1 Samuel
2 Samuel
1 Kings
2 Kings
1 Chronicles
2 Chronicles

Song of Songs



1 Corinthians
2 Corinthians
1 Thessalonians
2 Thessalonians
1 Timothy
2 Timothy

1 Peter
2 Peter
1 John
2 John
3 John

Revelation 1-11
Revelation 12-22

Notes on Galatians
From the Original 1599 Geneva Bible Notes

Ga 1:1

1:1 Paul, {1} an apostle, (not {a} of men, neither by {b} man, but by {c} Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him from the dead;)

      (1) A salutation which puts in a few words the sum of the apostle's doctrine, and also immediately from the beginning shows the gravity appropriate for the authority of an apostle, which he had to maintain against the false apostles.
      (a) He shows who is the author of the ministry generally: for in this the whole ministry agrees, that whether they are apostles, or shepherds, or teachers, they are appointed by God.
      (b) He mentions that man is not the instrumental cause: for this is a special right of the apostles, to be called directly from Christ.
      (c) Christ no doubt is man, but he is also God, and head of the Church, and in this respect to be exempted out of the number of men.

Ga 1:4

1:4 {2} Who gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver us from this present evil {d} world, according to the will of God and our Father:

      (2) The sum of the true Gospel is this, that Christ by his offering alone saves us who are chosen out of the world, by the free decree of God the Father.
      (d) Out of that most corrupt state which is without Christ.

Ga 1:6

1:6 {3} I marvel that ye are so soon {e} removed from him that called you into the grace of Christ unto another gospel:

      (3) The first part of the epistle, in which he witnesses that he is an apostle, nothing inferior to those chief disciples of Christ, and wholly agreeing with them, whose names the false apostles abused. And he begins with chiding, reproving them of unsteadiness, because they gave ear so easily to those who perverted them and drew them away to a new gospel.
      (e) He uses the passive voice to cast the fault upon the false apostles, and he uses the present voice to show them that it was not completely done, but in the process of being done.

Ga 1:7

1:7 {4} Which is not another; but there be some that trouble you, and would {f} pervert the gospel of Christ.

      (4) He warns them in time to remember that there are not many Gospels; and therefore whatever these false apostles pretend who had the Law, Moses, and the fathers in their mouths, yet these ones had indeed corrupted the true Gospel. And he himself, indeed, also the very angels themselves (and therefore much more these false apostles) ought to be held accursed, if they go about to change the least thing that may be in the Gospel that he delivered to them before.
      (f) For there is nothing more contrary to faith or free justification, than justification by the Law or by deeds.

Ga 1:8

1:8 But though we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel unto you than that which we have preached unto you, let him be {g} accursed.

      (g) See Ro 9:3 .

Ga 1:10

1:10 {5} For do I now persuade {h} men, or God? or do I seek to please men? for if I yet pleased men, I should not be the servant of Christ.

      (5) A confirmation taken both from the nature of the doctrine itself, and also from the manner which he used in teachings. For neither, he says, did I teach those things which pleased men, as these men do who put part of salvation in external things, and works of the Law, neither went I about to procure any man's favour. And therefore the matter itself shows that that doctrine which I delivered to you is heavenly.
      (h) He refers to the false apostles, who had nothing but flattery in their mouths for men, and he, though he would not detract from the apostles, preaches God, and not to please men.

Ga 1:11

1:11 {6} But I certify you, brethren, that the gospel which was preached of me is not after man.

      (6) A second argument to prove that his doctrine is heavenly, because he had it from heaven, from Jesus Christ himself, without any man's help, in which he excels those whom Christ taught here on earth after the manner of men.

Ga 1:12

1:12 For I neither received it of man, neither was I taught [it], but by the {i} revelation of Jesus Christ.

      (i) This passage is about an extraordinary revelation, for otherwise the Son revealed his Gospel only by his Spirit, even though by the ministry of men, which Paul excludes here.

Ga 1:13

1:13 {7} For ye have heard of my conversation in time past in the Jews' religion, how that beyond measure I persecuted the church of God, and wasted it:

      (7) He proves that he was extraordinarily taught by Christ himself, by this history of his former life, which the Galatians themselves knew well enough. For, he says, it is well known in what school I was brought up, even from my childhood, that is, among the deadly enemies of the Gospel. And no man may raise a frivolous objection and say that I was a scholar of the Pharisees in name only, and not in deed, for no man is ignorant of how I excelled in Pharisaism, and was suddenly changed from a Pharisee to an apostle of the Gentiles, so that I had no time to be instructed by men.

Ga 1:14

1:14 And profited in the Jews' religion above many my equals in mine own nation, being more exceedingly zealous of the {k} traditions of my fathers.

      (k) He calls them the traditions of his fathers, because he was not only a Pharisee himself, but also had a Pharisee for his father.

Ga 1:15

1:15 But when it pleased God, who {l} separated me from my mother's womb, and called [me] by his grace,

      (l) He speaks of God's everlasting predestination, by which he appointed him to be an apostle, of which he makes three distinctions: the everlasting council of God, his appointing from his mother's womb, and his calling. And we see that there is no mention at all of foreseen works.

Ga 1:16

1:16 To reveal his Son {m} in me, that I might preach him among the heathen; immediately {8} I conferred not with {n} flesh and blood:

      (m) To me, and this is a type of speech which the Hebrews use, by which it shows us that this gift comes from God.
      (8) He says this because it might be objected that he was indeed called by Christ in the way, but afterward was instructed by the apostles and others (whose names, as I said before, the false apostles abused to destroy his apostleship), as though he delivered another Gospel than they did, and as though he were not of their number, who are to be credited without exception. Therefore, Paul answers that he began immediately after his calling to preach the Gospel at Damascus and in Arabia, and was not from that time in Jerusalem except for fifteen days, when he saw only Peter and James. And afterwards, he began to teach in Syria and Cilicia, with the consent and approval of the churches of the Jews, who knew him only by name: so far off was it, that he was there instructed by men.
      (n) With any man in the world.

Ga 1:20

1:20 Now the things which I write unto you, behold, {o} before God, I lie not.

      (o) This is a type of an oath.

Ga 1:23

1:23 But they had heard only, That he which persecuted us in times past now preacheth the {p} faith which once he destroyed.

      (p) The doctrine of faith.

Ga 2:1

2:1 Then {1} fourteen years after I went up again to Jerusalem with Barnabas, and took Titus with [me] also.

      (1) Now he shows how he agrees with the apostles, with whom he grants that he conferred concerning his Gospel which he taught among the Gentiles, fourteen years after his conversion. And they permitted it in such a way, that they did not force his companion Titus to be circumcised, although some tormented themselves in this, who traitorously laid wait against him, but in vain. Neither did they add the least amount that might be to the doctrine which he had preached, but rather they gave to him and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship, and acknowledged them as apostles appointed by the Lord to the Gentiles.

Ga 2:2

2:2 And I went up by revelation, and communicated unto them that gospel which I preach among the Gentiles, but privately to them which were of reputation, lest by any means I should run, or had run, {a} in vain.

      (a) Unfruitful, for as touching his doctrine, Paul does not doubt it, but because there were certain reports being spread about him, that he was of another opinion than the rest of the apostles were, which thing might have hindered the course of the Gospel. Therefore he labours to remedy this dangerous situation.

Ga 2:4

2:4 And that because of {b} false brethren unawares brought in, who came in privily to spy out our liberty which we have in Christ Jesus, that they might bring us into bondage:

      (b) Who by deceit and counterfeit holiness crept in among the faithful.

Ga 2:5

2:5 To whom we gave place by {c} subjection, no, not for an hour; that the {d} truth of the gospel might continue with {e} you.

      (c) By submitting ourselves to them, and betraying our own liberty.
      (d) The true and sincere doctrine of the Gospel, which remained safe from being corrupted with any of these men's false doctrines.
      (e) Under the Galatian's name, he understands all nations.

Ga 2:7

2:7 But contrariwise, when they saw that the gospel of the {f} uncircumcision was committed unto me, as [the gospel] of the circumcision [was] unto Peter;

      (f) Among the Gentiles, as Peter had to preach it among the Jews.

Ga 2:9

2:9 And when James, Cephas, and John, who {g} seemed to be pillars, perceived the grace that was given unto me, they gave to me and Barnabas the right {h} hands of fellowship; that we [should go] unto the heathen, and they unto the circumcision.

      (g) Whom alone and only these men count for pillars of the Church, and whose name they abuse to deceive you.
      (h) They gave us their hand to show that we agreed wholly in the doctrine of the Gospel.

Ga 2:11

2:11 But when Peter was come to Antioch, I withstood him to the {i} face, because he was to be blamed.

      (i) Before all men.

Ga 2:12

2:12 {2} For before that certain came from James, he did eat with the Gentiles: but when they were come, he withdrew and separated himself, fearing them which were of the circumcision.

      (2) Another most vehement proof of his apostleship, and also of that doctrine which he had delivered concerning free justification by faith alone. And it was for this doctrine alone that he reprehended Peter at Antioch, who offended in this, in that for the sake of a few Jews who came from Jerusalem, he played the Jew, and offended the Gentiles who had believed.

Ga 2:13

2:13 And the other Jews dissembled likewise with him; insomuch that Barnabas also was {k} carried away with their dissimulation.

      (k) By example rather than by judgment.

Ga 2:14

2:14 But when I saw that they walked not {l} uprightly according to the {m} truth of the gospel, I said unto Peter before [them] all, If thou, being a Jew, livest after the manner of Gentiles, and not as do the Jews, why {n} compellest thou the Gentiles to live as do the Jews?

      (l) Literally, "with a right foot", which he sets against halting and hypocrisy, which is a backwards state.
      (m) He calls the truth of the Gospel, both the doctrine itself, and also the use of doctrine, which we call the practice.
      (n) He says they were forced who lived as Jews by Peter's example.

Ga 2:15

2:15 {3} We [who are] Jews {o} by nature, and not {p} sinners of the Gentiles,

      (3) The second part of this epistle, the state of which is this: we are justified by faith in Christ Jesus without the works of the Law. Which thing he propounds in such a way, that first of all he meets with an objection (for I also, he says, am a Jew, that no man may say against me that I am an enemy to the Law), and afterward, he confirms it by the express witness of David.
      (o) Even though we are Jews, yet we preach justification by faith, because we know without any doubt that no man can be justified by the Law.
      (p) So the Jews called the Gentiles, because they were strangers to God's covenant.

Ga 2:16

2:16 Knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law, but by the faith {q} of Jesus Christ, even we have believed in Jesus Christ, that we might be justified by the faith of Christ, and not by the works of the law: for by the works of the law shall {r} no flesh be justified.

      (q) In Jesus Christ.
      (r) No man, and in this word "flesh" there is a great force, by which is meant that the nature of man is utterly corrupt.

Ga 2:17

2:17 {4} But if, while {s} we seek to be justified by Christ, we ourselves also are found sinners, [is] therefore Christ the minister of sin? God forbid.

      (4) Before he goes any further, he meets with the objection which abhorred this doctrine of free justification by faith, because, they say, men are by this means withdrawn from the performing of good works. And in this sort is the objection: if sinners should be justified through Christ by faith without the Law, Christ would approve sinners, and should as it were exhort them to sin by his ministry. Paul answers that this conclusion is false, because Christ destroys sin in the believers: for so, he says, do men flee to Christ through the terror and fear of the Law, that being acquitted from the curse of the Law and justified they may be saved by him. And in addition he together begins in them by little and little that strength and power of his which destroys sin: to the end that this old man being abolished by the power of Christ crucified, Christ may live in them, and they may consecrate themselves to God. Therefore if any man give himself to sin after he has received the Gospel, let him not accuse Christ nor the Gospel, but himself, for he destroys the work of God in himself.
      (s) He goes from justification to sanctification, which is another benefit we receive from Christ, if we lay hold of him by faith.

Ga 2:19

2:19 For I through the law am dead to the {t} law, that I might live unto God.

      (t) The Law that terrifies the conscience brings us to Christ, and he alone causes us to indeed die to the Law, because by making us righteous, he takes away from us the terror of conscience. And by sanctifying us, he causes the mortifying of lust in us, so that it cannot take such occasion to sin by the restraint which the Law makes, as it did before; Ro 7:10-11 .

Ga 2:20

2:20 I am crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live; yet not {u} I, but Christ liveth in me: and the life which I now live in the {x} flesh I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me.

      (u) The same that I was before.
      (x) In this mortal body.

Ga 2:21

2:21 {5} I do not frustrate the grace of God: for if righteousness [come] by the law, then Christ is dead {e} in vain.

      (5) The second argument taken from an absurdity: if men may be justified by the Law, then it was not necessary for Christ to die.
      (e) For there was no reason why he should do so.

Ga 3:1

3:1 O {1} foolish Galatians, who hath bewitched you, that ye should not obey the truth, {a} before whose eyes Jesus Christ hath been evidently set forth, crucified among you?

      (1) The third reason or argument taken of those gifts of the Holy Spirit, with which they were endued from heaven after they had heard and believed the gospel by Paul's ministry. And seeing that they were so evident to all men's eyes, that they were as it were graphic images, in which they might behold the truth of the doctrine of the Gospel, just as much as if they had beheld with their eyes Christ himself crucified, in whose only death they ought to have their trust, he marvels how it could be that they could be so bewitched by the false apostles.
      (a) Christ was laid before you so notably and so plainly that you had a graphic image of him as it were represented before your eyes, as if he had been crucified before you.

Ga 3:2

3:2 This only would I learn of you, Received ye the {b} Spirit by the works of the law, or by the hearing of {c} faith?

      (b) Those spiritual graces and gifts, which were a seal as it were to the Galatians that the Gospel which was preached to them was true.
      (c) Of the doctrine of faith.

Ga 3:3

3:3 {2} Are ye so foolish? having begun in the Spirit, are ye now made perfect by the {d} flesh?

      (2) The fourth argument mixed with the former, and it is twofold. If the Law is to be joined with faith, this were not to go forward, but backward, seeing that those spiritual gifts which were bestowed upon you are more excellent than any that could proceed from yourselves. And moreover, it would follow, that the Law is better than Christ, because it would perfect and bring complete that which Christ alone began.
      (d) By the "flesh" he means the ceremonies of the Law, against which he sets the Spirit, that is, the spiritual working of the Gospel.

Ga 3:4

3:4 {3} Have ye suffered so many things in vain? if [it be] yet in vain.

      (3) An exhortation by manner of reproach, so that they do not in vain suffer so many conflicts.

Ga 3:5

3:5 {4} He therefore that ministereth to you the Spirit, and worketh miracles among you, [doeth he it] by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith?

      (4) He repeats the third argument which was taken of the effects, because he had included certain other arguments along the way.

Ga 3:6

3:6 {5} Even as {e} Abraham believed God, and it was accounted to him for righteousness.

      (5) The fifth argument which is of great force, and has three grounds. The first, that Abraham was justified by faith, that is, by free imputation of righteousness according to the promise apprehended by faith.
      (e) See Ro 4:1-25 .

Ga 3:7

3:7 {6} Know ye therefore that they which are of faith, the same are the children of Abraham.

      (6) The second, that the sons of Abraham must be esteemed and considered as his sons by faith.

Ga 3:8

3:8 {7} And the scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the heathen through faith, preached before the gospel unto Abraham, [saying], {8} In thee shall all nations be {f} blessed.

      (7) The third, that all the people that believe are without exception included in the promise of the blessing.
      (8) A proof of the first and second grounds, from the words of Moses.
      (f) Blessing in this place signifies the free promise by faith.

Ga 3:9

3:9 {9} So then they which be of faith are blessed {g} with faithful Abraham.

      (9) The conclusion of the fifth argument: therefore as Abraham is blessed by faith, so are all his children (that is to say, all the Gentiles that believe) blessed, that is to say, freely justified.
      (g) With faithful Abraham, and not by faithful Abraham, to show us that the blessing comes not from Abraham, but from him by whom Abraham and all his posterity is blessed.

Ga 3:10

3:10 {10} For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: {11} for it is written, Cursed [is] every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them.

      (10) The sixth argument, the conclusion of which is also in the former verse, taken from opposites, is this: they are accursed who are of the works of the Law, that is to say, who consider their righteousness to come from the performance of the Law. Therefore they are blessed who are of faith, that is, those who have righteousness by faith.
      (11) A proof of the former sentence or proposition, and the proposition of this argument is this: cursed is he that does not fulfil the whole Law.

Ga 3:11

3:11 {12} But that no man is justified by the law in the sight of God, [it is] evident: for, The just shall live by faith.

      (12) The second proposition with the conclusion: but no man fulfils the Law. The conclusion therefore is, that no man is justified by the Law, or, that all are accursed who seek righteousness by the works of the Law. And there is added also this manner of proof of the second proposition, that is, righteousness and life are attributed to faith. Therefore no man fulfils the Law.

Ga 3:12

3:12 {13} And the law is not of faith: but, The man that doeth them shall live in them.

      (13) Here is a reason shown of the former conclusion: because the law promises life to all that keep it, and therefore if it is kept, it justifies and gives life. But the scripture attributing righteousness and life to faith takes it from the Law, seeing that faith justifies by imputation, and the Law by the performing of the work.

Ga 3:13

3:13 {14} Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us: {15} for it is written, {h} Cursed [is] every one that hangeth on a tree:

      (14) A preventing of an objection: how then can they be blessed whom the Lord pronounces to be accused? Because Christ suffered the curse which the Law laid upon us, that we might be acquitted from it.
      (15) A proof of the answer by the testimony of Moses.
      (h) Christ was accursed for us, because he bore the curse that was due to us, to make us partakers of his righteousness.

Ga 3:14

3:14 {16} That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ; that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith.

      (16) A conclusion of all that was said before in the handling of the fifth and sixth reasons, that is, that both the Gentiles are made partakers of the free blessing of Abraham in Christ, and also that the Jews themselves, of whose number the apostle counted himself to be, cannot obtain that promised grace of the Gospel, which he calls the Spirit, except by faith. And the apostle applies the conclusion in turn, both to the one and to the other, preparing himself a way to the next argument, by which he declares that the one and only seed of Abraham, which is made of all peoples, cannot be joined and grow up together in any other way but by faith in Christ.

Ga 3:15

3:15 {17} Brethren, I speak {i} after the manner of men; Though [it be] but a man's covenant, yet [if it be] {k} confirmed, no man disannulleth, or addeth thereto.

      (17) He puts forth two general rules before the next argument, which is the seventh in order. The first is, that it is not lawful to break covenants and contracts which are justly made, and are according to law among men, neither may anything be added to them. The other is, that God did so make a covenant with Abraham, that he would gather together his children who consist both of Jews and Gentiles into one body (as appears by that which has been said before). For he did not say, that he would be the God of Abraham and of his "seeds" (which thing nonetheless should have been said, if he had many and various seeds, such as the Gentiles on the one hand, and the Jews on the other) but that he would be the God of Abraham, and of his "seed", as of one.
      (i) I will use an example which is common among you, that you may be ashamed that you do not give as much to God's covenant as you do to man's.
      (k) Authenticated, as we say.

Ga 3:16

3:16 Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, {18} which is {l} Christ.

      (18) He puts forth the sum of the seventh argument, that is, that both the Jews and the Gentiles grow together in one body of the seed of Abraham, in Christ alone, so that all are one in Christ, as it is afterward declared in Ga 3:28 .
      (l) Paul does not speak of Christ's person, but of two peoples, who grew together in one, in Christ.

Ga 3:17

3:17 {19} And this I say, [that] the covenant, that was confirmed before of God {m} in Christ, the {20} law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul, that it should make the promise of none effect.

      (19) The eighth argument take by comparison, in this way: if a man's covenant (being authenticated) is firm and strong, much more is God's covenant. Therefore the Law was not given to cancel the promise made to Abraham with respect of Christ, that is to say, the end of which depended upon Christ.
      (m) Which pertained to Christ.
      (20) An enlarging of that argument in this way: moreover and besides that the promise is of itself firm and strong, it was also confirmed by virtue of being in place for a long time, that is, for 430 years, so that it could in no way be broken.

Ga 3:18

3:18 {21} For if the {n} inheritance [be] of the law, [it is] no more of promise: but God gave [it] to Abraham by promise.

      (21) An objection: we grant that the promise was not cancelled by the covenant of the Law, and therefore we join the Law with the promise. No, the apostle says, these two cannot stand together, that is, that the inheritance should both be given by the Law and also by promise, for the promise is free. And from this it follows that the Law was not given to justify, for by that means the promise would be broken.
      (n) By this word "inheritance" is meant the right of the seed, which is, that God should be our God, that is to say, that by virtue of the covenant that was made with faithful Abraham, we that are faithful might by that means be blessed by God as well as Abraham.

Ga 3:19

3:19 {22} Wherefore then [serveth] the law? It was added because of {o} transgressions, {p} till the seed should come to whom the promise was made; {23} [and it was] {q} ordained by {r} angels in the hand of a mediator.

      (22) An objection which rises from the former answer: if the inheritance is not by the Law (in the least way) then why was the Law given after the promise was made? In order, the apostle says, to reprove men of sin, and so to teach them to look to Christ, in whom at length that promise of saving all people together should be fulfilled; the Law was not given in order to justify men.
      (o) That men might understand by discovering their sins that they are only saved by the grace of God, which he revealed to Abraham, and that in Christ.
      (p) Until the partition wall was broken down, and that full seed sprang up, made of two peoples, both of Jews and Gentiles. For by this word "seed" we may not understand Christ alone by himself, but coupled and joined together with his body.
      (23) A confirmation of the former answer taken from the manner and form of giving the Law: for it was given by angels, striking a great terror into all, and by Moses a mediator coming between. Now they that are one need no mediator, but they that are in any way separated, and that are at variance one with another, do. Therefore the Law itself and the mediator were witnesses of the wrath of God, and not that God would by this means reconcile men to himself and abolish the promise, or add the Law to the promise.
      (q) Commanded and given, or proclaimed.
      (r) By the service and ministry.

Ga 3:20

3:20 Now a mediator is not [a mediator] of one, {24} but God is one.

      (24) A taking away of an objection, lest any man might say that sometimes by consent of the parties which have made a covenant, something is added to the covenant, or the former covenants are broken. This, the apostle says, does not come to pass in God, who is always one, and the very same, and like himself.

Ga 3:21

3:21 {25} [Is] the law then against the promises of God? God forbid: for if there had been a law given which could have given life, verily righteousness should have been by the law.

      (25) The conclusion uttered by a manner of asking a question, and it is the same that was uttered before in Ga 3:17 , but proceeding from another principle, so that the argument is new, and is this: God is always like himself: therefore the Law was not given to abolish the promises. But it would abolish them if it gave life, for by that means it would justify, and therefore it would abolish that justification which was promised to Abraham and to his seed by faith. No, it was rather given to bring to light the guiltiness of all men, to the end that all believers fleeing to Christ, might be freely justified in him.

Ga 3:22

3:22 But the {s} scripture hath concluded {t} all under sin, that the {u} promise by faith of Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe.

      (s) By this word "scripture" he means the Law.
      (t) All mankind, and whatever comes from mankind.
      (u) In every one of these words, there lies an argument against the merits of works: for all these words, promise, faith, Christ, might be given, to believers, are against meritorious works, and not one of them can be included as a meritorious work.

Ga 3:23

3:23 {26} But before faith came, we were kept under the law, shut up unto {x} the faith which should afterwards be revealed.

      (26) Now there follows another handling of the second part of this epistle, the state of which was this: although the Law (that is, the whole government of God's house according to the Law) does not justify, is it therefore to be abolished, seeing that Abraham himself was circumcised, and his posterity held still the use of Moses' Law? Paul affirms that it ought to be abolished, because it was instituted for that end and purpose, that is should be as it were a schoolmaster, and keeper to the people of God, until the promise indeed appeared, that is to say, Christ, and the Gospel manifestly published with great efficacy by the Spirit.
      (x) The reason why we were kept under the Law, is set down here.

Ga 3:26

3:26 {27} For ye are all the children of God by faith in Christ Jesus.

      (27) Because age does not change the condition of servants, he adds that we are free by condition, and therefore, seeing we are out of our childhood, we have no more need of a keeper and schoolmaster.

Ga 3:27

3:27 {28} For as many of you as have been {y} baptized into Christ have {z} put on Christ.

      (28) Using the words "many of you", lest the Jews should think themselves free from the ordinance of baptism, he pronounces that baptism is common to all believers, because it is a outward sign of our delivery in Christ, to the Jews as well as to the Greeks, that by this means all may be truly one in Christ, that is to say, that promised seed to Abraham, and inheritors of everlasting life.
      (y) He sets forth baptism, as opposed to circumcision, which the false apostles bragged so much of.
      (z) The Church must put on Christ, as it were a garment, and be covered with him, that it may be thoroughly holy, and without blame.

Ga 3:28

3:28 There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female: for ye are all {a} one in Christ Jesus.

      (a) You are all one: and so is this great union and conjunction signified.

Ga 4:1

4:1 Now {1} I say, [That] the heir, as long as he is a child, differeth nothing from a servant, though he be lord of all;

      (1) He declares by another twofold similitude, that which he said before concerning the keeper and schoolmaster. For, he says, the Law (that is, the whole government of God's house according to the Law) was as it were a tutor or overseer appointed for a time. And when that protection and overseeing which was but for a time is ended, we would at length come to be at our own liberty, and would live as children, and not as servants. Moreover, he shows along the way, that the governance of the Law was as it were the basics, and as certain principles, in comparison with the doctrine of the Gospel.

Ga 4:2

4:2 But is under tutors and governors {a} until the time appointed of the father.

      (a) This is added because he that is always under a tutor or governor may hardly be considered a freeman.

Ga 4:3

4:3 Even so we, when we were children, were in bondage under the {b} elements of the world:

      (b) The Law is called elements, because by the Law God instructed his Church as it were by elements, and afterward poured out his Holy Spirit most plentifully in the time of the Gospel.

Ga 4:4

4:4 {2} But when the {c} fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a {d} woman, made under the law,

      (2) He utters and declares many things at once, that is, that this tutorship was ended at his time, in order that curious men may stop asking why the schoolmastership lasted so long. And moreover, that we are not sons by nature, but by adoption, and that in the Son of God, who therefore took upon him our flesh, that we might be made his brethren.
      (c) The time is said to be full when all parts of it are past and ended, and therefore Christ could not have come either sooner or later.
      (d) He calls Mary a woman in respect of the sex, and not as the word is used in a contrary sense to a virgin, for she remained a virgin still.

Ga 4:5

4:5 To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the {e} adoption of sons.

      (e) The adoption of the sons of God is from everlasting, but is revealed and shown in the time appointed for it.

Ga 4:6

4:6 {3} And because ye are sons, God hath {f} sent forth the {g} Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father.

      (3) He shows that we are free and set at liberty in such a way that in the meantime we must be governed by the Spirit of Christ, who while reigning in our hearts, may teach us the true service of the Father. But this is not to serve, but rather to enjoy true liberty, as it is fitting for sons and heirs.
      (f) By that which follows he gathers that which went before: for if we have his Spirit, we are his sons, and if we are his sons, then we are free.
      (g) The Holy Spirit, who is both of the Father, and of the Son. But there is a special reason why he is called the Spirit of the Son, that is, because the Holy Spirit seals up our adoption in Christ, and gives us a full assurance of it.

Ga 4:7

4:7 Wherefore thou art no more a {h} servant, but a son; and if a son, then an {i} heir of God through Christ.

      (h) The word "servant" is not taken here for one that lives in sin, which is appropriate for the unfaithful, but for one that is yet under the ceremonies of the Law, which is proper to the Jews.
      (i) Partaker of his blessings.

Ga 4:8

4:8 {4} Howbeit then, when ye knew not God, ye did service unto them which by nature are no gods.

      (4) He applies the former doctrine to the Galatians, with a special rebuke: for in comparison with them, the Jews might have pretended some excuse as men that were born and brought up in that service of the Law. But seeing that the Galatians were taken and called out of idolatry to Christian liberty, what pretence might they have to go back to those impotent and beggarly elements?

Ga 4:9

4:9 But now, after that ye have known God, or rather are known of God, how turn ye again to the weak and {k} beggarly elements, whereunto ye desire {l} again to be in bondage?

      (k) They are called impotent and beggarly ceremonies, being considered apart by themselves without Christ: and again, by that means they gave good testimony that they were beggars in Christ, for when men fall back from Christ to ceremonies, it is nothing else but to cast away riches and to follow beggary.
      (l) By going backward.

Ga 4:12

4:12 {5} Brethren, I beseech you, be as I [am]; for I [am] as ye [are]: ye have not injured me at all.

      (5) He moderates and qualifies those things in which he might have seemed to have spoken somewhat sharply, very skilfully and divinely declaring his good will toward them in such a way, that the Galatians could not but either be utterly hopeless when they read these things, or acknowledge their own lack of steadfastness with tears, and desire pardon.

Ga 4:13

4:13 Ye know how through {m} infirmity of the flesh I preached the gospel unto you at the first.

      (m) Many afflictions.

Ga 4:14

4:14 And my {n} temptation which was in my flesh ye despised not, nor rejected; but received me as an angel of God, [even] as {o} Christ Jesus.

      (n) Those daily troubles with which the Lord tried me among you.
      (o) For the sake of my ministry.

Ga 4:15

4:15 {p} Where is then the blessedness ye spake of? for I bear you record, that, if [it had been] possible, ye would have plucked out your own eyes, and have given them to me.

      (p) What a talk was there abroad in the world among men, how happy you were when you received the gospel?

Ga 4:17

4:17 They zealously affect you, {q} [but] not well; yea, they would exclude you, {r} that ye might affect them.

      (q) For they are jealous over you for their own benefit.
      (r) That they may transfer all your love from me to themselves.

Ga 4:18

4:18 But [it is] good to be {s} zealously affected always in [a] good [thing], and not only when I am present with you.

      (s) He sets his own true and good love, which he earnestly held for them, against the wicked vicious love of the false apostles.

Ga 4:20

4:20 I desire to be present with you now, and to {t} change my voice; for I stand in doubt of you.

      (t) Use other words among you.

Ga 4:21

4:21 {6} Tell me, ye that {u} desire to be under the law, do ye not hear the law?

      (6) The false apostles urged this, that unless the Gentiles were circumcised Christ could profit them nothing at all, and also this dissension of those who believed in the circumcision, against those who believed in the uncircumcision, both these things being full of offence. Therefore the apostle, after various arguments with which he has refuted their error, brings forth an allegory, in which he says that the Holy Spirit did through symbolism let us know all these mysteries: that is, that it should come to pass that two sorts of sons should have Abraham as a father common to them both, but not with equal success. For as Abraham begat Ishmael by the common course of nature, of Hagar his bondmaid and a stranger, and begat Isaac of Sara a free woman, by the virtue of the promise, and by grace only, the first was not heir, and also persecuted the heir. So there are two covenants, and as it were two sons born to Abraham by those two covenants, as it were by two mothers. The one was made in Sinai, outside of the land of promise, according to which covenant Abraham's children according to the flesh were begotten: that is, the Jews, who seek righteousness by that covenant, that is, by the Law. But they are not heirs, and they will at length be cast out of the house, as those that persecute the true heirs. The other was made in that high Jerusalem, or in Zion (that is, by the sacrifice of Christ) which begets children of promise, that is, believers, by the power of the Holy Spirit. And these children (like Abraham) do rest themselves in the free promise, and they alone by the right of children will be partakers of the father's inheritance, whereas those servants will be shut out.
      (u) That desire so greatly.

Ga 4:23

4:23 But he [who was] of the bondwoman was born after the {x} flesh; but he of the freewoman [was] by {y} promise.

      (x) As all men are, and by the common course of nature.
      (y) By virtue of the promise, which Abraham laid hold on for himself and his true seed, for otherwise Abraham and Sara were past the begetting and bearing of children.

Ga 4:24

4:24 Which things are an allegory: for {z} these are the {a} two covenants; the one from the mount {b} Sinai, which gendereth to bondage, which is Agar.

      (z) These represent and symbolize.
      (a) They are called two covenants, one of the Old Testament, and another of the New: which were not two indeed, but in respect of the times, and the diversity of the manner of ruling.
      (b) He makes mention of Sinai, because that covenant was made in that mountain, of which mountain Hagar was a symbol.

Ga 4:25

4:25 For this Agar is mount Sinai in Arabia, and {c} answereth to Jerusalem which now is, and {d} is in bondage with her children.

      (c) Look how the case stands between Hagar and her children; even so stands it between Jerusalem and hers.
      (d) That is, Sinai.

Ga 4:26

4:26 But Jerusalem which is {e} above is free, which is the mother of us all.

      (e) Which is excellent, and of great worth.

Ga 4:27

4:27 {7} For it is written, Rejoice, [thou] barren that bearest not; break forth and cry, thou that travailest not: for the {f} desolate hath many more children than she which hath an husband.

      (7) He shows that in this allegory he has followed the steps of Isaiah, who foretold that the Church should be made and consist of the children of barren Sara, that is to say, of those who should be made Ahraham's children by faith, and this only spiritually, rather than of fruitful Hagar, even then foretelling the casting off of the Jews, and the calling of the Gentiles.
      (f) She that is destroyed and laid waste.

Ga 4:28

4:28 Now we, brethren, {g} as Isaac was, are the children of {h} promise.

      (g) After the manner of Isaac, who is the first begotten of the heavenly Jerusalem, as Israel is of the slavish synagogue.
      (h) That seed to which the promise belongs.

Ga 4:29

4:29 But as then he that was born after the {i} flesh persecuted him [that was born] after the {k} Spirit, even so [it is] now.

      (i) By the common course of nature.
      (k) By the virtue of God's promise and after a spiritual manner.

Ga 4:31

4:31 {8} So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free.

      (8) The conclusion of the former allegory, that we by no means procure and call back again the slavery of the Law, seeing that the children of the bondmaid will not be heirs.

Ga 5:2

5:2 {1} Behold, I Paul say unto you, that if ye be {a} circumcised, Christ shall profit you nothing.

      (1) Another entreaty in which he plainly witnesses that justification of works, and justification of faith cannot stand together, because no man can be justified by the Law, but he that does fully and perfectly fulfil it. And he takes the example of circumcision, because it was the ground of all the service of the Law, and was chiefly urged by the false apostles.
      (a) Circumcision is in other places called the seal of righteousness, but here we must have consideration of the circumstance of the time, for now baptism is a sign of the new covenant, just as circumcision was the sign of the old covenant. And moreover Paul reasons according to the opinion that his enemies had of it, which made circumcision a essential to their salvation.

Ga 5:4

5:4 Christ is {b} become of no effect unto you, whosoever of you are {c} justified by the law; ye are fallen from grace.

      (b) That is, as he himself expounds it afterward, "ye are fallen from grace."
      (c) That is, seek to be justified by the Law, for indeed no man is justified by the Law.

Ga 5:5

5:5 {2} For we through the {d} Spirit wait for the hope of righteousness by faith.

      (2) He privately compares the new people with the old: for it is certain that they also did ground all their hope of justification and life in faith, and not in circumcision, but in such a way that their faith was wrapped in the external and ceremonial worship. But our faith is without such ceremony, and content with spiritual worship.
      (d) Through the Spirit who brings about faith.

Ga 5:6

5:6 {3} For in Jesus Christ neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor {4} uncircumcision; {5} but {e} faith which worketh by love.

      (3) He adds a reason, for now circumcision is abolished, seeing that Christ is exhibited to us with complete spiritual circumcision.
      (4) He makes mention also of uncircumcision, lest the Gentiles should please themselves in it, as the Jews do in circumcision.
      (5) The taking away of an objection: if all that worship of the Law is taken away, in what than shall we exercise ourselves? In charity, Paul says: for faith of which we speak cannot be idle; no, it brings forth daily fruits of charity.
      (e) So is true faith distinguished from counterfeit faith: for charity is not joined with faith as a fellow cause, to help forward our justification with faith.

Ga 5:7

5:7 {6} Ye did run well; who did hinder you that ye should not obey the truth?

      (6) Again he chides the Galatians, but with both an admiration and a praise of their former race, so that he may make them more ashamed.

Ga 5:8

5:8 {7} This persuasion [cometh] not of {f} him that calleth you.

      (7) He plays the part of an apostle with them, and uses his authority, denying that any doctrine can come from God which is contrary to his.
      (f) Of God.

Ga 5:9

5:9 {8} A little leaven leaveneth the whole lump.

      (8) He adds this, that he may not seem to contend upon a trifle, warning them diligently (by a metaphor which he borrows of leaven, as Christ himself also did) not to allow the purity of the apostolic doctrine to be infected with the least corruption at all.

Ga 5:10

5:10 {9} I have confidence in you through the Lord, that ye will be none otherwise minded: but he that troubleth you shall bear his judgment, whosoever he be.

      (9) He moderates the former reprehension, casting the fault upon the false apostles, against whom he denounces the horrible judgment of God.

Ga 5:11

5:11 {10} And I, brethren, if I yet preach circumcision, why do I yet suffer persecution? then is the offence of the cross ceased.

      (10) He wishes them to consider that he seeks not his own profit in this matter, seeing that he could avoid the hatred of men if he would join Judaism with Christianity.

Ga 5:12

5:12 {11} I would they were even cut off which {g} trouble you.

      (11) An example of a true pastor inflamed with the zeal of God's glory, and love for his flock.
      (g) For those that preach the Law cause men's consciences to always tremble.

Ga 5:13

5:13 For, brethren, ye have been called unto liberty; {12} only [use] not liberty for an occasion to the flesh, but by love serve one another.

      (12) The third part of this epistle, showing that the right use of Christian liberty consists of this, that being delivered and set at liberty from the slavery of sin and the flesh, and being obedient to the Spirit, we should through love help each other to mature in their salvation.

Ga 5:14

5:14 {13} For {h} all the law is fulfilled in one word, [even] in this; Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.

      (13) He sets forth the love of our neighbour, as a mark unto which all Christians ought to refer all their actions, and to that he cites the testimony of the Law.
      (h) This particle "all" must be limited to the second table of the ten commandments.

Ga 5:15

5:15 {14} But if ye bite and devour one another, take heed that ye be not consumed one of another.

      (14) An exhortation to the duties of charity, by the profit that follows from it, because no men proved worse for themselves than they that hate one another.

Ga 5:16

5:16 {15} [This] I say then, Walk in the Spirit, and ye shall not fulfil the lust of the flesh.

      (15) He acknowledges the great weakness of the godly, because they are but in part regenerated: but he exhorts them to remember that they are endued with the Spirit of God, who has delivered them from the slavery of sin, and so from the Law, inasmuch as it is the power of sin, so that they should not give themselves to lusts.

Ga 5:17

5:17 For the {i} flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh: and these are contrary the one to the other: so that ye cannot do the things that ye would.

      (i) For the flesh dwells even in the regenerated man, but the Spirit reigns, even though not without great strife, as is largely set forth in Ro 7:1-25 .

Ga 5:19

5:19 {16} Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are [these]; Adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness,

      (16) He sets out that particularly of which he spoke generally, reckoning up some principal effects of the flesh, and opposing them to the fruits of the Spirit, that no man may pretend ignorance.

Ga 5:22

5:22 But the {k} fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, gentleness, goodness, faith,

      (k) Therefore they are not the fruits of free will, but only as far forth as our will is made free by grace.

Ga 5:23

5:23 Meekness, temperance: {17} against such there is no law.

      (17) Lest that any man should object that Paul plays the deceiver, as one who urging the Spirit urges nothing but that which the Law commands, he shows that he requires not that literal and outward obedience, but spiritual, which proceeds not from the Law but from the Spirit of Christ, who gives us new birth, and must and ought to be the ruler and guider of our life.

Ga 5:25

5:25 If we {l} live in the Spirit, let us also walk in the Spirit.

      (l) If we are indeed endued with the quickening Spirit, who causes us to die to sin, and live to God, let us show it in our deeds, that is, by holiness of life.

Ga 5:26

5:26 {18} Let us not be desirous of vain glory, provoking one another, envying one another.

      (18) He adds special exhortations according as he knew the Galatians to be subject to different vices: and first of all he warns them to take heed of ambition, which vice has two fellows, backbiting and envy. And out of these two many contentions necessarily arise.

Ga 6:1

6:1 Brethren, {1} if a man be {a} overtaken in a fault, ye which are {b} spiritual, {c} restore such an one in the {d} spirit of meekness; {2} considering thyself, lest thou also be tempted.

      (1) He condemns persistent and pressing harshness, because brotherly reprehensions ought to be moderated and tempered by the spirit of meekness.
      (a) Through the malice of the flesh and the devil.
      (b) Who are upheld by the power of God's Spirit.
      (c) Labour to fill up that which is lacking in him.
      (d) This is a metaphor which the Hebrews use, showing by this that all good gifts come from God.
      (2) He touches the problem, for they are commonly the most severe judges who forget their own weaknesses.

Ga 6:2

6:2 {3} Bear ye one another's burdens, and so fulfil the {e} law of Christ.

      (3) He shows that this is the end of rebukes, to raise up our brother who is fallen, and not proudly to oppress him. Therefore every one must seek to have praise of his own life by approving himself, and not by rebuking others.
      (e) Christ, in plain and clear words, calls the commandment of charity his commandment.

Ga 6:5

6:5 {4} For every man shall bear his own burden.

      (4) A reason why men ought to carefully watch themselves not others, because every man will be judged before God according to his own life, and not by comparing himself with other men.

Ga 6:6

6:6 {5} Let him that is taught in the word communicate unto him that teacheth in {f} all good things.

      (5) It is fitting that teachers should be helped by their students, as much as they are able.
      (f) Of whatever he has according to his ability.

Ga 6:7

6:7 {6} Be not deceived; God is not mocked: for whatsoever a man soweth, that shall he also reap.

      (6) He commends liberality towards the poor, and first of all chides those who were not ashamed to pretend this and that, and all because they would not help their neighbours, as though they could deceive God. And afterward he compares alms to a spiritual sowing which will have a most plentiful harvest, so that it will be very profitable: and compares being a covetous miser to sowing carnally, from which nothing can be gathered but such things as fade away, and eventually perish.

Ga 6:8

6:8 For he that soweth to his {g} flesh shall of the flesh reap corruption; but he that soweth to the Spirit shall of the Spirit reap life everlasting.

      (g) To the commodities of this present life.

Ga 6:9

6:9 {7} And let us not be weary in well doing: for in due season we shall reap, if we faint not.

      (7) Against those who are generous at the beginning, but do not continue, because the harvest seems to be deferred a long time, as though the seed time and the harvest were simultaneous.

Ga 6:10

6:10 {8} As we have therefore opportunity, let us do good unto all [men], especially unto them who are of the household of faith.

      (8) Those that are of the household of faith, that is, those who are joined with us in the profession of one self same religion, ought to be preferred before all others, yet in such a way that our generosity extends to all.

Ga 6:11

6:11 {9} Ye see how large a letter I have written unto you with mine own hand.

      (9) The fourth and last part of the epistle, in which he returns to his principal end and purpose: that is, that the Galatians should not allow themselves to be led out of the way by the false apostles. And he points out what those false apostles are really like, reproving them of ambition, as men who do not act because of any affection and zeal they have for the Law, but only for this purpose, that they may purchase themselves favour amongst their own sort, by the circumcision of the Galatians.

Ga 6:12

6:12 As many as desire to make a {h} fair shew in {i} the flesh, they constrain you to be circumcised; only lest they should suffer persecution for the {k} cross of Christ.

      (h) He sets a fair show against the truth.
      (i) In the keeping of ceremonies.
      (k) For the preaching of him that was crucified.

Ga 6:13

6:13 For neither they themselves who are circumcised keep the law; but desire to have you circumcised, that they may glory in {l} your flesh.

      (l) That they have entangled you in Judaism, and yet he dwells on the aspect of circumcision.

Ga 6:14

6:14 {10} But God forbid that I should {m} glory, save in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom the world is crucified unto me, and I unto the world.

      (10) He does not dwell in comparing himself with them, showing that on the other hand he rejoices in those afflictions which he suffers for Christ's sake, and as he is despised by the world, so does he in the same way consider the world as wicked. And this is the true circumcision of a true Israelite.
      (m) When Paul uses this word in good sense or way, it signifies to rest a man's self wholly in a thing, and to content himself in it.

Ga 6:16

6:16 And as many as walk according to this rule, peace [be] on them, and mercy, and upon the {n} Israel of God.

      (n) Upon the true Israel, whose praise is from God and not from men; Ro 2:29 .

Ga 6:17

6:17 {11} From henceforth let no man trouble me: for I bear in my body the {o} marks of the {p} Lord Jesus.

      (11) Continuing still in the same metaphor, he opposes his miseries and the marks of those stripes which he bore for Christ's sake, against the scar of the outward circumcision, as a true mark of his apostleship.
      (o) Marks which are burnt into a man's flesh, as they used to do in ancient times, to mark their servants that had run away from them.
      (p) For it very important whose marks we bear: for the cause makes the martyr, and not the punishment.

Ga 6:18

6:18 {12} Brethren, the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ [be] with your {q} spirit. Amen. [To [the] Galatians written from Rome.]

      (12) Taking his farewell of them, he wishes them grace, and the Spirit against the deceits of the false apostles, who labour to beat those outward things into their brains.
      (q) With your minds and hearts.

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