifted up mine eyes, and looked, and behold a certain man {e} clothed in linen, whose loins [were] girded with fine gold of Uphaz:

      (e) This was the angel of God, who was sent to assure Daniel in this prophecy that follows.

Da 10:8

10:8 Therefore I was left alone, and saw this great vision, and there remained no strength in me: for {f} my comeliness was turned in me into corruption, and I retained no strength.

      (f) So that because of fear he was like a dead man because of his deformity.

Da 10:10

10:10 And, behold, an {g} hand touched me, which set me upon my knees and [upon] the palms of my hands.

      (g) Which declares that when we are struck down with the majesty of God we cannot rise, unless he also lifts us up with his hand, which is his power.

Da 10:13

10:13 But the {h} prince of the kingdom of Persia withstood me one and twenty days: but, lo, {i} Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me; and I remained there with the kings of Persia.

      (h) Meaning Cambyses, who reigned in his father's absence, and did not only for this time hinder the building of the temple, but would have further raged, if God had not sent me to resist him: and therefore I have stayed for the profit of the Church.
      (i) Even though God could by one angel destroy all the world, yet to assure his children of his love he sends forth double power, even Michael, that is, Christ Jesus the head of angels.

Da 10:14

10:14 Now I am come to make thee understand what shall befall thy people in the latter days: for yet the {k} vision [is] for [many] days.

      (k) For even though the Prophet Daniel would end and cease, yet his doctrine would continue until the coming of Christ, for the comfort of his Church.

Da 10:16

10:16 And, behold, {l} [one] like the similitude of the sons of men touched my lips: then I opened my mouth, and spake, and said unto him that stood before me, O my lord, {m} by the vision my sorrows are turned upon me, and I have retained no strength.

      (l) This was the same angel that spoke with him before in the appearance of a man.
      (m) I was overcome with fear and sorrow, when I saw the vision.

Da 10:19

10:19 And said, O man greatly beloved, fear not: {n} peace [be] unto thee, be strong, yea, be strong. And when he had spoken unto me, I {o} was strengthened, and said, Let my lord speak; for thou hast strengthened me.

      (n) He declares by this that God would be merciful to the people of Israel.
      (o) Which declares that when God smites his children down, he does not immediately lift them up at once (for now the Angel had touched him twice), but by little and little.

Da 10:20

10:20 Then said he, Knowest thou wherefore I come unto thee? and now will I return to fight with the prince of Persia: and when I am gone forth, lo, the {p} prince of Grecia shall come.

      (p) Meaning that he would not only himself bridle the rage of Cambyses, but also the other kings of Persia by Alexander the King of Macedonia.

Da 10:21

10:21 But I will shew thee that which is noted in the scripture of truth: {q} and [there is] none that holdeth with me in these things, but Michael your prince.

      (q) For this angel was appointed for the defence of the Church under Christ, who is the head of it.

Da 11:1

11:1 Also I in the first year of Darius the Mede, [even] I, {a} stood to confirm and to strengthen him.

      (a) The angel assures Daniel that God has given him power to perform these things, seeing that he appointed him to assist Darius when he overcame the Chaldeans.

Da 11:2

11:2 And now will I shew thee the truth. Behold, there shall stand up yet {b} three kings in Persia; and the fourth shall be far richer than [they] all: and by his strength through his riches he shall stir up {c} all against the realm of Grecia.

      (b) Of which Cambyses that now reigned was the first, the second Smerdes, the third Darius the son of Hystaspis, and the fourth Xerxes, who all were enemies to the people of God, and stood against them.
      (c) For he raised up all the east countries to fight against the Grecians, and even though he had in his army 900,000 men, yet in four battles he was defeated, and fled away with shame.

Da 11:3

11:3 And a {d} mighty king shall stand up, that shall rule with great dominion, and do according to his will.

      (d) That is, Alexander the Great.

Da 11:4

11:4 And when he shall stand up, {e} his kingdom shall be broken, {f} and shall be divided toward the {g} four winds of heaven; and not to his {h} posterity, nor according to {i} his dominion which he ruled: for his kingdom shall be plucked up, even for others beside {k} those.

      (e) For when his estate was most flourishing, he overcame himself with drink, and so fell into a disease: or as some write, was poisoned by Cassander.
      (f) For his twelve chief princes first divided his kingdom among themselves.
      (g) After this his monarchy was divided into four: for Seleucus had Syria, Antigonus had Asia minor, Cassander had the kingdom of Macedonia, and Ptolemeus had Egypt.
      (h) Thus God avenged Alexander's ambition and cruelty, in causing his posterity to be murdered, partly by their father's chief friends, and partly by one another.
      (i) None of these four will be able to be compared to the power of Alexander.
      (k) That is, his posterity having no part of it.

Da 11:5

11:5 And the {l} king of the south shall be strong, and [one] of {m} his princes; and he shall be strong above him, and have dominion; his dominion [shall be] a great dominion.

      (l) That is, Ptolemeus king of Egypt.
      (m) That is, Antiochus the son of Seleucus, and one of Alexander's princes will be more mighty: for he would have both Asia and Syria.

Da 11:6

11:6 And in the end of years they shall join themselves together; for the king's {n} daughter of the south shall come to the king of the north to make an agreement: but she shall not retain the power of the {o} arm; neither shall {p} he stand, nor his {q} arm: but she shall be given up, and they that brought her, and he {r} that begat her, and he that strengthened her in [these] times.

      (n) That is, Bernice the daughter of Ptolemais Philadelphus will be given in marriage to Antiochus Theos, thinking by this affinity that Syria and Egypt would have a continual peace together.
      (o) That power and strength will not continue: for soon after her husband's death, Bernice and her young son were slain by her stepson Seleicus Calinieus the son of Laodice, the lawful wife of Antiochus, but put away for this woman's sake.
      (p) Neither Ptolemais nor Antiochus.
      (q) Some read "seed", meaning the child begotten by Bernice.
      (r) Some read, "she that begat her", and by this understand her nurse, who brought her up: so that all those who were part of this marriage were destroyed.

Da 11:7

11:7 But out of a branch of her {s} roots shall [one] stand up in his estate, {t} which shall come with an army, and shall enter into the fortress of the king of the north, and shall deal against them, and shall prevail:

      (s) Meaning that Ptolemais Evergetes after the death of his father Philadelphus would succeed in the kingdom, being of the same stock that Bernice was.
      (t) To revenge the sister's death against Antiochus Calinicus King of Syria.

Da 11:8

11:8 And shall also carry captives into Egypt their gods, with their princes, [and] with their precious vessels of silver and of gold; and he shall continue {u} [more] years than the king of the north.

      (u) For this Ptolemais reigned forty-six years.

Da 11:10

11:10 But his {x} sons shall be stirred up, and shall assemble a multitude of great forces: and [one] {y} shall certainly come, and overflow, and pass through: then shall he {z} return, and be stirred up, [even] to his fortress.

      (x) Meaning Seleucus and Antiochus the great, the sons of Calinicus, will make war against Ptolemais Philopater, the son of Philadelphus.
      (y) For his older brother Seleucus died, or was slain while the armies were preparing for war.
      (z) That is, Philopater, when he will see Antiochus take great dominions from him in Syria, and also ready to invade Egypt.

Da 11:11

11:11 And the king of the south shall be moved with choler, and shall come forth and fight with him, [even] with the king of the north: and he shall set forth a great {a} multitude; but the multitude shall be given into his hand.

      (a) For Antioch had 6,000 horsemen, and 60,000 footmen.

Da 11:13

11:13 For the king of the north {b} shall return, and shall set forth a multitude greater than the former, and shall certainly come after certain years with a great army and with much riches.

      (b) After the death of Ptolemais Philopater, who left Ptolemais Epiphanes as his heir.

Da 11:14

11:14 And in those times there shall {c} many stand up against the king of the south: also the robbers of thy {d} people shall exalt themselves to establish the vision; but they shall fall.

      (c) For not only Antaiochus came against him, but also Philip King of Macedonia, and these two brought great power with them.
      (d) For under Onies, who falsely alleged that place of Isa 19:19 , certain of the Jews retired with him into Egypt to fulfil this prophecy: also the angel shows that all these troubles which are in the Church, are by the providence and counsel of God.

Da 11:15

11:15 So the king of the north shall come, and cast up a mount, and take the most fenced cities: and the arms of the south shall {e} not withstand, neither his chosen people, neither [shall there be any] strength to withstand.

      (e) The Egyptians were not able to resist Stopas, Antiochus' captain.

Da 11:16

11:16 But he that cometh against him shall do according to his own will, and none shall stand before him: and he shall stand in the {f} glorious land, which by his hand shall be consumed.

      (f) He shows that he will not only afflict the Egyptians, but also the Jews, and will enter into their country, of which he admonished them before, that they may know that all these things came by God's providence.

Da 11:17

11:17 He shall also {g} set his face to enter with the strength of his whole kingdom, and upright ones with him; thus shall he do: and he shall give him the {h} daughter of women, corrupting {i} her: but {k} she shall not stand [on his side], neither be for him.

      (g) This was the second battle that Antiochus fought against Ptolemais Epiphanes.
      (h) That is, a beautiful woman who was Cleopatra, Antiochus' daughter.
      (i) For he did not regard the life of his daughter in respect of the kingdom of Egypt.
      (k) She will not agree to his wicked counsel, but will love her husband, as her duty requires, and not seek his destruction.

Da 11:18

11:18 After this shall he turn his face unto the {l} isles, and shall take many: but a prince for his own behalf {m} shall cause the reproach offered by him to cease; without his own reproach he shall cause [it] to turn upon {n} him.

      (l) That is, towards Asia, Greece, and those isles which are in the Mediterranean Sea: for the Jews called all countries which were divided by the sea "isles".
      (m) For whereas Antiochus was accustomed to condemn the Romans, and put their ambassadors to shame in all places, Attilius the consul, or Lucius Scipio put him to flight, and caused his shame to turn on his own head.
      (n) By his wicked life, and obedience to foolish counsel.

Da 11:19

11:19 Then he shall turn his face toward the fort of {o} his own land: but he shall stumble and fall, and not be {p} found.

      (o) For fear of the Romans he will flee to his strongholds.
      (p) For when as under the pretence of poverty he would have robbed the temple of Jupiter Dodomeus, the countrymen slew him.

Da 11:20

11:20 {q} Then shall stand up in his estate a raiser of taxes [in] the glory of the kingdom: but within few days he shall be destroyed, neither in {r} anger, nor in battle.

      (q) That is, Seleuchus will succeed his father Antiochus.
      (r) Not by foreign enemies, or battle, but by treason.

Da 11:21

11:21 And in his estate shall stand up a {s} vile person, to whom they shall not give the honour of the kingdom: but he shall come in peaceably, and obtain the kingdom by flatteries.

      (s) Who was Antiochus Epiphanes, who as is thought was the occasion of Seleucus his brother's death, and was of a vile, cruel, and flattering nature, and defrauded his brother's son of the kingdom, and usurped the kingdom without the consent of the people.

Da 11:22

11:22 And with the {t} arms of a flood shall they be overflown from before him, and shall be broken; yea, also the prince of the {u} covenant.

      (t) He shows that great foreign powers will come to help the young son of Seleucus against his uncle Antiochus, and yet will be overthrown.
      (u) Meaning Ptolemais Philopater's son, who was this child's cousin, and is here called the prince of the covenant, because he was the chief, and all others followed his conduct.

Da 11:23

11:23 And after {x} the league [made] with him he shall work deceitfully: for he shall come up, and shall become strong with a {y} small people.

      (x) For after the battle, Philometor and his uncle Antiochus made a league.
      (y) For he came upon him by surprise, and when he did not suspect his uncle Antiochus at all.

Da 11:24

11:24 He shall enter peaceably even upon the fattest places of the province; and he shall do [that] which his fathers {z} have not done, nor his fathers' fathers; he shall scatter among them the prey, and spoil, and riches: [yea], and he shall forecast his devices against the strong holds, even for a {a} time.

      (z) Meaning, in Egypt.
      (a) He will content himself with the small strongholds for a time, but will always labour by craft to attain to the chiefest.

Da 11:25

11:25 And he shall stir up his power and his courage against the king of the south with a great army; and the king of the south shall be stirred up to battle with a very great and mighty army; but he shall not {b} stand: for they shall forecast devices against him.

      (b) He will be overcome with treason.

Da 11:26

11:26 Yea, they that feed of the portion of {c} his meat shall destroy him, and his army {d} shall overflow: and many shall fall down slain.

      (c) Signifying his princes and the chief men about him.
      (d) Declaring that his soldiers will break out and venture their life to stay and to be slain for the safeguard of their prince.

Da 11:27

11:27 And both these kings' hearts [shall be] to do {e} mischief, and they shall speak lies at one table; but it shall not prosper: for {f} yet the end [shall be] at the time appointed.

      (e) The uncle and the nephew will make truce, and banquet together, yet in their hearts they will imagine mischief against one another.
      (f) Signifying that it depends not on the counsel of men to bring things to pass, but on the providence of God, who rules the kings by a secret bridle, so that they cannot do what they themselves wish.

Da 11:28

11:28 Then shall he return into his land with great {g} riches; and his heart [shall be] against the holy covenant; and he shall do [exploits], and return to his own land.

      (g) Which he will take from the Jews in spoiling Jerusalem and the temple, and this is told them before to exhort them to be patient, knowing that all things are done by God's providence.

Da 11:30

11:30 For the ships {h} of Chittim shall come against him: therefore he shall be grieved, and return, and have indignation against the holy covenant: so shall he do; he shall even return, {i} and have intelligence with them that forsake the holy covenant.

      (h) That is, the Roman power will come against him: for P. Popilius the ambassador appointed him to depart in the Romans' name, which he obeyed, although with grief, and to avenge his rage he came against the people of God the second time.
      (i) With the Jews who will forsake the covenant of the Lord: for first he was called against the Jews by Jason the high priest, and this second time by Menelaus.

Da 11:31

11:31 And arms {k} shall stand on his part, and they shall pollute the sanctuary {l} of strength, and shall take away the daily [sacrifice], and they shall place the abomination that maketh desolate.

      (k) A great faction of the wicked Jews will join with Antiochus.
      (l) So called because the power of God was not at all diminished, even though this tyrant set up in the temple the image of Jupiter Olympius, and so began to corrupt the pure service of God.

Da 11:32

11:32 And such as do wickedly {m} against the covenant shall he corrupt by flatteries: but the people that do know their God shall be strong, and do [exploits].

      (m) Meaning those who had the name of Jews, but indeed were not Jews at all, for they sold their souls, and betrayed their brethren for gain.

Da 11:33

11:33 And they that understand among the {n} people shall instruct many: {o} yet they shall fall by the sword, and by flame, by captivity, and by spoil, [many] days.

      (n) Those that remain constant among the people will teach others by their example, and edify many in the true religion.
      (o) By which he exhorts the godly to constancy, even though they should perish a thousand times, and even though their miseries endure ever so long.

Da 11:34

11:34 Now when they shall fall, they shall be holpen with a {p} little help: but many shall cleave to them {q} with flatteries.

      (p) As God will not leave his Church destitute, yet he will not deliver it all at once, but help in such a way that they may still seem to fight under the cross, as he did in the time of the Maccabees, of which he here prophesies.
      (q) That is, there will even be among this small number many hypocrites.

Da 11:35

11:35 And [some] of them {r} of understanding shall fall, to try them, and to purge, and to make [them] white, [even] to the time of the end: because [it is] yet for a time appointed.

      (r) That is, of those that fear God and will lose their life for the defence of true religion. Signifying also that the Church must continually be tried and purged, and ought to look for one persecution after another: for God has appointed the time, and therefore we must obey.

Da 11:36

11:36 And the {s} king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvellous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation {t} be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done.

      (s) Because the angels purpose is to show the whole course of the persecutions of the Jews until the coming of Christ, he now speaks of the monarchy of the Romans, which he notes by the name of a king, who were without religion and condemned the true God.
      (t) So long the tyrants will prevail as God has appointed to punish his people: but he shows that it is but for a time.

Da 11:37

11:37 Neither shall he regard the {u} God of his fathers, nor the desire {x} of women, nor regard any god: for he shall magnify himself above all.

      (u) The Romans will observe no certain form of religion as other nations, but will change their gods at their pleasures, indeed, they will condemn them and prefer themselves to their gods.
      (x) Signifying that they would be without all humanity: for the love of women is taken for singular or great love, as 2Sa 1:26 .

Da 11:38

11:38 But in his estate shall he honour the {y} God of forces: and a god whom his fathers knew not shall he honour with {z} gold, and silver, and with precious stones, and pleasant things.

      (y) That is, the god of power and riches: they will esteem their own power above all their gods and worship it.
      (z) Under pretence of worshipping the gods, they will enrich their city with the most precious jewels of all the world, because by this all men would hold them in admiration for their power and riches.

Da 11:39

11:39 Thus shall he do in {a} the most strong holds with a strange god, whom he shall acknowledge [and] increase with glory: and he shall cause them to rule over many, and shall divide the land for gain.

      (a) Even though in their hearts they had no religion, yet they did acknowledge the gods, and worshipped them in their temples, lest they should have been despised as atheists. But this was to increase their fame and riches, and when they gained any country, they made others the rulers of it in such a way that the profit always came to the Romans.

Da 11:40

11:40 And at the time of the end shall the king of the {b} south push at him: and the king of the north shall come against him like a whirlwind, with chariots, and with horsemen, and with many ships; and he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow and pass over.

      (b) That is, both the Egyptians and the Syrians will at length fight against the Romans, but they will be overcome.

Da 11:41

11:41 He shall enter also into the {c} glorious land, and many [countries] shall be overthrown: but these shall escape out of his hand, [even] Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon.

      (c) The angel forewarns the Jews that when they should see the Romans invade them, and that the wicked would escape their hands, that then they should think that all this was done by God's providence, seeing that he warned them of it so long before, and therefore he would still preserve them.

Da 11:44

11:44 But tidings out of the east and out of the north shall {d} trouble him: therefore he shall go forth {e} with great fury to destroy, and utterly to make away many.

      (d) Hearing that Crassus was slain, and Antonius defeated.
      (e) For Augustus overcame the Parthians, and recovered that which Antonius had lost.

Da 11:45

11:45 And he shall plant the tabernacles {f} of his palace between the seas in the glorious holy mountain; yet he shall come to his end, and none shall help him.

      (f) The Romans after this reigned quietly throughout all countries, and from sea to sea, and in Judea: but at length because of their cruelty God will destroy them.

Da 12:1

12:1 And at that {a} time shall Michael stand up, the great prince which standeth for the children of thy people: and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation [even] to that same time: and at that time thy people shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book.

      (a) The angel here notes two things: first that the Church will be in great affliction and trouble at Christ's coming, and next that God will send his angel to deliver it, whom he here calls Michael, meaning Christ, who is proclaimed by the preaching of the Gospel.

Da 12:2

12:2 And many {b} of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame [and] everlasting contempt.

      (b) Meaning all will rise at the general resurrection, which thing he here names because the faithful should always consider that: for in the earth there will be no sure comfort.

Da 12:3

12:3 And they that be {c} wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament; and they that {d} turn many to righteousness as the stars for ever and ever.

      (c) Who have kept the true fear of God and his religion.
      (d) He chiefly means the ministers of God's word, and next all the faithful who instruct the ignorant, and bring them to the true knowledge of God.

Da 12:4

12:4 But thou, O Daniel, {e} shut up the words, and seal the book, {f} [even] to the time of the end: many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be increased.

      (e) Even though the most part despise this prophecy, yet make sure you keep it and esteem it as a treasure.
      (f) Until the time that God has appointed for the full revelation of these things: and then many will run to and fro to search for the knowledge of these mysteries, which things they obtain now by the light of the Gospel.

Da 12:5

12:5 Then I Daniel looked, and, behold, there stood other two, the one on this side of the bank of the {g} river, and the other on that side of the bank of the river.

      (g) Which was the Tigris.

Da 12:7

12:7 And I heard the man clothed in linen, which [was] upon the waters of the river, when he held up his {h} right hand and his left hand unto heaven, and sware by him that liveth for ever that [it shall be] for a {i} time, times, and an half; and when he shall have accomplished {k} to scatter the power of the holy people, all these [things] shall be finished.

      (h) Which was as it were a double oath, and did the more confirm the thing.
      (i) Meaning, a long time, a longer time, and at length a short time: signifying that their troubles would have an end.
      (k) When the Church will be scattered and diminished in such a way as it will seem to have no power.

Da 12:11

12:11 And from the time [that] the {l} daily [sacrifice] shall be taken away, and the abomination that maketh desolate set up, [there {m} shall be] a thousand two hundred and ninety days.

      (l) From the time that Christ by his sacrifice will take away the sacrifices and ceremonies of the Law.
      (m) Signifying that the time will be long until Christ's second coming, and yet the children of God ought not to be discouraged, even though it is deferred.

Da 12:12

12:12 Blessed [is] he that waiteth, and cometh to the thousand three hundred and {n} five and thirty days.

      (n) In this number he adds a month and a half to the former number, signifying that it is not in man to appoint the time of Christ's coming, but that they are blessed that patiently wait for his appearing.

Da 12:13

12:13 But go {o} thou thy way till the end [be]: for thou shalt rest, and stand in thy lot at the end of the days.

      (o) The angel warns the Prophet patiently to wait, until the time appointed comes, signifying that he should depart this life, and rise again with the elect, when God had sufficiently humbled and purged his Church.

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