1 Samuel
2 Samuel
1 Kings
2 Kings
1 Chronicles
2 Chronicles

Song of Songs



1 Corinthians
2 Corinthians
1 Thessalonians
2 Thessalonians
1 Timothy
2 Timothy

1 Peter
2 Peter
1 John
2 John
3 John

Revelation 1-11
Revelation 12-22

Notes on First Timothy
From the Original 1599 Geneva Bible Notes

1Ti 1:1

1:1 Paul, {1} an apostle of Jesus Christ by the commandment of God our Saviour, and Lord Jesus Christ, [which is] our hope;

      (1) First of all, he affirms his own free vocation and also Timothy's, that the one might be confirmed by the other: and in addition he declares the sum of the apostolic doctrine, that is, the mercy of God in Christ Jesus apprehended by faith, the end of which is yet hoped for.

1Ti 1:2

1:2 Unto Timothy, [my] own son in the faith: Grace, {a} mercy, [and] peace, from God our Father and Jesus Christ our Lord.

      (a) There is as much difference between mercy and grace, as is between the effect and the cause: for grace is that free good will of God, by which he chose us in Christ, and mercy is that free justification which follows it.

1Ti 1:3

1:3 {2} As I besought thee to abide still at Ephesus, when I went into Macedonia, that thou mightest charge some that they teach no other doctrine,

      (2) This whole epistle consists in admonitions, in which all the duties of a faithful pastor are plainly set out. And the first admonition is this, that no innovation is made either in the apostle's doctrine itself, or in the manner of teaching it.

1Ti 1:4

1:4 {3} Neither give heed to fables and endless {b} genealogies, which minister questions, rather than godly edifying which is in faith: [so do].

      (3) The doctrine is corrupted not only by false opinions, but also by vain and curious speculations: the declaration and utterance of which can help our faith in no way.
      (b) He makes note of one type of vain question.

1Ti 1:5

1:5 {4} Now the end of the {c} commandment is {d} charity out of a pure heart, and [of] a good conscience, and [of] faith unfeigned:

      (4) The second admonition is, that the right use and practice of the doctrine must be joined with the doctrine. And that consists in pure charity, and a good conscience, and true faith.
      (c) Of the Law.
      (d) There is neither love without a good conscience, nor a good conscience without faith, nor faith without the word of God.

1Ti 1:6

1:6 {5} From which some having swerved have turned aside unto vain jangling;

      (5) That which he spoke before generally of vain and curious controversies, he applies to those who, pretending a zeal of the Law, dwelled upon outward things, and never made an end of babbling of foolish trifles.

1Ti 1:7

1:7 {6} Desiring to be teachers of the law; understanding neither what they say, nor whereof they affirm.

      (6) There are none more unlearned, and more impudent in usurping the name of holiness, than foolish babblers, who reason fallaciously.

1Ti 1:8

1:8 {7} But we know that the law [is] good, if a man use it lawfully;

      (7) The taking away of an objection: he does not condemn the Law, but requires the right use and practice of it.

1Ti 1:9

1:9 {8} Knowing this, that the law is not made for a {e} righteous man, but for the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and for {f} sinners, for unholy and profane, for murderers of fathers and murderers of mothers, for manslayers,

      (8) He indeed escapes the curse of the Law, and therefore does not abhor it, who fleeing and avoiding those things which the Law condemns, gives himself with all his heart to observe it: and he does not make a vain babbling of outward and curious matters.
      (e) And such a one is he, whom the Lord has endued with true doctrine, and with the Holy Spirit.
      (f) To those who make an art, as it were, of sinning.

1Ti 1:11

1:11 {9} According to the glorious gospel of the blessed God, {10} which was committed to my trust.

      (9) He contrasts fond and vain babbling with, not only the Law, but the Gospel also, which does not condemn, but greatly commends the wholesome doctrine contained in the commandments of God. And therefore he calls it a glorious Gospel, and the Gospel of the blessed God, the power of which these babblers did not know.
      (10) A reason why neither any other Gospel is to be taught than he has taught in the Church, neither after any other way, because there is no other Gospel besides that which God committed to him.

1Ti 1:12

1:12 {11} And I thank Christ Jesus our Lord, who hath {g} enabled me, for that he counted me faithful, putting me into the ministry;

      (11) He maintains of necessity his apostleship against some that did find fault with his former life, debasing himself even to hell, to advance only Christ's only, with which he abolished all those his former doings.
      (g) Who gave me strength, not only when I had no will to do well, but also when I was wholly given to evil.

1Ti 1:13

1:13 Who was before a {h} blasphemer, and a persecutor, and injurious: but I obtained mercy, because I did [it] ignorantly in unbelief.

      (h) These are the meritorious works which Paul brags of.

1Ti 1:14

1:14 And the grace of our Lord was exceeding abundant {12} with faith and love which is in Christ Jesus.

      (12) He proves this change by the effects, because he who was a profane man, has become a believer: and he that did most outrageously persecute Christ, burns now in love towards him.

1Ti 1:15

1:15 {13} This [is] a {i} faithful saying, and worthy of all acceptation, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners; of whom I am chief.

      (13) He turns the reproach of the adversaries upon their own head, showing that this singular example of the goodness of God, contributes greatly to the benefit of the whole Church.
      (i) Worthy to be believed.

1Ti 1:17

1:17 {14} Now unto the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the {k} only wise God, [be] honour and glory for ever and ever. Amen.

      (14) He breaks out into an exclamation, even because of the very zeal of his mind, because he cannot satisfy himself in amplifying the grace of God.
      (k) See Geneva "Joh 17:3"

1Ti 1:18

1:18 {15} This charge I commit unto thee, son Timothy, according to the prophecies which went before on thee, that thou by {l} them mightest war a good warfare;

      (15) The conclusion of both the former fatherly admonitions, that is, that Timothy striving bravely against all stops, being called to the ministry according to many prophecies which went before of him, should both maintain the doctrine which he had received, and keep also a good conscience.
      (l) By the help of them.

1Ti 1:19

1:19 Holding {m} faith, and a good conscience; {16} which some having put away concerning faith have made shipwreck:

      (m) Wholesome and sound doctrine.
      (16) Whoever does not keep a good conscience, loses also by little and little, the gift of understanding. And this he proves by two most lamentable examples.

1Ti 1:20

1:20 Of whom is Hymenaeus and Alexander; {17} whom I have {n} delivered unto Satan, that they may {o} learn not to blaspheme.

      (17) Those who fall from God, and his religion, are not to be endured in the Church, but rather ought to be excommunicated.
      (n) Cast out of the Church, and so delivered them to Satan.
      (o) That by their pain they might learn how serious it is to blaspheme.

1Ti 2:1

2:1 I {1} exhort therefore, that, first of all, supplications, prayers, intercessions, [and] giving of thanks, be made for all men;

      (1) Having dispatched those things which pertain to doctrine, he speaks now in the second place of the other part of the ministry of the word, that is, of public prayers. And first of all, answering the question for whom we ought to pray, he teaches that we must pray for all men, and especially for every type of magistrate. And this thing was at that time somewhat doubted of, seeing that kings, indeed, and most of the magistrates, were at that time enemies of the Church.

1Ti 2:2

2:2 For kings, and [for] all that are in authority; {2} that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and {a} honesty.

      (2) An argument taken of the end: that is, because magistrates are appointed to this end, that men might peaceably and quietly live in all godliness and honesty: and therefore we must commend them especially to God, that they may faithfully execute so necessary an office.
      (a) This word includes every type of duty, which is to be used by men in all their affairs.

1Ti 2:3

2:3 {3} For this [is] good and acceptable in the sight of God our Saviour;

      (3) Another argument, why churches or congregations ought to pray for all men, without any difference of nation, type, age, or order: that is, because the Lord by calling of all types, indeed sometimes those that are the greatest enemies to the Gospel, will have his Church gathered together after this manner, and therefore prayer is to be made for all.

1Ti 2:5

2:5 {4} For [there is] one God, and one mediator between God and men, the {b} man Christ Jesus;

      {4} God should not otherwise be manifested to be the only God of all men, unless he should show his goodness in saving all types of men. Neither should Christ be seen to be the only mediator between God and all types of men, by having taken upon him that nature of man which is common to all men, unless he had satisfied for all types of men, and made intercession for all.
      (b) Christ Jesus who was made man.

1Ti 2:6

2:6 Who gave himself a ransom for all, {5} to be testified in due time.

      (5) A confirmation, because even to the Gentiles is the secret of salvation now revealed and made manifest, the apostle himself being appointed for this office, which he faithfully and sincerely executes.

1Ti 2:7

2:7 Whereunto I am ordained a preacher, and an apostle, (I speak the truth in Christ, [and] lie not;) a teacher of the Gentiles in {c} faith and verity.

      (c) Faithfully and sincerely: and by faith he means wholesome and sound doctrine, and by truth, an upright and sincere handling of it.

1Ti 2:8

2:8 {6} I will therefore that men pray every where, {d} lifting up holy hands, without {e} wrath and {f} doubting.

      (6) He has spoken of the persons for whom we must pray: and now he teaches that the difference of places is taken away: for in times past, only one nation, and in one certain place, came together to public service. But now churches or congregations are gathered together everywhere, (orderly and decently), and men come together to serve God publicly with common prayer. Neither must we strive for the nation, or for the purification of the body, or for the place, but for the mind, to have it clear from all offence, and full of sure trust and confidence.
      (d) He talks of the sign for the thing itself, the lifting up of hands for the calling upon God.
      (e) Without the griefs and offences of the mind, which hinder us from calling upon God with a good conscience.
      (f) Doubting, which is against faith; Jas 1:6 .

1Ti 2:9

2:9 {7} In like manner also, that women adorn themselves in modest apparel, with shamefacedness and sobriety; not with broided hair, or gold, or pearls, or costly array;

      (7) Thirdly, he appoints women to learn in the public assemblies with silence and modesty, being dressed pleasantly, without any overindulgence or excess in their clothing.

1Ti 2:12

2:12 But I suffer not a woman to teach, {8} nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence.

      (8) The first argument, why it is not lawful for women to teach in the congregation, because by this means they would be placed above men, for they would be their masters: and this is against God's ordinance.

1Ti 2:13

2:13 {9} For Adam was first formed, then Eve.

      (9) He proves this ordinance of God, by which the woman is subject to man, first because God made the woman after man, for man's sake.

1Ti 2:14

2:14 {10} And Adam was not {g} deceived, but the woman being deceived was in the transgression.

      (10) Then, because after sin, God gave the woman this punishment, because the man was deceived by her.
      (g) Adam was deceived, but through his wife's means, and therefore she is worthily for this reason subject to her husband, and ought to be.

1Ti 2:15

2:15 {11} Notwithstanding she shall be saved in childbearing, if they continue in faith and charity and holiness with sobriety.

      (11) He adds a comfort by the way, that their subjection does not hinder women from being saved as well as men, if they behave themselves in those duties of marriage in a holy and modest manner, with faith and charity.

1Ti 3:1

3:1 This {1} [is] a true saying, {2} If a man {a} desire the office of a bishop, he desireth a good work.

      (1) Having completed the treatise of doctrine and of the manner of handling of it, as well also of public prayer, he now in the third place comes to the persons themselves, speaking first of pastors, and afterwards of deacons. And he uses a preface, so that the church may know that these are certain and sure rules.
      (2) The office of bishop, or the ministry of the word is not an idle dignity, but a work, and that an excellent work: and therefore a bishop must be furnished with many virtues both at home and abroad. Therefore it is necessary before he is chosen to examine well his learning, his gifts, his abilities, and his life.
      (a) He does not speak here of ambitious seeking, of which there cannot be a worse fault in the Church, but generally of the mind and disposition of man, prepared and disposed to help and edify the Church of God, when and wherever it will please the Lord.

1Ti 3:2

3:2 A bishop then must be blameless, the husband of {b} one wife, vigilant, sober, of good behaviour, given to hospitality, apt to teach;

      (b) Therefore he that shuts out married men from the office of bishops, only because they are married, is antichrist.

1Ti 3:3

3:3 Not {c} given to wine, no striker, not greedy of filthy lucre; but patient, not a brawler, not covetous;

      (c) A common drinker and one that will often partake of it.

1Ti 3:6

3:6 Not a novice, lest being lifted up with pride he fall into the {d} condemnation of the devil.

      (d) Lest by reason that he is advanced to that position, he takes occasion to be proud, which will undo him, and so he fall into the same condemnation that the devil himself has fallen into.

1Ti 3:8

3:8 {3} Likewise [must] the {e} deacons [be] grave, not doubletongued, not given to much wine, not greedy of filthy lucre;

      (3) Likewise the deacons must first be proved, that there may be a good trial of their honesty, truth, sobriety, mind void of covetousness, that they are well instructed in the doctrine of faith, and to be short, of their good conscience and integrity.
      (e) These are those that had to look after the poor.

1Ti 3:9

3:9 Holding the {f} mystery of the faith in a pure conscience.

      (f) The doctrine of the Gospel, which is indeed a mystery: for flesh and blood do not reveal it.

1Ti 3:11

3:11 {4} Even so [must their] wives [be] grave, not slanderers, sober, faithful in all things.

      (4) Regard must also be had for the pastor's and deacon's wives.

1Ti 3:12

3:12 {5} Let the deacons be the husbands of one wife, ruling their children and their own houses well.

      (5) They that have than one wife, at one time, must neither by called to be ministers, nor to be deacons.

1Ti 3:13

3:13 For they that have used the office of a deacon well purchase to themselves a good {g} degree, and {h} great boldness in the faith which is in Christ Jesus.

      (g) Honour and estimation.
      (h) Bold and assured confidence without fear.

1Ti 3:14

3:14 {6} These things write I unto thee, hoping to come unto thee shortly:

      (6) Paul purposing to add many particular things pertaining to the daily office of a pastor, speaks first a word or two concerning his coming to Timothy, that he should be so much the more careful, lest at his coming he might be reproved of negligence.

1Ti 3:15

3:15 But if I tarry long, that thou mayest know how thou oughtest to behave thyself in the {7} house of God, which is the church of the living God, the {i} pillar and ground of the truth.

      (7) The pastor always has to consider how he carries out his duties in the house of the living God, in which the treasure of the truth is kept.
      (i) That is, with regard to man: for the Church rested upon that cornerstone, Christ, and is the preserver of the truth, but not the mother.

1Ti 3:16

3:16 {8} And without controversy great is the mystery of godliness: God was manifest in the flesh, {k} justified in the Spirit, seen of angels, preached unto the Gentiles, believed on in the world, received up into glory.

      (8) There is nothing more excellent than this truth, of which the Church is the keeper and preserver here among men, the ministry of the word being appointed to that end and purpose: for it teaches us the greatest matters that may be thought, that is, that God has become visible in the person of Christ by taking our nature upon him, whose majesty, even though in such great weakness, was manifested in many ways, in so much that the sight of it pierced the very angels. And to conclude, he being preached to the Gentiles was received by them, and is now placed above in unspeakable glory.
      (k) The power of the Godhead showed itself so marvellously in the weak flesh of Christ, that even though he was a weak man, yet all the world knows he was and is God.

1Ti 4:1

4:1 Now {1} the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some shall depart from the {a} faith, giving heed to seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils;

      (1) He contrasts that true doctrine, with false opinions, which he foretells that certain ones who shall fall away from God and his religion, will bring in by the suggestion of Satan, and so that a great number will give ear to them.
      (a) From the true doctrine of God.

1Ti 4:2

4:2 {2} Speaking lies in {b} hypocrisy; having their {c} conscience seared with a hot iron;

      (2) Even though heretics pretend holiness ever so much, yet they have no conscience.
      (b) For they will as it were practise the art of disguised persons and players, so that we may not think they will lie lurking in some one corner or keep any resemblance of being shameful.
      (c) Whose conscience became so hard, that there grew a callous over it, and so became to have a canker in it, and now at length required by very necessity to be burned with a hot iron.

1Ti 4:3

4:3 {3} Forbidding to marry, [and commanding] to abstain from meats, {4} which God hath created {5} to be received {6} with thanksgiving of them which believe and know the truth.

      (3) He sets down two types of this false doctrine, that is, the law of single life, and the difference of meats.
      (4) He proves that he justly called such doctrines devilish, first, because the teachers of them make laws of things which are not their own: for have they created the meats?
      (5) Secondly, because they overthrow with their decrees the reason why they were created by God, that is, that we should use them.
      (6) Thirdly, because by this means they rob God of his glory, who will be honoured in the use of them. And here with this, the apostle declares that we must use the liberality of God solemnly, and with a good conscience.

1Ti 4:4

4:4 {7} For every creature of God [is] good, and nothing to be refused, if it be received with thanksgiving:

      (7) He sets an apostolic rule for taking away the difference of meats, against that false doctrine.

1Ti 4:5

4:5 {8} For it is {d} sanctified by the {e} word of God and prayer.

      (8) He properly uses God's benefits who acknowledges the giver of them by his word, and calls upon him.
      (d) It is so made pure and holy in respect of us, so that we may use it with a good conscience, as received from the Lord's hands.
      (e) We confess and acknowledge that God is the maker and giver of those creatures which we use. Secondly, that we are of the number of those, who through Christ's benefit, have recovered that right over all creatures, which Adam lost by his fall. Thirdly, by our prayers we crave of the Lord that we may use those meats with a good conscience, which we receive from his hands. Fourthly, we make an end of our eating and drinking, with thanksgiving and prayer: and so are our meats sanctified to us.

1Ti 4:6

4:6 {9} If thou put the brethren in remembrance of these things, thou shalt be a good minister of Jesus Christ, nourished up in the words of faith and of good doctrine, whereunto thou hast {f} attained.

      (9) The conclusion with an exhortation to Timothy, to propound these things diligently to the churches, which he had gotten from the apostle even as though he were being fed.
      (f) Never departing from it in the least.

1Ti 4:7

4:7 {10} But refuse profane and old wives' fables, {11} and exercise thyself [rather] unto {g} godliness.

      (10) He contrasts again true doctrine not only with the false and apostate doctrine, but also with all vain and curious wiles.
      (11) It is not only necessary that the minister of the word be sound in doctrine, but also that his life is godly and religious.
      (g) In the true serving of God.

1Ti 4:8

4:8 {12} For bodily exercise profiteth little: but godliness is profitable unto all things, having promise of the life that now is, and of that which is to come.

      (12) Godliness consists in spiritual exercise, and not in outward strictness of life, which though it is something to be esteemed, if it is used correctly, yet it is in no way comparable with godliness. For it profits not in and of itself, but through the benefit of another; but godliness has the promise both of the present life, and of that which is to come.

1Ti 4:9

4:9 {13} This [is] a faithful saying and worthy of all acceptation.

      (13) He goes a little from his matter, and shows that those who give themselves to godliness, even though they are afflicted and reproached, are nonetheless not to be considered miserable as other men are, because they are not afflicted for that reason that other men are, and the end of them both is far different one from the other. For how can God forsake his own, who is bountiful even towards his enemies? And he wishes that this doctrine is well learned by them.

1Ti 4:12

4:12 {14} Let no man despise thy youth; but be thou an example of the believers, in word, in conversation, in charity, in spirit, in faith, in purity.

      (14) Now he returns to that exhortation, showing what are the true virtues of a pastor, by which he may come to be reverenced even though he is young, that is, such speech and life as are witnesses of charity, zeal, faith, and purity. But here there is no mention made of the hooked staff, ring, cloak, and such other foolish and childish toys.

1Ti 4:13

4:13 {15} Till I come, give attendance to reading, to exhortation, to doctrine.

      (15) The private exercise of pastors, is the continual reading of the scriptures, from which they may draw water out of wholesome doctrine and exhortation, both for themselves and for others.

1Ti 4:16

4:16 Take heed unto thyself, and unto the doctrine; continue in them: for in doing this thou shalt both {h} save thyself, and them that hear thee.

      (h) Faith is by hearing, and hearing by preaching: and therefore the ministers of the word are so said to save themselves and others, because in them the Lord has put the word of reconciliation.

1Ti 5:1

5:1 Rebuke {1} not an elder, but intreat [him] as a father; [and] the younger men as brethren;

      (1) Of giving personal reprehensions appropriately, according to the degrees of ages and gender.

1Ti 5:3

5:3 {2} {a} Honour widows that are widows indeed.

      (2) The apostle gives these rules concerning the care of widows.
      (a) Have care of those widows who have need of help.

1Ti 5:4

5:4 {3} But if any widow have children or nephews, let them learn first to shew piety {4} at home, and {5} to requite their parents: {6} for that is good and acceptable before God.

      (3) Widow's children and nephews must take care of their parents according to their ability.
      (4) The first reason, because that which they bestow upon their parents, they bestow it upon themselves.
      (5) Another, because nature itself teaches us to repay our parents.
      (6) The third: because this duty pleases God.

1Ti 5:5

5:5 {7} Now she that is a widow indeed, and desolate, trusteth in God, and continueth in supplications and prayers night and day.

      (7) The second rule. Let the church take care of those who are indeed widows, that is to say, those who are poor and destitute of help from their own friends, and live godly and religiously.

1Ti 5:6

5:6 {8} But she that liveth in pleasure is dead while she liveth.

      (8) The third rule: let widows that live in pleasure, and neglect the care of their own family, be held and considered as fallers away from God and his religion, and worse than the unfaithful themselves.

1Ti 5:9

5:9 {9} Let not a widow be taken into the number under threescore years old, having been the wife of {b} one man,

      (9) The fourth rule: let none under sixty years old be taken into the number of widows, to serve the congregations or churches. And they must be those who are free from every reproach of immorality, and are well reported of, for their diligence, charity, and integrity.
      (b) That has only ever had one husband at a time.

1Ti 5:10

5:10 Well reported of for good works; if she have brought up children, if she have lodged strangers, if she have {c} washed the saints' feet, if she have relieved the afflicted, if she have diligently followed every good work.

      (c) This is spoken with regard to the manner of those countries.

1Ti 5:11

5:11 {10} But the younger widows {d} refuse: for when they have begun to wax wanton against Christ, they will marry;

      (10) The first reason why younger widows are not to be admitted to this ministry, that is, because of the unsteadiness of their age they will at length shake off the burden that Christ has laid upon them, and think rather upon marrying again: and so will forsake the ministry to which they had bound themselves.
      (d) Take them not into the assembly of widows.

1Ti 5:13

5:13 {11} And withal they learn [to be] idle, wandering about from house to house; and not only idle, but tattlers also and busybodies, speaking things which they ought not.

      (11) Another reason: because they are for the most part gossips and busybodies, and idly roving up and down, neglecting their charge and duty.

1Ti 5:14

5:14 {12} I will therefore that the younger women marry, bear children, guide the house, give none occasion to the adversary to speak reproachfully.

      (12) The fifth rule: let younger widows marry and govern their houses in a godly way.

1Ti 5:16

5:16 {13} If any man or woman that believeth have widows, let them relieve them, and let not the church be charged; that it may relieve them that are widows indeed.

      (13) The sixth rule: let the faithful help their widows at their own expense as much as they can, and do not let the congregation be burdened with these expenses.

1Ti 5:17

5:17 {14} Let the elders that rule well be counted worthy of {e} double honour, {f} especially they who labour in the word and doctrine.

      (14) Now he gives rules, and shows how he ought to behave himself with the elders, that is to say, with the pastors, and those who have the governance in the discipline of the church, who is president of their company. The first rule: let the church or congregation see to this especially, as God himself has commanded, that the elders that do their duty well, are honestly supported.
      (e) We must be more concerned for them, than for the rest.
      (f) There were two types of elders: the one dealt with the government only, and looked to the behaviour of the congregation; the other in addition to that, dealt with both preaching and prayers, to and for the congregation.

1Ti 5:19

5:19 {15} Against an elder receive not an accusation, but before two or three witnesses.

      (15) The second rule: allow no accusation to be considered against an elder, unless there are two or three witnesses.

1Ti 5:20

5:20 {16} Them that sin rebuke before all, that others also may fear.

      (16) The third rule: let the leaders so convicted be openly rebuked, so that they may be an example to others.

1Ti 5:21

5:21 {17} I charge [thee] before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, and the elect angels, that thou observe these things without preferring one before another, doing nothing by partiality.

      (17) The fourth rule: let sincerity be used without any prejudice or respect of persons in ecclesiastical proceedings (especially against the elders), because God himself is present there, and the Lord Jesus Christ with a multitude of angels.

1Ti 5:22

5:22 {18} Lay hands {g} suddenly on no man, neither be partaker of other men's sins: keep thyself pure.

      (18) The fifth rule: let the minister lay hands suddenly on no man. Let him not be faulty in this, either by favouring any man's folly, or perverse affection. If anything is not done well by his fellow elders, let him keep his conscience pure.
      (g) As much as you are able, do not rashly admit anyone at all to any ecclesiastical function.

1Ti 5:23

5:23 {19} Drink no longer water, but use a little wine for thy stomach's sake and thine often infirmities.

      (19) The sixth rule: let the elders have consideration for their health, in their diet.

1Ti 5:24

5:24 {20} Some men's sins are open beforehand, going before to judgment; and some [men] they follow after.

      (20) Because hypocrites sometimes creep into the ministry, even though there is ever so great diligence used, the apostle wishes the pastors not to be therefore troubled, or slack at all in their diligence in trying and examining, because the Lord has appointed a time to discover the faults of such men, and it is our duty to take heed that we do not offend in our trying and examining.

1Ti 5:25

5:25 {21} Likewise also the good works [of some] are manifest beforehand; and they that are otherwise cannot be hid.

      (21) Another comfort belonging to them, who are sometimes slandered and misreported.

1Ti 6:1

6:1 Let {1} as many servants as are under the yoke count their own masters worthy of all honour, {2} that the name of God and [his] doctrine be not blasphemed.

      (1) He adds also rules for the servant's duty towards their masters: upon which matter there were no doubt many questions asked by those who took occasion by the Gospel to trouble the normal manner of life. And this is the first rule: let servants that have come to the faith and have the unfaithful for their masters, serve them nonetheless with great faithfulness.
      (2) The reason: lest God should seem by the doctrine of the Gospel to stir up men to rebellion and all wickedness.

1Ti 6:2

6:2 {3} And they that have believing masters, let them not despise [them], because they are brethren; but rather do [them] service, because they are faithful and beloved, {a} partakers of the benefit. {4} These things teach and exhort.

      (3) The second rule: let not servants that have come to the faith, and have also masters of the same profession and religion, abuse the name of brotherhood, but let them so much the rather obey them.
      (a) Let this be sufficient, that with regard to those things which pertain to everlasting life, they are partakers of the same good will and love of God, as their masters themselves are.
      (4) A general conclusion, that these things ought not only to be simply taught, but must with exhortations be diligently learned by them.

1Ti 6:3

6:3 {5} If any man teach otherwise, and consent not to wholesome words, [even] the words of our Lord Jesus Christ, and to the doctrine which is according to godliness;

      (5) He severely condemns and excommunicates or casts out of the Church as proud men, those who do not content themselves with Christ's doctrine, (that is to say, the doctrine of godliness) but weary both themselves and others, in vain questions (for all other things are vain), because they do not content themselves in Christ's doctrine. He condemns them as lying deceivers, because they savour or sound of nothing but vanity: as mad men, because they trouble themselves so much in matters of nothing: as evil plagues, because they cause great contentions, and corrupt men's minds and judgment. To be short, he condemns them as profane and wicked, because they abuse the precious name of godliness and religion, for the sake of wicked gain.

1Ti 6:4

6:4 He is proud, knowing nothing, but doting about questions and {b} strifes of words, whereof cometh envy, strife, railings, evil surmisings,

      (b) Strivings about words, and not about matter: and by words he means all those things which do not have substance in them, and by which we can reap no profit.

1Ti 6:5

6:5 Perverse {c} disputings of men of corrupt minds, and destitute of the truth, supposing that gain is godliness: from such withdraw thyself.

      (c) Such as we see in those shameless schools of popery, which are nothing else but vain babbling and foolish talking.

1Ti 6:6

6:6 {6} But godliness with contentment is great gain.

      (6) He properly dismisses the name of gain and lucre, confessing that godliness is great gain, but in a far different manner, that is, because it brings true sufficiency.

1Ti 6:7

6:7 {7} For we brought nothing into [this] world, [and it is] certain we can carry nothing out.

      (7) He mocks the folly of those who do so greedily hunger after frail things, who can in no way be satisfied, and yet nonetheless cannot enjoy their excess.

1Ti 6:9

6:9 {8} But they that will be rich fall into temptation and a snare, and [into] many foolish and hurtful lusts, which drown men in destruction and perdition.

      (8) He puts fear into Timothy to avoid covetousness using a different reasoning, that is, because it draws with it an infinite sort of lusts and those very hurtful, with which covetous men do torment themselves to the degree that in the end, they cast away from them their faith and salvation.

1Ti 6:10

6:10 For the love of money is the root of all evil: which while some coveted after, they have erred from the faith, and {d} pierced themselves through with many sorrows.

      (d) Sorrow and grief do as it were pierce through the mind of man, and are the harvest and true fruits of covetousness.

1Ti 6:11

6:11 {9} But thou, O {e} man of God, flee these things; and follow after righteousness, godliness, faith, love, patience, meekness.

      (9) A peculiar exhortation to various virtues, with which it appropriate for the pastors especially to be furnished.
      (e) Whom the Spirit of God rules.

1Ti 6:13

6:13 {10} I give thee charge in the sight of God, who quickeneth all things, and [before] Christ Jesus, who before Pontius Pilate witnessed a good confession;

      (10) A most earnest request and charge, to observe and keep all the things faithfully, with our eyes set upon the coming of Jesus Christ, whose glory we have to contrast with the vain glittering of this world, and his power with all the terrors of the wicked.

1Ti 6:15

6:15 Which in his times he shall shew, [who is] the {f} blessed and only Potentate, the King of kings, and Lord of lords;

      (f) He combines many words together for one purpose: by which he confirms the power of God, which if we trust steadfastly in, we will not be moved out of our position.

1Ti 6:17

6:17 {11} Charge them that are rich in {g} this world, that they be not highminded, nor trust in uncertain riches, but in the {h} living God, who giveth us richly all things to enjoy;

      (11) He adds as an overabundance as it were a sharp admonition to the rich, that they mainly take heed of two evils, that is, of pride, and deceitful hope, against which he sets three excellent virtues, hope in the living God, liberality towards their neighbour, and gentle conditions.
      (g) In things pertaining to this life, with whom those men are compared who are rich in good works.
      (h) Who alone is, and that everlasting: for he sets the frail nature of riches against God.

1Ti 6:19

6:19 {12} Laying up in store for themselves a good foundation against the time to come, that they may lay hold on eternal life.

      (12) The praise of liberality, by the effects of it, because it is a sure testimony of the Spirit of God who dwells in us, and therefore of the salvation that will be given to us.

1Ti 6:20

6:20 {13} O Timothy, keep that which is committed to thy trust, avoiding profane [and] vain babblings, and oppositions of science falsely so called:

      (13) He repeats the most important of all the former exhortations, which ought to be deeply imprinted in the minds of all ministers of the word, that is, that they avoid all vain babblings of false wisdom, and continue in the simplicity of sincere doctrine.

1Ti 6:21

6:21 Which some {i} professing have erred concerning the faith. Grace [be] with thee. Amen. [The first to Timothy was written from Laodicea, which is the chiefest city of Phrygia Pacatiana.]

      (i) Not only in word, but also in appearance and gesture: to be short, while their behaviour was such that even when they held their peace they would make men believe, their heads were occupied about nothing but high and lofty matters, and therefore they erred concerning the faith.

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