1 Samuel
2 Samuel
1 Kings
2 Kings
1 Chronicles
2 Chronicles

Song of Songs



1 Corinthians
2 Corinthians
1 Thessalonians
2 Thessalonians
1 Timothy
2 Timothy

1 Peter
2 Peter
1 John
2 John
3 John

Revelation 1-11
Revelation 12-22

Notes on Ester
From the Original 1599 Geneva Bible Notes

Es 1:1

1:1 Now it came to pass in the days of {a} Ahasuerus, (this [is] Ahasuerus which reigned, from India even unto Ethiopia, [over] an {b} hundred and seven and twenty provinces:)

The Argument - Because of the variety of names, by which they used to call their kings, and the number of years in which the Hebrews and the Greeks vary, various authors write concerning that Ahasuerus but is seems in Da 6:1,9:1 that he was Darius king of the Medes and son of Astyages also called Ahasuerus which was a name of honour and signified great and chief as chief head. In this is declared the great mercies of God toward his church: who never fails them in their greatest dangers, but when all hope of worldly help fades, he stirs up some, by whom he sends comfort and deliverance. In this also is described the ambition, pride and cruelty of the wicked when they come to honour and their sudden fall when they are at their highest and how God preserves and prefers them who are zealous of his glory and have a care and love for their brethren.
(a) Also called Darius, who was now the favourite monarch and had the government of the Medes, Persians and Chaldeans. Some think he was Darius Hystaspis also called Artaxerxes.
(b) Da 6:1 makes mention of only 120 leaving out the number that are imperfect as the scripture uses in various places.

Es 1:2

1:2 [That] in those days, when the king Ahasuerus {c} sat on the throne of his kingdom, which [was] in Shushan the palace,

      (c) That is, had rest and quietness.

Es 1:6

1:6 [Where were] white, green, and blue, [hangings], fastened with cords of fine linen and purple to silver rings and pillars of marble: the {d} beds [were of] gold and silver, upon a pavement of red, and blue, and white, and black, marble.

      (d) Which they used in those countries instead of tables.

Es 1:7

1:7 And they gave [them] drink in vessels of gold, (the vessels being diverse one from another,) and royal wine in abundance, according to the {e} state of the king.

      (e) As was befitting for so magnificent a king.

Es 1:8

1:8 And the drinking [was] according to the law; none did {f} compel: for so the king had appointed to all the officers of his house, that they should do according to every man's pleasure.

      (f) No one was forced to drink more than it pleased him.

Es 1:10

1:10 On the {g} seventh day, when the heart of the king was merry with wine, he commanded Mehuman, Biztha, Harbona, Bigtha, and Abagtha, Zethar, and Carcas, the seven chamberlains that served in the presence of Ahasuerus the king,

      (g) Which was the last day of the feast that the king made for the people as in Es 1:5.

Es 1:13

1:13 Then the king said to the wise men, {h} which knew the times, (for so [was] the king's manner toward all that knew law and judgment:

      (h) Who had experience in things as they had learned by diligent marking in continuance of time.

Es 1:14

1:14 And the next unto him [was] Carshena, Shethar, Admatha, Tarshish, Meres, Marsena, [and] Memucan, the seven princes of Persia and Media, which saw the {i} king's face, [and] which sat the first in the kingdom;)

      (i) Who were his chief counsellors that always had access to him.

Es 1:16

1:16 And Memucan answered before the king and the princes, Vashti the queen hath not done {k} wrong to the king only, but also to all the princes, and to all the people that [are] in all the provinces of the king Ahasuerus.

      (k) By her disobedience she has given an example to all women to do the same to their husbands.

Es 1:17

1:17 For [this] {l} deed of the queen shall come abroad unto all women, so that they shall despise their husbands in their eyes, when it shall be reported, The king Ahasuerus commanded Vashti the queen to be brought in before him, but she came not.

      (l) That is, her disobedience.

Es 1:18

1:18 [Likewise] shall the {m} ladies of Persia and Media say this day unto all the king's princes, which have heard of the deed of the queen. Thus [shall there arise] too much contempt and wrath.

      (m) Meaning, that they would take the first opportunity to do the same and the rest of the women would also do the same.

Es 1:19

1:19 If it please the king, let there go a royal commandment from him, and let it be written among the laws of the Persians and the Medes, that it be not altered, That Vashti come {n} no more before king Ahasuerus; and let the king give her royal estate unto another that is better than she.

      (n) Let her be divorced and another made queen.

Es 1:20

1:20 And when the king's decree which he shall make shall be published throughout all his empire, (for it is {o} great,) all the wives shall give to their husbands honour, both to great and small.

      (o) For he had under him a hundred and twenty-seven countries.

Es 1:22

1:22 For he sent letters into all the king's provinces, into every province according to the writing thereof, and to every people after their language, that every man should {p} bear rule in his own house, and that [it] should be published according to the language of every people.

      (p) That is, that the wife should be subject to the husband and at his commandment.

Es 2:1

2:1 After these things, when the wrath of king Ahasuerus was appeased, he {a} remembered Vashti, and what she had done, and what was decreed {b} against her.

      (a) That is, he brought the matter again into discussion. {b} By the seven wise men of his counsel.

Es 2:3

2:3 And let the king appoint officers in all the provinces of his kingdom, that they may gather together all the fair young virgins unto Shushan the palace, to the house of the women, unto the custody of Hege the king's chamberlain, {c} keeper of the women; and let their things {d} for purification be given [them]:

      (c) The abuse of these countries was so great, that they invented many means to serve the lusts of princes and therefore they ordained wicked laws that the king might have whose daughters he would. They had many houses appointed, one for the virgins, another for the concubines and another for the queen.
      (d) Read what this purification was in Es 2:12.

Es 2:11

2:11 And Mordecai walked {e} every day before the court of the women's house, to know how Esther did, and what should become of her.

      (e) For though she was taken away by a cruel law, yet he did not cease to have a fatherly care for her, and therefore often sought to hear of her.

Es 2:13

2:13 Then thus came [every] maiden unto the king; whatsoever she desired was {f} given her to go with her out of the house of the women unto the king's house.

      (f) Whatever apparel she asked for, the eunuch was bound to give to her.

Es 2:15

2:15 Now when the turn of Esther, the daughter of Abihail the uncle of Mordecai, who had taken her for his daughter, was come to go in unto the king, she required nothing but what Hegai the king's chamberlain, the keeper of the women, {g} appointed. And Esther obtained favour in the sight of all them that looked upon her.

      (g) In which her modesty appeared because she did not seek to dress to command her beauty but sought the eunuch's appointment.

Es 2:16

2:16 So Esther was taken unto king Ahasuerus into his house royal in the tenth month, which [is] the {h} month Tebeth, in the seventh year of his reign.

      (h) Which contained part of December and part of January.

Es 2:18

2:18 Then the king made a great feast unto all his princes and his servants, [even] Esther's {i} feast; and he made a release {k} to the provinces, and gave gifts, according to the {l} state of the king.

      (i) That is, made for her sake.
      (k) He released their tribute.
      (l) That is, great and magnificent.

Es 2:19

2:19 And when the virgins were gathered together the {m} second time, then Mordecai sat in the king's gate.

      (m) That is, at the marriage of Esther, which was the second marriage for the king.

Es 2:21

2:21 In those days, while Mordecai sat in the king's gate, two of the king's chamberlains, Bigthan and Teresh, of those which kept the door, were wroth, and sought to lay {n} hand on the king Ahasuerus.

      (n) Meaning, to kill him.

Es 2:23

2:23 And when inquisition was made of the matter, it was found out; therefore they were both hanged on a tree: and it was written in the book of the {o} chronicles before the king.

      (o) In the chronicles of the Medes and Persians, Es 10:2.

Es 3:2

3:2 And all the king's servants, that [were] in the king's gate, bowed, and reverenced Haman: for the king had so commanded concerning him. But Mordecai {a} bowed not, nor did [him] reverence.

      (a) The Persians custom was to kneel down and reverence their kings, and such as he anointed in chief authority, which Mordecai would not do to this ambitious and proud man.

Es 3:4

3:4 Now it came to pass, when they spake daily unto him, and he hearkened not unto them, that they {b} told Haman, to see whether Mordecai's matters would stand: for he had told them that he [was] a Jew.

      (b) Thus we see that there is no one so wicked but they have their flatterers to accuse the godly.

Es 3:7

3:7 In the first month, that [is], the month {c} Nisan, in the twelfth year of king Ahasuerus, they cast Pur, that [is], the lot, {d} before Haman from day to day, and from month to month, [to] the twelfth [month], that [is], the month {e} Adar.

      (c) Which contains part of March and part of April.
      (d) To know what month and day would be good to attempt this thing, that it might be successful: but God disappointed their lots and expectations.
      (e) Containing part of February and part of March.

Es 3:8

3:8 And Haman said unto king Ahasuerus, There is a certain people scattered abroad and dispersed among the people in all the provinces of thy kingdom; and their laws [are] diverse from all people; neither keep they the {f} king's laws: therefore it [is] not for the king's profit to suffer them.

      (f) These are the two arguments which commonly the worldlings and the wicked use toward princes against the godly, that is, the contempt of their laws and diminishing of their profit without concern as to whether God is pleased or displeased.

Es 3:15

3:15 The posts went out, being hastened by the king's commandment, and the decree was given in Shushan the palace. And the king and Haman sat down to drink; but the {g} city Shushan was perplexed.

      (g) That is, the Jews that were in Shushan.

Es 4:2

4:2 And came even before the king's {a} gate: for none [might] enter into the king's gate clothed with sackcloth.

      (a) Because he would inform Esther of this cruel proclamation.

Es 4:14

4:14 For if thou altogether holdest thy peace at this time, [then] shall there enlargement and deliverance {b} arise to the Jews from another place; but thou and thy father's house shall be destroyed: and who knoweth whether thou art come to the kingdom for {c} [such] a time as this?

      (b) Thus Mordecai spoke in the confidence of that faith which all God's children should have; which is that God will deliver them, though all worldly means fail.
      (c) To deliver God's Church out of these present dangers.

Es 4:16

4:16 Go, gather together all the Jews that are present in Shushan, and fast ye for me, and neither eat nor drink three days, night or day: I also and my maidens will fast likewise; and so will I go in unto the king, which [is] not according to the law: and if I perish, {d} I perish.

      (d) I will put my life in danger and refer the success to God, seeing it is for his glory and the deliverance of his Church.

Es 5:1

5:1 Now it came to pass on the third {a} day, that Esther put on [her] royal [apparel], and stood in the inner court of the king's house, over against the king's house: and the king sat upon his royal throne in the royal house, over against the gate of the house.

      (a) That is, after the Jews had begun to fast.

Es 5:2

5:2 And it was so, when the king saw Esther the queen standing in the court, [that] she obtained favour in his sight: and the king {b} held out to Esther the golden sceptre that [was] in his hand. So Esther drew near, and touched the top of the sceptre.

      (b) Which was a sign that her coming was agreeable to him, Es 4:11.

Es 5:3

5:3 Then said the king unto her, What wilt thou, queen Esther? and what [is] thy request? it shall be even {c} given thee to the half of the kingdom.

      (c) Meaning by this that whatever she asked would be granted as in Mr 6:23.

Es 5:6

5:6 And the king said unto Esther at the banquet of {d} wine, What [is] thy petition? and it shall be granted thee: and what [is] thy request? even to the half of the kingdom it shall be performed.

      (d) Because they used to drink excessively in their banquets they called the banquet by that which was most in use or esteemed.

Es 5:8

5:8 If I have found favour in the sight of the king, and if it please the king to grant my petition, and to perform my request, let the king and Haman come to the banquet that I shall prepare for them, and I will do to morrow as the king hath {e} said.

      (e) I will declare what I demand.

Es 5:11

5:11 And Haman told them of the glory of his riches, and the multitude of his children, and all [the things] wherein the king had {f} promoted him, and how he had advanced him above the princes and servants of the king.

      (f) Thus the wicked when they are promoted instead of acknowledging their charge and humbling themselves, wax ambitious, disdainful and cruel.

Es 5:14

5:14 Then said Zeresh his wife and all his friends unto him, Let a gallows be made of fifty {g} cubits high, and to morrow speak thou unto the king that Mordecai may be hanged thereon: then go thou in merrily with the king unto the banquet. And the thing pleased Haman; and he caused the gallows to be made.

      (g) Meaning, the highest that could be found.

Es 6:3

6:3 And the king said, What honour and dignity hath been done to Mordecai {a} for this? Then said the king's servants that ministered unto him, There is nothing done for him.

      (a) For he thought it unworthy of his estate to receive a benefit and not reward it.

Es 6:4

6:4 And the king said, Who [is] in the court? Now Haman was come into the outward court of the king's house, to speak unto the king to {b} hang Mordecai on the gallows that he had prepared for him.

      (b) Thus while the wicked imagine the destruction of others, they themselves fall into the same pit.

Es 6:8

6:8 Let the royal apparel be brought which the king [useth] to wear, and the {c} horse that the king rideth upon, and the crown royal which is set upon his head:

      (c) Meaning by this that the king should make him next to himself as Joseph was known to be next to Pharaoh in Ge 41:43.

Es 6:13

6:13 And Haman told Zeresh his wife and all his friends every [thing] that had befallen him. Then said his wise men and Zeresh his wife unto him, If Mordecai [be] of the seed of the Jews, before whom thou hast begun to fall, thou shalt not prevail against him, {d} but shalt surely fall before him.

      (d) Thus God sometimes puts in the mouth of the very wicked to speak that thing which he has decreed shall come to pass.

Es 7:4

7:4 For we are sold, I and my people, to be destroyed, to be slain, and to perish. But if we had been sold for bondmen and bondwomen, I had held my tongue, although the enemy could not {b} countervail the king's damage.

      (b) Haman could not profit the king by his malice as much he would hinder him by the loss of the Jews and the tribute which he had from them.

Es 7:7

7:7 And the king arising from the banquet of wine in his wrath [went] into the palace garden: and Haman stood up to make request for his life to Esther the queen; for he saw that there was {c} evil determined against him by the king.

      (c) His conscience accused him that as he had conspired the death of innocents, so the vengeance of God would fall on him for the same.

Es 7:8

7:8 Then the king returned out of the palace garden into the place of the banquet of wine; and Haman was {d} fallen upon the bed whereon Esther [was]. Then said the king, Will he force the queen also before me in the house? As the word went out of the king's mouth, they {e} covered Haman's face.

      (d) He fell down at the couch on which she sat and made request for his life.
      (e) This was the manner of the Persians, when one was out of favour with the king.

Es 7:9

7:9 And Harbonah, one of the chamberlains, said before the king, Behold also, the gallows fifty cubits high, which Haman had made for Mordecai, who had spoken {f} good for the king, standeth in the house of Haman. Then the king said, Hang him thereon.

      (f) Who discovered the conspiracy against the king, Es 2:21,22.

Es 8:1

8:1 On that day did the king Ahasuerus give the house of Haman the Jews' enemy unto Esther the queen. And Mordecai {a} came before the king; for Esther had told what he [was] {b} unto her.

      (a) That is, was received into the king's favour and presence.
      (b) That he was her uncle, and had brought her up.

Es 8:3

8:3 And Esther spake yet again before the king, and fell down at his feet, and besought him with tears to put away the {c} mischief of Haman the Agagite, and his device that he had devised against the Jews.

      (c) Meaning, that he should abolish the wicked decrees, which he had made for the destruction of the Jews.

Es 8:4

8:4 Then the king held out the golden {d} sceptre toward Esther. So Esther arose, and stood before the king,

      (d) Read Es 5:2.

Es 8:8

8:8 Write ye also for the Jews, as it liketh you, in the king's name, and seal [it] with the king's ring: for the writing which is written in the king's name, and sealed with the king's ring, may {e} no man reverse.

      (e) This was the law of the Medes and Persians, as in Da 6:15 nonetheless the king revoked the former decree granted to Haman for Esther's sake.

Es 8:9

8:9 Then were the king's scribes called at that time in the third month, that [is], the month {f} Sivan, on the three and twentieth [day] thereof; and it was written according to all that Mordecai commanded unto the Jews, and to the lieutenants, and the deputies and rulers of the provinces which [are] from India unto Ethiopia, an hundred twenty and seven provinces, unto every province according to the {g} writing thereof, and unto every people after their language, and to the Jews according to their writing, and according to their language.

      (f) Which contains part of May and part of June.
      (g) That is, in such letters and languages as was usual in every province.

Es 8:11

8:11 Wherein the king granted the Jews which [were] in every city to gather themselves together, and to stand for {h} their life, to destroy, to slay, and to cause to perish, all the power of the people and province that would assault them, [both] little ones and women, and [to take] the spoil of them for a prey,

      (h) That is, to defend themselves against all who would assail them.

Es 8:12

8:12 Upon one day in all the provinces of king Ahasuerus, [namely], upon the thirteenth [day] of the twelfth month, which [is] the month {i} Adar.

      (i) Which has part of February and part of March.

Es 8:13

8:13 The copy of the writing for a commandment to be given in every province [was] published unto all people, and that the Jews should be ready against that day to {k} avenge themselves on their enemies.

      (k) The king gave them permission to kill all who oppressed them.

Es 8:16

8:16 The Jews had light, and {l} gladness, and joy, and honour.

      (l) He showed by the words that follow, what this light was.

Es 8:17

8:17 And in every province, and in every city, whithersoever the king's commandment and his decree came, the Jews had joy and gladness, a feast and a good day. And many of the people of the land {m} became Jews; for the fear of the Jews fell upon them.

      (m) Conformed themselves to the Jew's religion.

Es 9:1

9:1 Now in the twelfth month, that [is], the month Adar, on the thirteenth day of the same, when the king's commandment and his decree drew near to be put in execution, in the day that the enemies of the Jews hoped to have power over them,
(though it was {a} turned to the contrary, that the Jews had rule over them that hated them;)

      (a) This was by God's great providence, who turns the joy of the wicked into sorrow, and the tears of the godly into gladness.

Es 9:3

9:3 And all the rulers of the provinces, and the lieutenants, and the deputies, and officers of the king, {b} helped the Jews; because the fear of Mordecai fell upon them.

      (b) Honoured them and befriended them.

Es 9:5

9:5 Thus the Jews smote all their {c} enemies with the stroke of the sword, and slaughter, and destruction, and did what they would unto those that hated them.

      (c) Who had conspired their death by the permission of the wicked Haman.

Es 9:6

9:6 And in Shushan the palace the Jews slew and destroyed {d} five hundred men.

      (d) Besides the three hundred that they slew the second day, Es 9:15.

Es 9:10

9:10 The ten sons of Haman the son of Hammedatha, the enemy of the Jews, slew they; but {e} on the spoil laid they not their hand.

      (e) By which they declared that this was God's just judgment on the enemies of his Church as they fought not for their own gain, but to execute his vengeance.

Es 9:13

9:13 Then said Esther, If it please the king, let it be granted to the Jews which [are] in Shushan to do to morrow also according {f} unto this day's decree, and let Haman's ten sons be hanged upon the gallows.

      (f) This she requires not out of a desire for vengeance but with zeal to see God's judgment's executed against his enemies.

Es 9:16

9:16 But the other Jews that [were] in the king's provinces gathered themselves together, and stood for {g} their lives, and had rest from their enemies, and slew of their {h} foes seventy and five thousand, but they laid not their hands on the prey,

      (g) Read Es 8:11.
      (h) Meaning, that they laid hands on no one that was not the enemy of God.

Es 9:17

9:17 On the {i} thirteenth day of the month Adar; and on the fourteenth day of the same rested they, and made it a day of feasting and gladness.

      (i) Meaning, in all places saving Shushan.

Es 9:19

9:19 Therefore the Jews of the villages, that dwelt in the unwalled towns, {k} made the fourteenth day of the month Adar [a day of] gladness and feasting, and a good day, and of sending portions one to another.

      (k) As the Jews do even to this day, calling it in the Persian language Purim, that is, the day of lots.

Es 9:20

9:20 And Mordecai wrote {l} these things, and sent letters unto all the Jews that [were] in all the provinces of the king Ahasuerus, [both] nigh and far,

      (l) The Jews gather from this that Mordecai wrote this book, but it seems that he wrote only these letters and decrees that follow.

Es 9:22

9:22 As the days wherein the Jews rested from their enemies, and the month which was turned unto them from sorrow to joy, and from mourning into a good day: that they should make them days of feasting and joy, and of {m} sending portions one to another, and gifts to the poor.

      (m) He sets before our eyes the use of this feast which was for the remembrance of God's deliverance, the maintenance of mutual friendship and relief of the poor.

Es 9:24

9:24 Because Haman the son of Hammedatha, the Agagite, the enemy of all the Jews, had devised against the Jews to destroy them, and had {n} cast Pur, that [is], the lot, to consume them, and to destroy them;

      (n) Read Es 3:7.

Es 9:25

9:25 But when {o} [Esther] came before the king, he commanded by letters that his wicked {p} device, which he devised against the Jews, should return upon his own head, and that he and his sons should be hanged on the gallows.

      (o) That is, Esther.
      (p) These are the words of the kings commandment to disannul Haman's wicked enterprise.

Es 9:27

9:27 The Jews ordained, and took upon them, and upon their seed, and upon all such as joined themselves unto them, so as it should not fail, that they would keep these two {q} days according to their writing, and according to their [appointed] time every year;

      (q) Meaning, the fourteenth and fifteenth days of the month of Adar.

Es 9:30

9:30 And he sent the letters unto all the Jews, to the hundred twenty and seven provinces of the kingdom of Ahasuerus, [with] {r} words of peace and truth,

      (r) Which were letters declaring to them quietness and assurance and putting them out of doubt and fear.

Es 9:31

9:31 To confirm these days of Purim in their times [appointed], according as Mordecai the Jew and Esther the queen had enjoined them, and as they had decreed for themselves and for their seed, the matters of the {s} fastings and their cry.

      (s) That they would observe this feast with fasting and earnest prayer, which in Hebrew is signified by this word (they cry).

Es 10:3

10:3 For Mordecai the Jew [was] next unto king Ahasuerus, and great among the Jews, and {a} accepted of the multitude of his brethren, seeking the wealth of his people, and speaking peace to all his seed.

      (a) These three points are here set forth as commendable and necessary for him that is in authority to have the favour of the people, to procure their wealth, and to be gentle and loving to them.

Return to the Documents page