1 Samuel
2 Samuel
1 Kings
2 Kings
1 Chronicles
2 Chronicles

Song of Songs



1 Corinthians
2 Corinthians
1 Thessalonians
2 Thessalonians
1 Timothy
2 Timothy

1 Peter
2 Peter
1 John
2 John
3 John

Revelation 1-11
Revelation 12-22

Chapter 1

Re 1:1

1:1 The {1} {a} Revelation of {b} Jesus Christ, which God gave unto him, to shew unto his servants things which must shortly come to pass; and he sent and signified [it] by his angel unto his servant John:

1 AD The dragon watches the Church of the Jews, which was ready to travail: She brings forth, flees and hides herself, while Christ was yet on the earth.

34 AD The dragon persecutes Christ ascending to heaven, he fights and is thrown down: and after persecutes the Church of the Jews.

67 AD The Church of the Jews is received into the wilderness for three years and a half.

70 AD When the Church of the Jews was overthrown, the dragon invaded the catholic church: all this is in the twelfth chapter. The dragon is bound for a thousand years in chapter twenty. The dragon raises up the beast with seven heads, and the beast with two heads, which make havock of the catholic church and her prophets for 1260 years after the passion of Christ in Re 13:11 .

97 AD The seven churches are admonished of things present, somewhat before the end of Domitian his reign, and are forewarned of the persecution to come under Trajan for ten years, chapter 2,3. God by word and signs provokes the world, and seals the godly in chapter 6 and 7. He shows examples of his wrath on all creatures, mankind excepted in chapter 8.

1073 AD The dragon is let loose after a thousand years, and Gregory the seventh, being Pope, rages against Henry the third, then Emperor in chapter 20.

1217 AD The dragon vexes the world for 150 years to Gregory the ninth, who wrote the Decretals, and most cruelly persecuted the Emperor Fredrick the second.

1295 AD The dragon kills the prophets after 1260 years, when Boniface the eighth was Pope, who was the author of the sixth book of the Decretals: he excommunicated Philip the French King.

1300 AD Boniface celebrates the Jubile.

1301 AD About this time was a great earthquake, which overthrew many houses in Rome.

1305 AD Prophecy ceases for three years and a half, until Benedict the second succeeded after Boniface the eighth. Prophecy is revived in chapter 11. The dragon and the two beasts question prophecy in chapter 13. Christ defends his Church in word and deed, chapter 14, and with threats and arms, chapter 16. Christ gives his Church victory over the harlot, chapter 17 and 18. Over the two beasts, chapter 19. Over the dragon and death, chapter 20. The Church is fully glorified in heaven with eternal glory, in Christ Jesus, chapter 21 and 22.

      (1) This chapter has two principal parts, the title or inscription, which stands in place of an introduction: and a narration going before the whole prophecy of this book. The inscription is double, general and particular. In Re 1:1 the general inscription contains the kind of prophecy, the author, end, matter, instruments, and manner of communication the same, in Re 1:2 the most religious faithfulness of the apostle as public witness and the use of communicating the same, taken from the promise of God, and from the circumstance of the time, Re 1:3
      (a) An opening of secret and hidden things.
      (b) Which the Son opened to us out of his Father's bosom by angels.

Re 1:4

1:4 {2} John to the seven churches which are in Asia: Grace [be] unto you, and peace, {3} from him {c} which is, and which was, and which is to come; and from {4} the {d} seven Spirits which are before his throne;

      (2) This is the particular or singular inscription, in which salutation is written to certain churches by name, who represent the catholic church: and the certainty and truth of this is declared, from the author of it, in Re 1:8 .
      (3) That is, from God the Father, eternal, immortal, immutable: wholly unchangeable, John declares in a form of speech which is undeclined. For there is no incongruity in this place, where, of necessity the words must be adapted to the mystery, not the mystery corrupted or impaired by the words.
      (c) These three, Is, Was, and Shall be, signify the word Jehovah, which is the proper name for God.
      (4) That is, from the Holy Spirit who proceeds from the Father and the Son. This Spirit is one in person according to his subsistence: but in communication of his power, and in demonstration of his divine works in those seven churches, perfectly manifests himself as if there were many spirits, every one perfectly working in his own church. Which is why in Re 5:6 they are called the seven horns and seven eyes of the Lamb, as if to say, as his most absolute power and wisdom. In Re 3:1 Christ is said to have those seven spirits of God, and in Re 4:5 it is said that seven lamps burn before his throne, which also are those seven spirits of God. That this place ought to be so understood, it is thus proved. For first, grace and peace is asked by prayer from this Spirit, which is a divine work, and an action incommunicable in respect to God. Secondly, he is placed between the Father and the Son, as set in the same degree of dignity and operation with them, besides, he is before the throne, as of the same substance with the Father and the Son: as the seven eyes and seven horns of the Lamb. Moreover, these spirits are never said to adore God, as all other things are. Finally, this is the power by which the Lamb opened the book, and loosed the seven seals of it, when no one could be found among all creatures by whom the book might be opened Re 5:1-10 ; Of these things long ago Master John Luide of Oxford wrote to me. Now the Holy Spirit is named before Christ because a long speech about Christ follows.
      (d) These are the seven spirits, which are later called the horns and eyes of the Lamb in Re 5:6 and are now acting as a guard waiting on God.

Re 1:5

1:5 And from Jesus Christ, {5} [who is] the faithful witness, [and] the first begotten of the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth. Unto him that loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood,

      (5) A most ample and honourable commendation of Christ, first from his offices of the priesthood and kingdom: secondly from his benefits, as his love toward us, and washing us with his blood, in this verse, and communication of his kingdom and priesthood with us: thirdly, from his eternal glory and power, which is always to be celebrated by us; Re 1:6 Finally, from the accomplishment of all things once to be effected by him, at his second coming, at which time he shall openly destroy the wicked, and comfort the godly in the truth; Re 1:7 .

Re 1:7

1:7 Behold, he cometh with clouds; and every {e} eye shall see him, and they [also] which pierced him: and all kindreds of the earth shall wail because of him. Even so, Amen.

      (e) All men.

Re 1:8

1:8 {6} I am {f} Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty.

      (6) A confirmation of the greeting earlier, taken from the words of God himself: in which he affirms his operation in every single creature, the immutable eternity that is in himself, and his omnipotence in all things: and concludes in the unity of his own essence, that Trinity of persons which was spoken of before.
      (f) I am he before whom there was nothing, indeed, by whom everything that is made, was made: and I shall remain though everything else should perish.

Re 1:9

1:9 {7} I John, who also am your brother, and companion in tribulation, and in the kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ, was in the isle that is {g} called Patmos, for the word of God, and for the testimony of Jesus Christ.

      (7) The narration, opening the way to the declaring of the authority and calling of John the evangelist in this singular revelation, and to procure faith and credit to this prophecy. This is the second part of this chapter, consisting of a proposition, and an exposition. The proposition shows, in Re 1:9 first who was called to this revelation, in what place, and how occupied. Then at what time, and by what means, namely, by the Spirit and the word, and that on the Lord's day, which ever since the resurrection of Christ, was consecrated for Christians: that is to say, to be a day of rest, as in Re 1:10 Thirdly, who is the author that calls him, and what is the sum of his calling.
      (g) Patmos is one of the islands of Sporas, where John was banished according to some historians.

Re 1:10

1:10 I was in the {h} Spirit on the {i} Lord's day, and heard behind me a great voice, as of a trumpet,

      (h) This is a holy trance expressed, with which the prophets were entranced, and being carried out of the world, conversed with God: and so Ezekiel says often, that he was carried from place to place by the Spirit, and that the Spirit of the Lord came on him.
      (i) He calls it the Lord's day, which Paul calls the first day of the week; 1Co 16:2 .

Re 1:12

1:12 {8} And I turned to {k} see the voice that spake with me. {9} And being turned, I saw seven golden candlesticks;

      (8) The exposition, declaring the third and last point of the proposition (for the other points are evident of themselves) in which is he first speaks of the author of his calling (till verse 17), and secondly, of the calling itself Re 1:17-20 . First of all the occasion is noted in this verse, in that John turned himself towards the vision, and after he sets down the description of the author, in the following verses, Re 1:13-16 .
      (k) To see him whose voice I had heard.
      (9) The description of the Author, who is Christ: by the candlesticks that stand about him, that is, the churches that stand before him, and depend upon his direction. In Re 1:13 he is described by his properties, that he is provided with wisdom and dexterity for the achieving of great things, and in Re 1:14 with ancient gravity and most excellent sight of the eye. In Re 1:15 he is described with strength invincible and with a mighty word, and in Re 1:16 by his ruling of the ministry of his servants in the Church by the sword of his word, and enlightening all things with his countenance, and mightily providing for everyone by his divine providence.

Re 1:17

1:17 {10} And when I saw him, I fell at his feet as dead. {11} And he laid his right hand upon me, saying unto me, Fear not; {12} I am the first and the last:

      (10) A religious fear, that goes before the calling of the saints, and their full confirmation to take on them the vocation of God.
      (11) A divine confirmation of this calling, partly by sign, and partly by word of power.
      (12) A most elegant description of this calling contained in three things, which are necessary to a just vocation: first the authority of him who calls, for he is the beginning and end of all things, in this verse, for he is eternal and omnipotent Re 1:8 . Secondly the sum of his prophetic calling and revelation Re 1:9 . Lastly a declaration of those persons to whom this prophecy is by the commandment of God directed in the description of it Re 1:20 .

Re 1:19

1:19 {13} Write the things which thou hast seen, and the things which are, and the things which shall be hereafter;

      (13) The sum of this prophecy, that the apostle must write whatever he sees, adding nothing, nor taking away anything Re 1:2 . Here there are two parts: one is a narration of those things which are, that is, which then were at that time, contained in the second and third chapter: the other part is of those things which were to come, contained in the rest of this book.

Re 1:20

1:20 {14} The mystery of the seven stars which thou sawest in my right hand, and the seven golden candlesticks. The seven stars are the {l} angels of the seven churches: and the seven candlesticks which thou sawest are the seven churches.

      (14) That is, the thing which was mystical signified by the particulars of the vision before going.
      (l) By angels he means the ministers of the Church.

Chapter 2

Re 2:1

2:1 Unto {1} the angel of the church of Ephesus write; {2} These things saith he that holdeth the seven stars in his right hand, who walketh in the midst of the seven golden candlesticks;

      (1) The former part of this book is comprised in a narration of those things which then were, as John taught us, in Re 1:19 it belongs wholly to instruction, and in these two next chapters, contains seven places, according to the number and condition of those churches which were named before in Re 1:11 shown in Re 1:12 and distributed most aptly into their pastors and flocks, Re 1:10 which verse of that chapter is a passage to the first part. Every one of these seven passages has three principal parts, an introduction taken from the person of the reprehension of that which is evil: an instruction, containing either an exhortation alone, or a dissuasion opposite to it, and a conclusion stirring to attention, by divine promises. This first passage is to the pastors of the church of Ephesus.
      (2) The introduction in which are contained the special prayers of Christ Jesus the author of this prophecy out of Re 1:6,13 .

Re 2:2

2:2 {3} I know thy works, and thy labour, and thy patience, and how thou canst not bear them which are evil: and thou hast tried them which say they are apostles, and are not, and hast found them liars:

      (3) The proposition first condemning the pastor of this church Re 2:2,3 then reproving him Re 2:4 after informing him, and threatening that he will move the church to another place Re 2:5 . This threat of divine vengeance Christ mitigates by a type of correction, calling to mind the particular virtue and piety of the Church, which God never leaves without recompense Re 2:6 . Concerning the Nicolaitans, see Re 2:15 .

Re 2:4

2:4 Nevertheless I have [somewhat] {a} against thee, because thou hast left thy first love.

      (a) To deal with you for.

Re 2:7

2:7 {4} He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches; To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the tree of life, which is in {5} the midst of the {b} paradise of God.

      (4) The conclusion containing a commandment of attention, and a promise of everlasting life, shown in a figure; Ge 2:9 .
      (5) That is, in paradise after the manner of the Hebrew phrase.
      (b) Thus Christ speaks as he is mediator.

Re 2:8

2:8 {6} And unto the angel of the church in {c} Smyrna write; These things saith the first and the last, which was dead, and is alive;

      (6) The second passage is to the pastors of the church of the Smyrnians. The introduction is taken out of Re 1:17,18 .
      (c) Smyrna was one of the cities of Ionia in Asia.

Re 2:9

2:9 {7} I know thy works, and tribulation, and poverty, (but thou art rich) and [I know] the blasphemy of them which say they are Jews, and are not, but [are] the synagogue of Satan.

      (7) The proposition of praise is in this verse, and of exhortation joined with a promise, is in Re 2:10 .

Re 2:10

2:10 Fear none of those things which thou shalt suffer: behold, the devil shall cast [some] of you into prison, that ye may be tried; and ye shall have {8} tribulation ten days: be thou faithful unto death, and I will give thee a crown of life.

      (8) That is, of ten years. For so commonly both in this book and in Daniel, years are signified by days: that God by this might declare, that the space of time is appointed by him and the same very short. Now because John wrote this book in the end of Domitian the Emperor's reign, as Justinus and Ireneus do witness, it is altogether necessary that this should be referred to that persecution which was done by the authority of the emperor Trajan: who began to make havock of the Christian church in the tenth year of his reign, as the historians do write: and his bloody persecution continued until Adrian the emperor had succeeded in his stead: The space of which time is precisely ten years, which are here mentioned.

Re 2:11

2:11 {9} He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches; He that overcometh shall not be hurt {10} of the second death.

      (9) The conclusion, as in Re 2:7 .
      (10) See Re 10:6 .

Re 2:12

2:12 {11} And to the angel of the church in {d} Pergamos write; These things saith he which hath the sharp sword with two edges;

      (11) The third passage is to the pastors of Pergamos. The introduction is taken from Re 1:16 .
      (d) Pergamos was the name of a famous city of old in Asia, where the kings of the Attalians were always resident.

Re 2:13

2:13 {12} I know thy works, and where thou dwellest, [even] where Satan's seat [is]: and thou holdest fast my name, and hast not denied my faith, even in {e} those days wherein Antipas [was] my faithful martyr, who was slain among you, where Satan dwelleth.

      (12) The proposition of praise is in this verse, of reprehension in the two following, and of exhortation joined with a conditional threat Re 2:16 . Now this Antipas was the angel or minister of the church of Pergamos, as Aretas writes.
      (e) The faith of those at Pergamos is so much the more highly commended, because they remained constant even in the very heat of persecution.

Re 2:14

2:14 But I have a few things against thee, because thou hast there them that hold the doctrine of Balaam, who taught Balac to cast a stumblingblock before the children of Israel, to {f} eat things sacrificed unto idols, and to commit fornication.

      (f) That which is here spoken of things offered to idols, is meant of the same type which Paul speaks of in 1Co 10:14 .

Re 2:15

2:15 So hast thou also them that hold the doctrine of the {13} Nicolaitans, which thing I hate.

      (13) Which follow the footsteps of Balaam, and such as are abandoned to all filthiness, as he showed in the verse before, and is here signified by a note of similarity, and thus also must Re 2:6 be understood. For this matter especially Ireneus must be consulted as well.

Re 2:17

2:17 {14} He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches; To him that overcometh will I give to eat {15} of the hidden {g} manna, and will give him a {h} {16} white stone, and in the stone a new {17} name written, which no man knoweth saving he that receiveth [it].

      (14) The conclusion, by way of exhortation as before, and of promise.
      (15) The bread of life, invisible, spiritual, and heavenly, which is kept secretly with God, from before all eternity.
      (g) He alludes to Ps 105:40 Joh 6:26-59 .
      (h) Arethas writes that such a stone was given to wrestlers at games, or else that such stones did in old time witness the leaving of a man.
      (16) Which is a sign and witness of forgiveness and remission of sins, of righteousness and true holiness, and of purity uncorrupted after the sin nature is destroyed.
      (17) A sign and testimony of newness of life in righteousness and true holiness, by putting on the new man, whom no one inwardly knows, but the spirit of man which is in him, which is not praised by men, but by God; Ro 2:28 .

Re 2:18

2:18 And unto {18} the angel of the church in Thyatira write; These things saith the Son of God, who hath his eyes like unto a flame of fire, and his feet [are] like fine brass;

      (18) The fourth passage is to the pastors of Thyatira. The introduction is taken from Re 1:14,15 .

Re 2:19

2:19 I know {19} thy works, and charity, and {i} service, and faith, and thy patience, and thy works; and the last [to be] more than the first.

      (19) The note of praise is in this verse, and in Re 2:20 reprehension, for they tolerated with them the doctrine of unrighteousness and ungodliness. In Re 2:21 , though they were called back to God, they did not repent. To this he adds even stronger threats and in Re 3:2-5 he gives a conditional promise and an exhortation to hold fast the truth
      (i) So he calls those offices of charity which are done to the saints.

Re 2:20

2:20 Notwithstanding I have a few things against thee, because thou sufferest that woman Jezebel, which calleth herself a prophetess, to teach and to seduce my servants to commit {k} fornication, and to eat things sacrificed unto idols.

      (k) Often in the scripture, by fornication they mean idolatry.

Re 2:24

2:24 But unto you I say, and unto the rest in Thyatira, as many as have not this doctrine, and which have not known the {l} depths of Satan, as they speak; I will {m} put upon you none other burden.

      (l) He points out the bragging of certain men, who boasted of their deep, that is, plentiful and common knowledge, which nonetheless is devilish.
      (m) I will speak no worse thing against you, being content to have showed you what I require to be in you.

Re 2:26

2:26 {20} And he that overcometh, and keepeth my works unto the end, to him will I give {21} power over the nations:

      (20) The conclusion, in which Christ assures to his servants the communion of his kingdom and glory, in this verse, and that following: and commands a holy attention in the last verse Re 2:29 .
      (21) That is, I will make him a king, by communion with me, and my fellow heir, as it is promised; Mt 19:28,25:34, Ro 8:17, 1Co 6:3, Eph 2:6, 2Ti 2:12 .

Re 2:27

2:27 {22} And he shall rule them with a rod of iron; as the vessels of a potter shall they be broken to shivers: even as I received of my Father.

      (22) The brightness of greatest glory and honour nearest approaching to the light of Christ, who is the Son of righteousness, and our head; Mt 4:14,16 .

Chapter 3

Re 3:1

3:1 And unto the angel of the church in {a} Sardis {1} write; These things saith he that hath the seven Spirits of God, and the seven stars; I know thy works, that thou hast a {b} name that thou livest, and art dead.

      (a) Sardis is the name of a most flourishing and famous city, where the kings of Lydia kept their courts.
      (1) The fifth passage is to the pastors of Sardis. The introduction is taken from Re 1:4,16 .
      (b) You are said to live, but are dead indeed.

Re 3:2

3:2 Be watchful, and strengthen the things which remain, that are {c} ready to die: for I have not found thy works perfect before God.

      (c) Other things, whose state is such, that they are now going, and unless they are confirmed, will perish without delay.

Re 3:4

3:4 Thou hast a few names even in Sardis {3} which have not defiled their garments; and they shall walk with me in {4} white: for they are {d} worthy.

      (3) That is, who have with all religion guarded themselves from sin and moral corruption, even from the very show of evil; Jude 1:23 .
      (4) Pure from all spot, and shining with glory. So it is to be understood always hereafter, as in Re 3:5 .
      (d) They are suitable and proper, that is, because they are justified in Christ, as they have truly showed it: for he who acts righteously is righteous in the same way that a tree bears good fruit; Ro 8:18 .

Re 3:7

3:7 {6} And to the angel of the church in Philadelphia write; These things saith he that is holy, he that is true, he that hath the {e} key of David, he that openeth, and no man shutteth; and shutteth, and no man openeth;

      (6) The sixth passage is to the pastors of Philadelphia. The introduction is taken from Re 1:18 .
      (e) All power of rule in commanding and forbidding, in delivering and punishing. The house of David is the Church, and the continual promise of David's kingdom belongs to Christ.

Re 3:8

3:8 {7} I know thy works: behold, I have set before thee an open door, and no man can shut it: for thou hast a little strength, and hast kept my word, and hast not denied my name.

      (7) The note of praise is in this verse of promises, and Re 3:9 to bring home again them that wander, in Re 3:10 to preserve the godly and in Re 3:11 to exhort.

Re 3:9

3:9 Behold, I will make them {f} of the synagogue of Satan, which say they are Jews, and are not, but do lie; behold, I will make them to come {8} and worship before thy feet, and to know that I have loved thee.

      (f) I will bring them to that case.
      (8) That is, fall down and worship either you civilly, or Christ religiously at thy feet (this is how I would rather take it) whether here in the Church (which seems more proper to the argument here) or there in the world to come, for Christ shall truly fulfil his word.

Re 3:10

3:10 Because thou hast {g} kept the word of my patience, I also will keep thee from the hour of temptation, which shall come upon all the world, to try them that dwell upon the earth.

      (g) Because you have been patient and constant, as I would have my servants be.

Re 3:12

3:12 {9} Him that overcometh will I make a pillar in the temple of my God, and he shall go no more out: {10} and I will write upon him the name of my God, and the name of the city of my God, [which is] new Jerusalem, which cometh down out of heaven from my God: and [I will write upon him] my new name.

      (9) The conclusion which contains a promise, and a commandment.
      (10) That is, the new man shall be called after his father, mother, and his head Christ.

Re 3:14

3:14 {11} And unto the angel of the church of the Laodiceans write; These things saith the {h} Amen, the faithful and true witness, the {i} beginning of the creation of God;

      (11) The seventh passage is to the pastors of the Church of Laodicea. The introduction is taken out of Re 1:5 .
      (h) Amen sounds as much in the Hebrew tongue, as truly, or truth itself.
      (i) Of who all things that are made, have their beginning.

Re 3:15

3:15 {12} I know thy works, that thou art neither cold nor hot: I would thou wert cold or hot.

      (12) The proposition of reproof is in this verse, and in Re 3:16 a threat while in Re 3:17 a confirmation declares the same. To faith and repentance in Re 3:18,19 a conditional promise is added in Re 3:20 .

Re 3:17

3:17 Because thou sayest, I am rich, and increased with goods, and have need of nothing; and knowest not that thou art wretched, and miserable, {13} and poor, and blind, and naked:

      (13) The spiritual misery of men is metaphorically expressed in three points which are matched as corresponds to those remedies offered in Re 3:18 .

Re 3:19

3:19 As many as I love, I rebuke and chasten: be {k} zealous therefore, and repent.

      (k) Zeal is set against those who are neither hot nor cold.

Re 3:20

3:20 Behold, I stand at the door, and knock: {14} if any man hear my voice, and open the door, I will come in to him, and will sup with him, and he with me.

      (14) This must be taken after the manner of an allegory; Joh 14:23 .

Re 3:21

3:21 {15} To him that overcometh will I grant to sit with me in my throne, even as I also overcame, and am set down with my Father in his throne.

      (15) The conclusion, consisting of a promise, as in Re 2:26 and of an exhortation.

Chapter 4

Re 4:1

4:1 After {1} this I looked, and, behold, a door [was] opened in heaven: and the first voice which I heard [was] as it were of a trumpet talking with me; which said, Come up hither, and I will shew thee things which must be hereafter.

      (1) Hereafter follows the second part of this book, altogether prophetical foretelling those things which were to come, as was said in Re 1:19 . This is divided into two histories: one common to the whole world, till Chapter 9 and another unique to the Church of God, till Chapter 22. These histories are said to be described in several books Re 5:1,10:2 . Now this verse is a passage from the former part to this second: where it is said, that heaven was opened, that is, that heavenly things were unlocked and that a trumpet sounded in heaven, to stir up the apostle, and call him to the understanding of things to come. The first history has two parts: one the causes of things done and of this whole revelation in this next chapter, another of the acts done in the next four chapters. The principal causes according to the economy or dispensation of it, are two: One the beginning, which none can approach, that is, God the Father, of whom is spoken in this chapter. The other, the Son, who is the secondary cause, easy to be approached, in that he is God and man in one person; Re 5:5-9 .

Re 4:2

4:2 And {2} immediately I was {a} in the spirit: {3} and, behold, a throne was set in heaven, and [one] sat on the throne.

      (2) The manner of revelation:
      (a) See Re 1:10 .
      (3) A description of God the Father, and of his glory in the heavens, explained to men by his office, nature, attending company, effect, instruments and events that follow afterwards. In this verse he is presented in office as a judge as Abraham said; Ge 18:25 which is declared by his throne as sign of judgment, and his sitting on it.

Re 4:3

4:3 {4} And he that sat was to look upon like a jasper and a sardine stone: and [there was] a rainbow round about the throne, in sight like unto an emerald.

      (4) By his nature, in that he is the Father, most glorious in his own person, and with his glory outshining all other things.

Re 4:4

4:4 {5} And round about the throne [were] four and twenty seats: and upon the seats I saw four and twenty elders sitting, clothed in white raiment; and they had on their heads crowns of gold.

      (5) By the company attending about him in that, as that most high Judge, he is accompanied with the most honourable attendance of prophets and apostles both of the old and new Church, whom Christ has made to be priests and kings; Re 1:6,5:10 .

Re 4:5

4:5 {6} And out of the throne proceeded lightnings and thunderings and voices: and [there were] seven lamps of fire burning before the throne, which are the seven Spirits of God.

      (6) By effects, in that most mightily he speaks all things by his voice and word, Ps 29:3 and with the light of his Spirit and prudence peruses and passes through all.

Re 4:6

4:6 {7} And before the throne [there was] a sea of glass like unto crystal: and in the midst of the throne, and round about the throne, [were] four beasts full of eyes before and behind.

      (7) By instruments used, in that he has both a most ready treasury and a workhouse excellently furnished with all things, to the executing of his will, which things flow from his commandment, as repeated in Re 15:2 and has also the angels ready administers of his counsel and pleasure to all parts of the world, continually watching,
      (in this verse) working by reason otherwise than the instruments without life last mentioned, courageous as lions, mighty as bulls, wise as men, swift as eagles Re 4:7 most apt to all purposes as furnished with wings on every part, most piercing of sight, and finally, pure and holy spirits always in continual motion Re 4:8 .

Re 4:8

4:8 And the {b} four beasts had each of them six wings about [him]; and [they were] full of eyes within: and they rest not {8} day and night, saying, Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty, which was, and is, and is to come.

      (b) Every beast had six wings.
      (8) By events, in that for all the causes before mentioned, God is glorified both by angels, as holy, Judge, omnipotent, eternal and immutable and also after their example he is glorified by holy men Re 4:9 in sign and speech Re 4:10 .

Re 4:9

4:9 And when those beasts {c} give glory and honour and thanks to him that sat on the throne, who liveth for ever and ever,

      (c) God is said to have glory, honour, kingdom, and such like given to him, when we godly and reverently set forth that which is properly and only his.

Re 4:10

4:10 {9} The four and twenty elders fall down before him that sat on the throne, and worship him that liveth for ever and ever, and cast their crowns before the throne, saying,

      (9) Three signs of divine honour given to God, prostration or falling down, adoration and casting their crowns before God: in which the godly, though made kings by Christ, willingly empty themselves of all glory, moved with a religious respect for the majesty of God.

Re 4:11

4:11 {10} Thou art worthy, O Lord, {11} to receive glory and honour and power: for thou hast created all things, and for thy pleasure they are and were created.

      (10) The sum of their speech: that all glory must be given to God: the reason, because he is the eternal beginning of all things, from whose only will they have their being, and are governed: and finally in all respects are that which they are.
      (11) That is, that you should challenge the same to yourself alone. But as for us, we are unworthy, that even by your goodness we should share in this glory. So far has been discussed the principal cause unapproachable, which is God.

Chapter 5

Re 5:1

5:1 And {1} I saw in the {2} right hand of him that sat on the throne {3} a book written within and on the backside, sealed with seven seals.

      (1) A passing to the second principal cause, which is the Son of God, God and man, the mediator of all, as the eternal word of God the Father, manifest in the flesh. This chapter has two parts: one that prepares the way to the revelation, by rehearsal of the occasions that occurred in the first four verses Re 5:2-5 . Another, the history of the revelation of Christ, from there to the end of the chapter Re 5:6-14 .
      (2) That is, in the very right hand of God.
      (3) Here are shown the occasions for which the principal cause, and this revelation was also necessary: the same are three, the first a present vision of the book of the counsels of God, concerning the government of this whole world, which book is said to be laid up with the Father as it were in his hand: but shut up and unknown to all creature, in this verse. The second is a religious desire of the angels of God to understand the mysteries of this book 1Pe 1:12, Re 5:2 . The third is a lamentation of John and all the godly, moved by the same desire Re 5:4 when they saw that it was an impossible thing for any creature to do: which is declared in Re 5:3 .

Re 5:3

5:3 {4} And no man in heaven, nor in earth, neither under the earth, was able to open the book, neither to look thereon.

      (4) Thus neither of them that are in heaven, nor of them who are in the earth. Now this counting of parts, is sufficient to the denying of the whole; For of the creatures, one sort is in heaven, above the earth: another in the earth, and another under the earth in the sea, as is later declared in Re 5:13 .

Re 5:5

5:5 {5} And one of the elders saith unto me, Weep not: behold, the {6} Lion of the tribe of Juda, the Root of David, hath prevailed to open the book, and to loose the seven seals thereof.

      (5) The second part of this chapter, in which is set down the revelation of the Son, as was said before. This part contains first a history of the way God prepared John to understand this revelation, in this verse. Secondly, the revelation of the Son himself, to Re 5:6,7 . Thirdly, the events of this revelation in the rest of the chapter. The manner now, is here described in two parts: one from outside him, by speech, in this verse: another within, by opening the eyes of John (which before were shut) that he might see, in the verse following.
      (6) That is, most mighty and most approved Prince: according to the use of the Hebrew speech.

Re 5:6

5:6 And I beheld, and, lo, {7} in the midst of the throne and of the four beasts, and in the midst of the elders, stood a Lamb as it had been slain, having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven Spirits of God sent forth into all the earth.

      (7) The sum of this revelation: Christ the mediator takes and opens the book Re 5:6,7 . Therefore this revelation describes the person of Christ. The person is described this way: Christ the mediator between God, angels and men, as the eternal word of God, and our redeemer: as the Lamb of God, standing as slain and making intercession for us by the power and merit of his everlasting sacrifice, is armed with the Spirit of God, that is, with the power and wisdom of God effectually to the government of this whole world.

Re 5:7

5:7 {8} And he came and took the book out of the right hand of him that sat upon the throne.

      (8) The fact of Christ the Mediator: that he comes to open it. That he opened it is first expressed Re 6:1 .

Re 5:8

5:8 {9} And when he had taken the book, the four beasts and four [and] twenty elders fell down before the Lamb, having every one of them {10} harps, and golden vials full of odours, which are the {a} prayers of saints.

      (9) Now follows the end, the events of the revelation previously spoken of: that all the holy angels and men sang to him: both the chief Re 5:9,10 and common order of angels Re 5:11,12 and of all things created Re 5:13 the princes of both sorts agreeing to it, Re 5:14 .
      (10) The symbols or signs of praise, sweet in savour and acceptable to God;
      (a) See Re 8:3 .

Re 5:9

5:9 And they sung a {b} new {11} song, saying, {12} Thou art worthy to take the book, and to open the seals thereof: for thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God by thy blood out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation;

      (b) No common song.
      (11) That is, composed according to the present matter, the Lamb having received the book as it were with his feet and opened it with his horns, as it is said in the Song of Solomon
      (12) The song of the nobles or princes standing by the throne, consisting of a publication of the praise of Christ and a confirmation of the same from his blessings, both which we have received from him (as are the suffering of his death, our redemption upon the cross by his blood, in this verse: and our communion with him in kingdom and priesthood which long ago he has granted to us with himself and which we hereafter hope to obtain, as our kingdom to come, in Christ, Re 5:10 .

Re 5:11

5:11 {13} And I beheld, and I heard the voice of many angels round about the throne and the beasts and the elders: {14} and the number of them was {c} ten thousand times ten thousand, and thousands of thousands;

      (13) The consent of the common order of angels, answering in melody to their princes that stood by the throne.
      (14) A finite number, but almost infinite, as in Da 7:10 .
      (c) This means a great number.

Re 5:12

5:12 Saying with a loud voice, Worthy is the Lamb that was slain to {d} receive power, and riches, and wisdom, and strength, and honour, and glory, and blessing.

      (d) To have all praise given to him, as to the mightest and wisest

Re 5:13

5:13 {15} And every creature which is in heaven, and on the earth, and under the earth, and such as are in the sea, and all that are in them, heard I saying, Blessing, and honour, and glory, and power, [be] unto him that sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb for ever and ever.

      (15) The consent of all the common multitude of the creatures.

Re 5:14

5:14 {16} And the four beasts said, Amen. And the four [and] twenty elders fell down and worshipped him that liveth for ever and ever.

      (16) A confirmation of the praise given before, from the consent of the nobles, expressed in word and signs, as once or twice before this.

Chapter 6

Re 6:1

6:1 And {1} I saw when the Lamb opened one of the seals, and I heard, as it were the noise of thunder, one of the four beasts saying, Come and see.

      (1) This is the second part of this first history (which I said was common and of the whole world) of the works of God in the government of all things. There are generally three parts to this: the forewarning, the caution, and the execution of all the evils which God sends on this world, which was scarcely postponed by him. The forewarning is set down in this chapter, the caution for preserving the Church is in the next chapter, and the execution is described in Re 8:9 In each part of the forewarning, there are three points: the distinct and express calling of John to prepare himself to take knowledge of the things that are to be showed to him in the opening of the seals, the sign, and the word expounding the sign. Though the express calling of John is used in only four of the signs, yet the same is also to be understood in the rest that follow. The author of the forewarnings is the Lamb as that word of the Father made the Mediator, opening the seals of the book. The instruments are the angels in most of the visions, who explain the sign and the words of it. Now this first verse contains an express calling of John to record the opening of the first seal.

Re 6:2

6:2 And {2} I saw, and behold a white horse: and he that sat on him had a bow; and a crown was given unto him: and he went forth conquering, and to conquer.

      (2) The first sign, joined with a declaration, is that because of the sins and horrible rebellion of the world, God will invade the world: and first of all will suddenly, mightily, and gloriously, as if with arrows of pestilence from a distance, beat down the same as Judge, and triumph over it as conqueror.

Re 6:3

6:3 And {3} when he had opened the second seal, I heard the second beast say, Come and see.

      (3) The second sign joined with words of declaration (after the express calling of John as before) is, that God being provoked to wrath by the obstinacy and hard heartedness of the world, not repenting for the former plague: as setting on the same at hand, will cause disputes among men, and will destroy the inhabitants of this world, by the swords of one another.

Re 6:5

6:5 {4} And when he had opened the third seal, I heard the third beast say, Come and see. And I beheld, and lo a black horse; and he that sat on him had a pair of balances in his hand.

      (4) The third sign with declaration is that God will destroy the world with famine, removing all food: which is by Synecdoche comprehended in wheat, barley, wine and oil.

Re 6:6

6:6 And I heard a voice in the midst of the four beasts say, A {a} measure of wheat for a penny, {5} and three measures of barley for a penny; and [see] thou hurt not the oil and the wine.

      (a) It is here signified how little grain there was, for the word used here is a unit of measure for dry things, about an eighth of a bushel, which was a typical daily ration given to servants.
      (5) I would rather interpret and read the words this way, "And the wine and the oil you will not distribute unjustly." In this sense likewise the wine and the oil will be sold a very little for a penny. You will not distribute unjustly, namely, when you measure out a very little for a great price: so are the times evident: otherwise it would be true, as the wise man says, that whoever withholds the grain will be cursed by the people; Pr 11:26 .

Re 6:7

6:7 {6} And when he had opened the fourth seal, I heard the voice of the fourth beast say, Come and see.

      (6) The fourth sign joined with words of declaration is, that God will devote a quarter of the world to death and hell, or the grave, by all those methods at once, who individually and in order he had summoned to change their minds. To these are also added the wild and cruel beasts of the earth Le 16:22 . Thus according to his wisdom, God dispenses the treasures of his power, justly towards all, mercifully towards the good, and with patience or longsuffering towards his enemies.

Re 6:9

6:9 {7} And when he had opened the fifth seal, I saw under the altar the souls of them that were slain for the word of God, and for the testimony which they held:

      (7) The sixth sign is that the holy martyrs who are under the altar, by which they are sanctified, that is, received into the trust and teaching of Christ (into whose hands they are committed) shall cry out for the justice of God, in a holy zeal to advance his kingdom, and not from any private disturbance of the mind, in this and the next verse, and that God will comfort them in deed, sign and word; Re 6:10 .

Re 6:11

6:11 And {8} white robes were given unto every one of them; and it was said unto them, that they should rest yet for a little season, until their fellowservants also and their brethren, that should be killed as they [were], should be {b} fulfilled.

      (8) As before Re 3:4 .
      (b) Until their number is completed

Re 6:12

6:12 {9} And I beheld when he had opened the sixth seal, and, lo, there was a great earthquake; and the sun became black as {c} sackcloth of hair, and the moon became as blood;

      (9) The sixth sign, a narration, has two parts: the sign and the event. The sign is that the earth, heaven, and the things that are in them, for the horror of the sins of the world after those most heavy warnings from God, and complaints of the saints shall be shaken most severely, trembling in horrible manner, and losing their light, in this verse: things falling from heaven Re 6:13 withdrawing themselves and fleeing from the greatness of the trouble Re 6:14 . So completely do all creatures depend on the will of God, and content themselves in his glory.
      (c) So they called in old time those woven works that were of hair.

Re 6:15

6:15 {10} And the kings of the earth, and the great men, and the rich men, and the chief captains, and the mighty men, and every bondman, and every free man, hid themselves in the dens and in the rocks of the mountains;

      (10) The event of the sign before: that there is no man who will not be amazed at that worldwide upheaval, fly away in fear and hide himself in this verse, and wish to die, because of the exceeding horror of the wrath of God, and of the Lamb, at which before he was amazed. Now this confusion is not on the part of the godly but of the wicked, whose portion is in this life; Ps 17:14 . Not that sorrow which is according to God, which works repentance to salvation, of which a man shall never repent him, but that worldly sorrow that brings death; 2Co 7:9 as their wishes declare: for this history of the whole world, is separated from the history of the Church, as I have showed before. See Geneva "Re 4:1"

Re 6:16

6:16 And said to the mountains and rocks, {11} Fall on us, and hide us from the face of him that sitteth on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb:

      (11) These are words of those who despair of escape: of the cause of this despair there are two arguments, the presence of God and the Lamb provoked to wrath against the world, in this verse: and the awareness of their own weakness, feeling that they are not able to survive the day of the wrath of God Re 6:17 as it is said in Isa 14:27 .

Chapter 7

Re 7:1

7:1 And {1} after these things I saw four angels standing on the {a} four corners of the earth, holding the four winds of the earth, that the wind should not blow on the earth, nor on the sea, {2} nor on any tree.

      (1) The second part of this section is a preventing of danger, as we distinguished before in Re 6:1 that is, of the caution of God ahead of time to provide for his, after the example of the Israelites; Ex 8:23 the faithful are exempted from the plagues of this wicked world. This section is a dialogue and bringing in for this whole chapter by occasion of the prediction and argument of the sixth seal. For first harm is withheld from the elect, Re 7:1-9 . Then thanks are given by the elect for that cause Re 7:10-12 . Lastly, the accomplishment of it is set forth to the end of the chapter. The first verse is a transition, speaking of the angels who keep the lesser parts from harm, until God commands. For, as in Eze 10:19 , their faces and their wings reach up, continually waiting on and watching the countenance of God for their direction and every one of them goes into that part that is right before his face: wherever the Spirit goes, they go, they do not step out of the way, not so much as a foot breadth from the path commanded to them by God.
      (a) On the four corners or coasts of the earth.
      (2) That is, neither into the air, into which the trees grow.

Re 7:2

7:2 {3} And I saw {4} another angel ascending from the east, having the seal of the living God: and he cried with a loud voice to the four angels, to whom it was given to hurt the earth and the sea,

      (3) Now God provides against the danger of his elect, by his commandment Re 7:2,3 , and by sign or figure, both for those of the nation of the Jews and also for the Gentiles Re 7:9 .
      (4) Not only another, or differing number from the common angels of God, but also in essence, office and operation exceeding all angels: that is, Christ Jesus the eternal angel or Word of God, and mediator of the covenant, see Re 8:3,10:1,5 .

Re 7:4

7:4 And I heard the number of them which were sealed: [and there were] sealed {5} an hundred [and] forty [and] four thousand of all the tribes of the children of Israel.

      (5) That is, of the Jews a number certain in itself before God, and such as may be numbered of us: for which cause also the same is here set down as certain. But of the elect who are Gentiles, the number indeed is in itself certain with God, but of us not possibly to be numbered, as God, Ge 15:5 . This is spoken with respect, when a certain number is put for one uncertain. Compare with Re 7:9 .

Re 7:7

7:7 Of the tribe of Simeon [were] sealed twelve thousand. {6} Of the tribe of {b} Levi [were] sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Issachar [were] sealed twelve thousand.

      (6) Here the tribe of Levi is listed with the rest, because all the Israelites were equally made priests with them in Christ by his priesthood Ro 12:1 1Pe 2:9 Re 1:6, 5:10 . Dan is not mentioned, because the Danites long before forsaking the worship of God, were fallen away from the fellowship of God's people, to the part of the Gentiles: which evil many ages before Jacob foresaw Ge 49:17 see Geneva "Ge 49:18", and because of which no mention is made of this tribe in the book of Chronicles.
      (b) He skipped Dan, and reckons Levi.

Re 7:8

7:8 Of the tribe of Zabulon [were] sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of {c} Joseph [were] sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Benjamin [were] sealed twelve thousand.

      (c) Of Ephraim, who was Joseph's other son, and had the birthright given him, of which he is called Joseph.

Re 7:9

7:9 After this I beheld, and, lo, a great multitude, {7} which no man could number, of all nations, and kindreds, and people, and tongues, {8} stood before the throne, and before the Lamb, clothed with white robes, and palms in their hands;

      (7) See Geneva "Re 7:4"
      (8) As priests, kings and glorious conquerors by martyrdom: which is noted by the signs in this verse.

Re 7:10

7:10 {9} And cried with a loud voice, saying, Salvation to our God which sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb.

      (9) The praise of God, celebrated first by the holy men, in this verse, then by the heavenly angels, in the two verses following Re 7:11,12 .

Re 7:13

7:13 {10} And one of the elders answered, saying unto me, What are these which are arrayed in white robes? and whence came they?

      (10) A passage over to the explanation of the vision, which the angel enquires of John to stir him up in this verse and John in the form of speech, both acknowledges his own ignorance, attributing knowledge to the angel, and also in a humble manner requests the explanation of the vision.

Re 7:14

7:14 And I said unto him, Sir, thou knowest. And he said to me, {11} These are they which came out of great tribulation, and have washed their robes, and made them white in the blood of the Lamb.

      (11) The explanation of the vision, in which the angel tells first the acts of the saints, that is, their sufferings and work of faith in Christ Jesus, in this verse. Secondly their glory: both present, which consists in two things, that they minister to God, and that God protects them Re 7:15 and to come, in their perfect deliverance from all annoyances Re 7:16 and in participation of all good things which the memory of past hurts shall never be able to diminish Re 7:17 . The cause efficient and which contains all these things is only one, the Lamb of God, the Lord, the Mediator, and the Saviour Christ Jesus.

Re 7:15

7:15 Therefore are they before the throne of God, and serve him {d} day and night in his temple: and he that sitteth on the throne shall dwell {e} among them.

      (d) He alludes to the Levites, who served day and night, for there is no night in heaven.
      (e) Or, upon them, referring to God's defence and protection of those who are as safe, as men in the Lord's tents.

Chapter 8

Re 8:1

8:1 And {1} when he had opened the seventh seal, there was silence in heaven about the space of half an hour.

      (1) He returns to the history of the seals of the book, which the Lamb opens. The seventh seal is the next sign, a precise commandment for the execution of the most severe judgment of God on this wicked world, and being understood by the seal, all things in heaven are silent, and in horror through admiration, until the command to act is given by God to the ministers of his wrath. So he moves to the third part which I spoke of before in Re 6:1 which is the enacting of those evils with which God most justly determined to afflict the world.

Re 8:2

8:2 {2} And I saw the seven angels which {a} stood before God; and to them were given seven trumpets.

      (2) Now follows the third branch of the common history, as even now I said: which is the execution of the judgments of God on the world. This is first generally prepared, down to Re 8:3-6 . The administers of the execution are seven angels: their instruments, trumpets, by which they sound the alarm at the commandment of God. They are seven in number, because it did not please God to deliver all his wrath on the rebellious world at once, but at various times, in segments, and in slow order, and as if unwilling to exercise his judgments on his creatures, so long called on both by word and signs, if perhaps they should decide to repent.
      (a) Who appear before him as his ministers.

Re 8:3

8:3 {3} And another angel came and stood at the altar, having a golden censer; and there was given unto him much incense, that he should offer [it] with the prayers of all saints upon the golden altar which was before the throne.

      (3) This is the great emperor, the Lord Jesus Christ, our King and Saviour, who both makes intercession to God the Father for the saints, filling the heavenly sanctuary with most sweet odour, and offering up their prayers, as the calves and burnt sacrifices of their lips, in this verse: in such manner as every one of them (so powerful is that sweet savour of Christ, and the reliability of his sacrifice) are reconciled with God and made most acceptable to him, Re 8:4 . Then also out of his treasury and from the same sanctuary, the fire of his wrath descends on the world, adding also divine signs to it: and by that means (as of old the heralds of Rome did) he proclaims war against the rebellious world.

Re 8:4

8:4 And the smoke of the incense, [which came] with the prayers of the saints, {b} ascended up before God out of the angel's hand.

      (b) Our prayers are worth nothing, unless the true and sweet savour of that only sacrifice be especially and before all things with them, that is to say, unless we are first of all justified through faith in his Son, acceptable to him.

Re 8:6

8:6 {4} And the seven angels which had the seven trumpets prepared themselves to sound.

      (4) This is the work of the administers. The angels, the administers of Christ, by sounding trumpet and voice (for they are heralds) effectually call forth the instruments of the wrath of God, through his power. Until now, things have been general. Now the narration of specific things follows, which the angels fix in number wrought in their order, set out in Re 8:7 and is concluded with the declaration of the event which followed these things done in the world, and in chapters ten and eleven.

Re 8:7

8:7 {5} The first angel sounded, and there followed hail and fire mingled with blood, and they were cast upon the earth: and the third part of trees was burnt up, and all green grass was burnt up.

      (5) The first execution at the sound of the first angel, on the earth, that is, the inhabitants of the earth (by metonymy) and on all the fruits of it: as comparing this verse with the second part of Re 8:9 does plainly declare.

Re 8:8

8:8 {6} And the second angel sounded, and as it were a great mountain burning with fire was cast into the sea: and the third part of the sea became blood;

      (6) The second execution on the sea, in this verse and all things that are in Re 8:9 .

Re 8:10

8:10 {7} And the third angel sounded, and there fell a great star from heaven, burning as it were a lamp, and it fell upon the third part of the rivers, and upon the fountains of waters;

      (7) The third execution on the floods and fountains, that is, on all fresh water, in this verse: the effect of which is, that many are destroyed by the bitterness of the water, in the verse following.

Re 8:11

8:11 And the name of the star is called {8} Wormwood: and the third part of the waters became wormwood; and many men died of the waters, because they were made bitter.

      (8) This is spoken by metaphor of a commonly known bitter herb: unless perhaps a man following those that note the derivation of words would rather explain it as an adjective for that which cannot be drunk because of its bitterness, causing the liquid it is made into to be more bitter than any man can drink.

Re 8:12

8:12 {9} And the fourth angel sounded, and the third part of the sun was smitten, and the third part of the moon, and the third part of the stars; so as the third part of them was darkened, and the day shone not for a third part of it, and the night likewise.

      (9) The fourth execution on the lights of heaven, which give light to this world.

Re 8:13

8:13 {10} And I beheld, and heard an angel flying through the midst of heaven, saying with a loud voice, Woe, woe, woe, to the inhabiters of the earth by reason of the other voices of the trumpet of the three angels, which are yet to sound!

      (10) A lamentable prediction or foretelling of those parts of the divine execution which yet are behind: which also is a passage to the argument of the next chapter. Of all these things in a manner Christ himself expressly foretold in Lu 21:24 and they are common plagues generally denounced, without particular note of time.

Chapter 9

Re 9:1

9:1 {1} And the fifth angel sounded, and I saw a {2} star fall from heaven unto the earth: {3} and to him was given the key of the {a} bottomless pit.

      (1) The first execution on the wicked men inhabiting the earth
      (as the angel said before) wrought by the infernal powers is declared from here to Re 9:2-11 and after the sixth execution to Re 9:12-19 and lastly is shown the common event that followed the former execution in the world, in the two last verses Re 9:20,21 .
      (2) That is, that the angel of God glittering with glory, as a star fallen from heaven. He may be Christ, who has the keys of hell by himself and by princely authority, Re 1:18 or some inferior angel who has the same key entrusted to him and holds it ministerially, or by office of his ministry, here and Re 20:10 so the word "falling" is taken; Ge 14:10, 24:46, Heb 6:6 .
      (3) The key was given to this star. For those powers of wickedness are sent to hell, bound with chains of darkness and kept there until damnation, unless God lets them loose for a time; 2Pe 2:4, Jude 1:6, Re 20:7 the history of these agrees with this chapter.
      (a) By the bottomless pit, he means the deepest darkness of hell.

Re 9:2

9:2 {4} And he opened the bottomless pit; and there arose a smoke out of the pit, as the smoke of a great furnace; and the sun and the air were darkened by reason of the smoke of the pit.

      (4) To this is added, the smoke of the hellish and infernal dark spirits, darkening all things in heaven and in earth. The spiritual darkness is the cause of all disorder and confusion: For the devil at a certain time sent these spirits into his kingdom, that he might at once and with one action overthrow all things and pervert if it were possible the elect themselves. By this darkness, all spiritual light, both active as of the sun and passive as of the air which is lightened by the sun, is taken away: and this is that which goes before the spirits: it follows of the spirits themselves.

Re 9:3

9:3 {5} And there came out of the smoke locusts upon the earth: and unto them was given power, as the scorpions of the earth have power.

      (5) A description of the malignant spirits invading the world, taken from their nature, power, form and order. From their nature, for that they are like certain locust, in quickness, subtilty, hurtfulness, number, and such like, in this verse. From their power, for that they are as the scorpions of the earth, of a secret force to hurt: for our battle is not here with flesh and blood, but with powers Eph 6:12 This place of the power of the devils, generally noted in this verse, is particularly declared afterwards in Re 9:4-6 .

Re 9:4

9:4 {6} And it was commanded them that they should not hurt the grass of the earth, neither any green thing, neither any tree; but only those men which have not the seal of God in their foreheads.

      (6) Here the power of the devils is described according to their actions and the effects of the same. Their actions are said to be limited by the counsel of God: both because they do not hurt all men, but only the reprobate (for the godly and elect, in whom there is any part of a better life, God guards by his decree) whom Christ shall not have sealed, in this verse: and also because they did not have all power nor at all time, no not over those that are their own, but limited in manner and time, by the prescript of God in Re 9:5 . So their power to afflict the godly is none, and for the wicked is limited in act and in effect, by the will of God: for the manner was prescribed to them that they should not slay, but torment this wretched world. The time is for five months, or for a hundred and fifty days, that is, for so many years, in which the devils have indeed mightily perverted all things in the world: and yet without that public and unpunished license of killing, which afterwards they usurped when the sixth angel had blown his trumpet, as shall be said in Re 9:13 . Now this space is to be accounted from the end of that thousand years mentioned in Re 20:3 and that is from the reign of pope Gregory the seventh, a most monstrous Necromancer, who before was called Hidebrandus Senensis: for this man being made altogether of impiety and wickedness, as a slave of the devil, whom he served, was the most wicked firebrand of the world: he excommunicated the emperor Henry the fourth: went about by all manner of treachery to set up and put down Empires and kingdoms as he liked: and did not hesitate to set Rodolph the Swedon over the Empire instead of Henry, sending to him a crown, with this verse annexed to it: "Petra dedid Petro, Petrus diadema Rodolpho" that is, "The Rock to Peter gave the Crown, and Peter Rodolph doth renown". Finally, he so finely bestirred himself in his affairs, as he miserably set all Christendom on fire, and conveyed over to his successors the burning brand of the same who enraged with like ambition, never ceased to nourish that flame, and to kindle it more and more: by which cities, commonwealths and whole kingdoms set together by the ears amongst themselves by most expert cut-throats, came to ruin, while they miserably wounded one another. This term of a hundred and fifty years, ends in the time of Gregory the ninth or Hugolinus Anagniensis (as he was called before) who caused Raimond his chaplain and confessor to compile the writings of Decretals, and by permission of the kings and princes, published them in the Christian world, and established them as Law: For by this trick at length the popes gave themselves licence to kill whom they would, while others were unaware: and without fear established a butchery out of many of the wicked Canons of the Decretals, which the trumpet of the fifth angel had expressly forbidden and had hindered until this time. The effects of these bloody actions are declared in Re 9:6 that the miserable world languishing in so great calamities, should willingly seek death and prefer the it over life, by reason of the severity of the miseries that oppressed them.

Re 9:7

9:7 {7} And the shapes of the locusts [were] like unto horses prepared unto battle; and on their heads [were] as it were crowns like gold, and their faces [were] as the faces of men.

      (7) The form of these hellish spirits and administers, is outlined by signs and visible figures in this manner: that they are very expert and swift: that wherever they are in the world, the kingdom is theirs: that they manage all their affairs with cunning and skill, in this verse: that making show of mildness and tender affection to draw on men with, they most impudently rage in all mischief: that they are most mighty to do hurt Re 9:8 that they are freed from being hurt by any man, as armed with the colour of religion and sacred authority of privilege: that they fill all things with horror, Re 9:9 that they are fraudulent: that they are poisonous and extremely offensive though their power is limited. Re 9:10 . All these things are found in the infernal powers and communicated by them to their ministers and vassals.

Re 9:11

9:11 {8} And they had a king over them, [which is] the angel of the bottomless pit, whose name in the Hebrew tongue [is] Abaddon, but in the Greek tongue hath [his] name Apollyon.

      (8) The order of powers of maliciousness: that they are subject to one infernal king, whom you may call, The Destroyer: who drives the whole world both Jews and Gentiles into the destruction that belongs to himself. I cannot tell whether this name has respect to the etymological interpretation of Hildebrand, by a figure often used in the Holy Scripture: which albeit it may otherwise be turned of the Germans (as the sense of compound words is commonly ambiguous) yet in very deed it signifies as much as if you should call him, the firebrand, that is, he that sets on fire those that are faithful to him.

Re 9:12

9:12 {9} One woe is past; [and], behold, there come two woes more hereafter.

      (9) A passage to the next point and the history of the time following.

Re 9:13

9:13 {10} And the sixth angel sounded, {11} and I heard a voice from the {b} four horns of the golden altar which is before God,

      (10) The sixth execution done on the world by the tyrannical powers of it, working in the four parts of the earth, that is, in most cruel manner execution their tyrannous dominion through out the whole world: and killing the miserable people without punishment, which before was not lawful for them to do in that sort, as I showed in Re 9:4 . This narration has two parts: a commandment from God, in Re 9:14 and an execution of the commandment, in Re 9:15 .
      (11) The commandment given by Christ himself, who is governor over all.
      (b) He alludes to the altar of incense, which stood in the court which the priests were in, opposite the Ark of the Covenant, having a veil between them.

Re 9:14

9:14 Saying to the sixth angel which had the trumpet, {12} Loose the four angels which are bound in the great river Euphrates.

      (12) As if he should have said, these till now have been bound by the power of God, that they could not freely run over all men as they lusted, but were held and restrained at that great river of Euphrates, that is, in their spiritual Babylon (or this is a paraphrase of the spiritual Babylon, by the limits of the visible Babylon long since overthrown) that they might not commit those horrible slaughters, which they long breathed after. Now go to it, let loose those four angels, that is, administers of the wrath of God, in that number that is convenient to the slaughtering of the four quarters of the world: stir them up and give them the bridle, that rushing out of that Babylon of theirs, which is the seat of the wicked ones, they may fly over all the world, therein to rage, and most licentiously to practise their tyranny, as God has ordained. This was done when Gregory the ninth by public authority established as Law, his own Decretals, by which he might freely lay traps for the life of simple men. For who is it that sees not that the laws of Decretal, most of them are snares to catch souls with? Since that time (O good God) how many great slaughters have there been? How many great massacres? All history is full of them: and this our age abounds with most horrible and monstrous examples of the these.

Re 9:15

9:15 {13} And the four angels were loosed, which were prepared for an hour, and a day, and a month, and a year, for to slay the third part of men.

      (13) The execution of the commandment is in two parts: one, that those butchers are let loose, that out of their tower of the spiritual Babylon they might with fury run abroad through all the world, as well the chief of that crew who are most prompt to all the work, in this verse: as their multitudes, both most copious, of which a number certain is named for a number infinite Re 9:16 and in themselves by all means fully furnished to hide and to hurt Re 9:17 as being armed with fire, smoke and brimstone, as appears in the colour of this armour, which dazzles the eyes to all men, and have the strength of lions to cause pain, from which (as out of their mouth) the fiery, smoky, and stinking darts of the pope are shot out Re 9:18 The other part, that these butchers have effected the commandment of God by fraud and violence, in the two verses following Re 9:16,17 .

Re 9:19

9:19 For their power is in their mouth, and in their tails: {14} for their tails [were] like unto serpents, and had heads, and with them they do hurt.

      (14) That is, they are harmful on all sides: on whatever part you put your hand to them, or they touch you, they do hurt. So the former are called Scorpions, Re 9:3 .

Re 9:20

9:20 {15} And the rest of the men which were not killed by these plagues yet repented not of the works of their hands, that they should not worship devils, and idols of gold, and silver, and brass, and stone, and of wood: which neither can see, nor hear, nor walk:

      (15) Now remains the event (as I said on the first verse), see Geneva "Re 9:1" which followed so many grievous judgments in the most wicked world, namely an impenitent affirmation of the ungodly in their impiety and unrighteousness, though they feel themselves most vehemently pressed with the hand of God: for their obstinate ungodliness is showed in this verse: and their unrighteousness in the verse following Re 9:21 . So far has been the general history of things to be done universally in the whole world: which because it does not so much belong to the Church of Christ, is therefore not so expressly distinguished by certainty of time and other circumstances, but is woven, as they say, with a slight hand. Also there is no other reason why the history of the seventh angel is passed over in this place, then for that the same more properly appertains to the history of the Church. But this is more diligently set out according to its time, Re 11:16 as shall appear on those places.

Chapter 10

Re 10:1

10:1 And {1} I saw {2} another mighty angel come down from heaven, clothed with a cloud: and a rainbow [was] upon his head, and his face [was] as it were the sun, and his feet as pillars of fire:

      (1) Now John passes to the other prophetical history, which is of the Church of God, as I showed that this book should be distinguished Re 4:1 . This story goes from here to Re 22:1 . This whole chapter is a transition from the common history of the world to that which is particular of the Church. There are in this transition or passage, two preparatives as it were, to this Church story comprised in this whole chapter. One is the authority of Christ revealing his mysteries and calling his servant, to Re 10:7 . The other is John, his calling proper to this place, and repeated from before to the end of this chapter. Authority is given to this revelation, by these things: first, by the appearing from heaven in this habit and countenance, strong, ready glorious surveying all things by his providence, and governing them by his omnipotence Re 10:1 . Secondly, that he brought not by chance, but out of a book, this open revelation, set forth to the eye, to signify the same to the sea and land, as the Lord over all Re 10:2 . Thirdly that he offered the same not whispering or muttering in a corner (as false prophets do) but crying out with a loud voice to those who sleep, and with a lionish and terrible noise roused the secure: the very thunders themselves giving testimony to it Re 10:3 . Lastly, for that he confirmed all by another Re 10:5-7 .
      (2) Christ Jesus, see Re 7:2

Re 10:2

10:2 And he had in his hand a {3} little book open: and he set his right foot upon the sea, and [his] left [foot] on the earth,

      (3) Namely, a special book of the affairs of God's Church: For the book that contains things belonging to the whole world, is said to be kept with the Creator Re 5:1 but the book of the Church, with the Redeemer: and out of this book is taken the rest of the history of this Apocalypse.

Re 10:4

10:4 {4} And when the seven thunders had uttered their voices, I was about to write: and I heard a voice from heaven saying unto me, {a} Seal up those things which the seven thunders uttered, and write them not.

      (4) A godly care is laudable, but must be married with knowledge. Therefore nothing is to be done but by the calling of God, which must be expected and waited for by the godly.
      (a) Keep them secret.

Re 10:5

10:5 And the angel which I saw stand upon the sea and upon the earth {b} lifted up his hand to heaven,

      (b) This was a gesture used of one that swears, which men do now use.

Re 10:6

10:6 And sware by him that liveth for ever and ever, who created heaven, and the things that therein are, and the earth, and the things that therein are, and the sea, and the things which are therein, {5} that there should be {c} time no longer:

      (5) Neither time itself, nor the things that are in time: but that the world to come is at hand, which is altogether of eternity, and beyond all times.
      (c) There shall never be any more time.

Re 10:7

10:7 But in the days of the {6} voice of the seventh angel, when he shall begin to sound, the mystery of God should be finished, as he hath declared to his servants the prophets.

      (6) See Re 11:15, 16:17 .

Re 10:8

10:8 {7} And the voice which I heard from heaven spake unto me again, and said, Go [and] take the little book which is open in the hand of the angel which standeth upon the sea and upon the earth.

      (7) The other part of this chapter concerning the particular calling of John to the receiving of the following prophecy, which is enjoined him, first by sign, in three verses, then in plain words in the last verse Re 10:9,10,11 . To the setting forth of the sign belong these things: That John is taught from heaven to ask for the book of the prophecy in this verse: for these motions and desires God inspires that asking for the book, he is charged to take it in a figurative manner, the use of which is expounded in Re 10:9
      (as in) Eze 2:9 whence this similitude is borrowed: lastly that John at the commandment of Christ took the book, and found by experience that the same as proceeding from Christ, was most sweet, but in that it foretells the afflictions of the Church, it was most bitter to his spirit.

Re 10:11

10:11 {8} And he said unto me, Thou must prophesy again before many peoples, and nations, and tongues, and kings.

      (8) A simple and plain declaration of the sign before, witnessing the divine calling of John, and laying on him the necessity of it.

Chapter 11

Re 11:1

11:1 And there {1} was given me a reed like unto a rod: and the angel stood, saying, Rise, and {2} measure the temple of God, and the altar, and them that worship therein.

      (1) The authority of the intended revelation being declared, together with the necessity of that calling which was particularly imposed on John after which follows the history of the estate of Christ his Church, both conflicting or warring, and overcoming in Christ. For the true Church of Christ is said to fight against that which is falsely so called, over which Antichrist rules, Christ Jesus overthrowing Antichrist by the spirit of his mouth: and Christ is said to overcome most gloriously until he shall slay Antichrist by the appearance of his coming, as the apostle teaches in 2Th 2:8 . So this history has two parts: One of the state of the Church conflicting with temptations until Chapter 16. The other of the state of the same church obtaining victory, thence to Chapter 20. The first part has two sections most conveniently distributed into their times, of which the first contains a history of the Christian Church for 1260 years, what time the gospel of Christ was as it were taken up from among men into heaven: the second contains a history of the same Church to the victory perfected. These two sections are briefly, though distinctly propounded in this chapter, but both of them are discoursed after in due order. For we understand the state of the Church conflicting, out of Chapters 12 and 13, and of the same growing out of afflictions, out of Chapters 14 to 16. Neither did John unknowingly join together the history of these two times in this chapter, because here is spoken of prophecy, which all confess to be but one just and immutable in the Church, and which Christ commanded to be continual. The history of the former time reaches to Re 11:2-14 , the latter is set down in the rest of this chapter Re 11:15-19 . In the former are shown these things: the calling of the servants of God in Re 11:4 the conflicts which the faithful must undergo in their calling, for Christ and his Church, thence to Re 11:5-10 and their resurrection, and receiving up into heaven to Re 11:11-14 . In the calling of the servants of God, two things are mentioned: the begetting and settling of the Church in two verses, and the education of it in two verses. The begetting of the Church is here commended to John by sign and by speech: the sign is a measuring rod, and the speech a commandment to measure the Temple of God, that is, to reduce the same to a new form: because the Gentiles are already entered into the Temple of Jerusalem, and shall shortly defile and overthrow it completely.
      (2) Either that of Jerusalem's, which was a figure of the Church of Christ, or that heavenly model in Re 11:19 but I like the first better, and the things following all agree to it. The sense therefore is, you see all things in God's house, almost from the passion of Christ, to be disordered: and not only the city of Jerusalem, but also the court of the Temple is trampled under foot by the nations, and by profane men whether Jews or strangers: and that only this Temple, that is, the body of the Temple, with the altar, and a small company of good men who truly worship God, do now remain, whom God sanctifies and confirms by his presence. Measure therefore this, even this true Church, or rather the true type of the true Church, omitting the rest, and so describe all things from me, that the true Church of Christ may be as it were a very little centre, and the Church of Antichrist as the circle of the centre, every way in length and breadth compassing about the same, that by way of prophecy you may so declare openly, that the state of the Temple of God, and the faithful who worship him, that is, of the Church, is much more upright than the Church of Antichrist.

Re 11:2

11:2 {3} But the {a} court which is without the temple {b} leave out, and measure it not; for it is given unto the {4} Gentiles: and the holy city shall they tread under foot {5} forty [and] two months.

      (3) As if he should say, it is not your place to judge those who are outside, 1Co 5:12 who are innumerable: look to those of the household only, or to the house of the living God.
      (a) He speaks of the outer court, which was called the peoples court, because all men might come into that.
      (b) That is counted to be cast out, which in measuring is refused as profane.
      (4) To profane persons, wicked and unbelievers, adversaries to the Church.
      (5) Or a thousand, two hundred and sixty days, as is said in Re 11:3 : that is, a thousand two hundred and sixty years, a day for a year, as often in Ezekiel and Daniel, which I noted before see Geneva "Re 2:10". The beginning of these thousand two hundred and sixty years, we account from the passion of Christ, by which (the partition wall being broken down) we were made from two into one Eph 2:14 . I say, one flock under one shepherd in Joh 10:16 and the end of these years precisely falls into the reign of pope Boniface the eighth, who a little before the end of 1294, entered Rome in the feast of Saint Lucie (as Bergomensis says) having put in prison his predecessor Coelestinus, whom by fraud, under colour of Oracle, he deceived: for which cause it was well said of him, "Intravit ut vulpes, regnavit ut leo, mortuus est ut canis." That is, "He entered like a fox, reigned like a lion, and died like a dog." For if from 1294, you subtract the number of years Christ lived on the earth, you will find there remains just one thousand two hundred and sixty years, which are mentioned in this place and many others.

Re 11:3

11:3 And {6} I will give [power] unto my two witnesses, and they shall {7} prophesy a thousand two hundred [and] threescore days, clothed in sackcloth.

      (6) I would rather translate it "illud" than "illam" the temple than the city: for God says, I will give that temple, and commit it to my two witnesses, that is, to the ministers of the word, who are few indeed, weak and contemptible: but yet two, that is, of such a number as one of them may help another, and one confirm the testimony of another to all men, that from the mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be made good among men; 2Co 13:1 .
      (7) They will exercise their office enjoined by me by the space of those 1260 years, in the midst of afflictions though never so lamentable, which is figuratively shown by the mourning garment.

Re 11:4

11:4 These {8} are the two olive trees, and the two candlesticks standing before the God of the earth.

      (8) That is, the ordinary and perpetual instruments of spiritual grace, peace and light in my Church, which God by his only power preserved in this Temple. See Zec 4:3 .

Re 11:5

11:5 {9} And if any man will hurt them, fire proceedeth out of their mouth, and devoureth their enemies: and if any man will hurt them, he must in this manner be killed.

      (9) The power and surety of the holy ministry, which is truly evangelical, is declared both in earth and in heaven, protecting the administers of it, and destroying its enemies, in this verse, divine power, most mightily showing itself forth in heaven, earth and the sea in Re 11:6 as it is described in 2Co 10:4 according to the promise of Christ in Mr 16:17 . This is the second place (as I said before) of the combats which the servants of God must undergo in the executing of their calling, and of the things that follow the same combats or conflicts are these things to overcome, in these two verses: to be overcome and killed in Re 11:7 After the slaughter follow these things, that the carcasses of the godly, laid abroad in Re 11:8 and being unburied, are scorned, together with cursing and bitter abhorrance Re 11:9 and that therefore congratulations are publicly and privately made in Re 11:10 .

Re 11:7

11:7 {10} And when they shall have {c} finished their testimony, {11} the beast that ascendeth out of the bottomless pit shall make war against them, and shall {12} overcome them, and kill them.

      (10) That is, when they have spent those 1260 years mentioned in Re 11:2,3 in publishing their testimony according to their office.
      (c) When they have done their message.
      (11) Of which after Chapter 13, that beast is the Roman Empire, made long ago of civil, ecclesiastical: the chief head of which was then Boniface the eighth, as I said before: who lifted up himself in so great arrogancy, (says the author of "Falsciculus temporum") that he called himself, Lord of the whole world, as well in temporal causes, as in spiritual: There is a document of that matter, written by the same Boniface most arrogantly, shall I say, or most wickedly, "Ca. unam sanctam, extra de majoritate & obedientia." In the sixth of the Decretals
      (which is from the same author) many things are found of the same argument.
      (12) He shall persecute most cruelly the holy men, and put them to death, and shall wound and pierce through with cursings, both their names and writings. That this was done to very many godly men, by Boniface and others, the histories do declare, especially since the time that the odious and condemned name amongst the multitude, first of the brethren Waldonenses or Lugdunenses, then also of the Fraticels, was pretended, that good men might with more approbation be massacred.

Re 11:8

11:8 And their dead bodies [shall lie] in the {13} street of the great city, which {d} spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt, {14} where also our Lord was crucified.

      (13) That is, openly at Rome: where at that time was a most great crowd of people, the year of Jubile being then first ordained by Boniface to the same end, in the year 1300, an example of which is read in chapter 1 "Extra, de poenitentys & remissionibus." So by one act he committed two wrongs against Christ, both abolishing his truth by restoring the type of the Jubile, and triumphing over his members by wicked superstition. O religious heart! Now that we should understand the things of Rome, John himself is the author, both after in the seventeenth chapter almost throughout, and also in the restriction now next following, when he says, it is that great city (as he calls it) Re 17:18 and is spiritually termed Sodom and Egypt: and that spiritually (for that must here again be repeated from before) Christ was there crucified. For the two first names signify spiritual wickednesses: the latter signifies the show and pretence of good, that is, of Christian and sound religion. Sodom signifies most licentious impiety and in the most confident glorying of that city, as it were in true religion, being yet full of falsehood and ungodliness. Now who is ignorant that these things do rather, and better fit Rome, than any other city? The commendations of the city of Rome for many years past, are publicly notorious, which are not for me to gather together. This only I will say, that he long since did very well see what Rome is, who upon leaving, used these verses: "Roma vale, vidi, Satis est vidisse: revertar, Quumleno, meretrix, scurra, cinadus ero." "Now farewell Rome, I have seen thee, it was enough to see: I will return when as I mean, bawd, harlot knave to be"
      (d) After a more secret type of meaning and understanding.
      (14) Namely in his parts, as also he said to Saul in Ac 9:5

Re 11:9

11:9 And they of the people and kindreds and tongues and nations shall see their dead bodies {15} three days and an half, and shall not suffer their dead bodies to be put in graves.

      (15) That is, for three years and a half: for so many years Boniface lived after his Jubile, as Bergomensis witnesses.

Re 11:10

11:10 And they that dwell upon the earth {16} shall rejoice over them, and make merry, and shall send gifts one to another; because these two prophets {17} tormented them that dwelt on the earth.

      (16) So much the more shall they by this occasion exercise the hilarity of their Jubile.
      (17) The gospel of Christ is the affliction of the world, and the ministry of it, the savour of death to death, to those that perish, 2Co 2:16 .

Re 11:11

11:11 {18} And after {19} three days and an half {20} the Spirit of life from God entered into them, and they {21} stood upon their feet; and great fear fell upon them which saw them.

      (18) The third passage, as noted before, is of the rising again of the prophets from the dead, and their carrying up into heaven. For their resurrection is shown in this verse: their calling and lifting up into heaven, in the verse following.
      (19) That is, what time God shall destroy that wicked Boniface.
      (20) That is, the prophets of God shall in a manner rise again, not the same in person (as they say) but in spirit: that is, in the power and efficacy of their ministry, which John expressed before, in Re 11:5,6 So the prophecy that is spoken of Elijah, is interpreted by the angel to be understood of John the Baptist Lu 1:17 . For the same Boniface himself, who sought to kill and destroy them, was by the fire of God's mouth (which the holy ministry shows and exhibits) devoured and died miserably in prison, by the endeavour of Satra Columensis and Nagaretus a French knight, whom Philip the fair King of France sent into Italy but with a very small power.
      (21) That is, the most grievous heat of afflictions and persecution shall stay for a while, for the great amazement that shall arise on that sudden and unlooked for judgment of God.

Re 11:12

11:12 And they heard a great voice from heaven saying unto them, {22} Come up hither. And they ascended up to heaven in a cloud; {23} and their enemies beheld them.

      (22) They were called by God into heaven, and taken out of this wicked world, into the heavenly Church, which also lies hidden here in the earth, to exercise their calling secretly: of whom this wretched world was unworthy; Heb 11:38 . For the church of the wicked is by comparison called the earth, or the world: and the Church of the godly, heaven. As it was in ancient times among the godly Israelites: so among the Jews in the days of Manasseh and other kings, when the earth refused the heirs of heaven, we read that they lay hidden as heaven in the earth.
      (23) Yet they could not hinder the secret ones of the Lord (as the Psalmist called them) Ps 83:3 but they prospered in his work.

Re 11:13

11:13 {24} And the same hour was there a great earthquake, and the tenth part of the city fell, and in the earthquake were slain of men seven thousand: and the remnant were affrighted, {25} and {e} gave glory to the God of heaven.

      (24) Bergomensis said, in 1301, "This year a blazing star foretelling great calamity to come, appeared in heaven: in which year during the feast of St. Andrew, a great earthquake occurred as never before: it continued for many days, and overthrew many stately houses." This he said of the year following the Jubilee: which John many ages before, expressed word for word.
      (25) They were indeed broken with present astonishment of mind, but did not earnestly repent as they ought to have done.
      (e) Glorified God by confessing his name.

Re 11:14

11:14 {26} The second woe is past; [and], behold, the third woe cometh quickly.

      (26) He passes to the second history, which is the second part of this chapter. John calls these the second and third woe, see Re 9:12 .

Re 11:15

11:15 {27} And the seventh angel sounded; and there were great voices in heaven, saying, {28} The kingdoms of this world are become [the kingdoms] of our Lord, and of his Christ; and he shall reign for ever and ever.

      (27) Of whose sounding the trumpet Christ expressly foretold in Re 10:7 and this is the second part of this chapter, containing a general history of the Christian Church, from the time of Boniface to the consummation of the victory declared by voice from heaven. In this history there are three branches: a preparation by the sound of the angels trumpet: a narration by the voice of heavenly angels and elders and a confirmation by sign.
      (28) The narration has two parts: an acclamation of the heavenly creatures in this verse, and both an adoration by all the elders in Re 11:16 and also a thanksgiving in Re 11:17,18 . The sense of the acclamation is, "Now the Lord has entered his kingdom and has restored his church in which most mightily recovered from the profanation of the Gentiles, he may glorify himself." Namely that, which the Lord ordained when he first ordained his Church, that the faith of the saints does now behold as accomplished.

Re 11:16

11:16 {29} And the four and twenty elders, which sat before God on their seats, fell upon their faces, and worshipped God,

      (29) As before in Re 7:11 . This giving of thanks is altogether of the same content with the words going before.

Re 11:18

11:18 {30} And the nations were angry, and thy wrath is come, and the time of the dead, that they should be judged, and that thou shouldest give reward unto thy servants the prophets, and to the saints, and them that fear thy name, small and great; and shouldest destroy them which destroy the earth.

      (30) A speech of the Hebrew language, as if to say, as Gentiles being angry, your inflamed wrath came on them, and showed itself from heaven, occasioned by their anger and fury.

Re 11:19

11:19 And the temple of God was {31} opened in heaven, and there was seen in his temple the ark of his testament: and there were lightnings, and voices, and thunderings, and an earthquake, and great hail.

      (31) This is the confirmation of the next prophecy before going by signs exhibited in heaven, and that of two sorts, of which some are visible, as the passing away of the heaven, the opening of the temple, the ark of the covenant appearing in the temple, and testifying the glorious presence of God, and the lightning: others apprehended by ear and feeling, which bear witness in heaven and earth to the truth of the judgments of God.

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