1 Samuel
2 Samuel
1 Kings
2 Kings
1 Chronicles
2 Chronicles

Song of Songs



1 Corinthians
2 Corinthians
1 Thessalonians
2 Thessalonians
1 Timothy
2 Timothy

1 Peter
2 Peter
1 John
2 John
3 John

Revelation 1-11
Revelation 12-22

Notes on First Peter

From the Original 1599 Geneva Bible Notes

1Pe 1:2

1:2 {1} Elect according to the {a} foreknowledge of God the Father, through {b} sanctification of the Spirit, unto obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ: Grace unto you, and peace, be multiplied.

      (1) Peter purposing to speak of the duties of a Christian life, reasons first of the principles and beginnings of all Christian actions, rising far higher than nature, and carrying us also far above the same. For he shows that we who are otherwise by nature sinners, were through the free mercy of God the Father first chosen from everlasting: then according to that everlasting decree. We were by a certain second creation made his sons in Christ his only begotten, by whose Spirit we are inwardly changed and by whose blood we are also reconciled. To the end, that as Christ himself rose again from the dead, we also might be received into that same heavenly and everlasting glory.
      (a) Or, according to the purpose of God, who never alters nor changes the same.
      (b) That being set apart from the rest of this wicked world, through the working of the Holy Spirit, they should be consecrated to God; Eph 1:5

1Pe 1:3

1:3 Blessed [be] the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, which according to his abundant mercy hath begotten us again unto a {c} lively hope by the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead,

      (c) Everlasting hope.

1Pe 1:5

1:5 {2} Who are kept by the power of God through faith unto salvation ready to be revealed in the {d} last time.

      (2) Now he shows by what way we come to that glory, that is, through all types of afflictions. Wherein nonetheless faith maketh us so secure, that we are not overcome with sorrow. But through the beholding of God himself (who otherwise is invisible) with the eyes of faith, we are made unspeakably joyful. Because all such things, as they are but for a time, so are they not applied unto us to destroy us, but as it were by fire to purge us, and to make us perfect that at length we may obtain salvation.
      (d) This is that time which Daniel calls the time of the end, when the great restoring of all things shall be, which all creation looks for; Ro 8:19

1Pe 1:7

1:7 That the trial of your faith, being much more precious than of gold that perisheth, though it be tried with fire, might be found unto praise and honour and glory at the {e} appearing of Jesus Christ:

      (e) He speaks of the second coming of Christ.

1Pe 1:10

1:10 {3} Of which salvation the prophets have enquired and searched diligently, who prophesied of the grace [that should come] unto you:

      (3) He makes a difference between true faith, that is to say, that faith which only has an eye to the doctrine of the prophets and apostles, and false faith. Afterward he makes two degrees of one and the same faith, according to the manner of the various revelations, when as in deed it is but one only faith. Thirdly, he says that the preaching of the apostles is the fulfilling of the preaching of the prophets, although the latter end of it be as yet looked for by the very angels.

1Pe 1:12

1:12 Unto whom it was revealed, that not unto themselves, but unto us they did minister the things, which are now reported unto you by them that have preached the gospel unto you with the Holy Ghost {f} sent down from heaven; which things the angels desire to look into.

      (f) He alludes to the prophecy of Joel, which was exhibited upon the day of Pentecost, in the Apostles, as it were in the first fruits of the Holy Spirit, which this same prophecy Peter declares; Ac 2:6

1Pe 1:13

1:13 {4} Wherefore {g} gird up the loins of your mind, be sober, and {5} hope {h} to the end for the grace {6} that is to be brought unto you {7} at the revelation of Jesus Christ;

      (4) He goes from faith to hope, which is indeed a companion that cannot be separated from faith. He uses an argument taken by comparison: We should not be wearied in looking for so excellent a thing, which the very angels wait for with great desire.
      (g) This is a borrowed speech, taken from common use among them: for since they wore long garments, they could not travel unless they girded up themselves: and hence it is that Christ said, Let your loins be girded up.
      (5) He sets forth very briefly, what manner of hope ours ought to be, that is, continual, until we enjoy the thing we hope for: then, what we have to hope for, that is, grace (that is, free salvation) revealed to us in the gospel, and not that, that men do rather and fondly promise to themselves.
      (h) Soundly and sincerely.
      (6) An argument to stir up our minds, seeing that God does not wait until we seek him, but causes so great a benefit to be brought even unto us.
      (7) He sets out the end of faith, lest any man should promise himself, either sooner or latter, that full salvation, that is, the latter coming of Christ. In addition warns that that which we are now, is not yet revealed.

1Pe 1:14

1:14 {8} As obedient children, not fashioning yourselves according to the former lusts in your ignorance:

      (8) He passes from faith and hope, to the fruits of them both, which are understood in the name of obedience. It consists in two things, in renouncing our lusts, and living godly: which lusts have their beginning in that blindness in which all men are born: but holiness proceeds that the father and the children may be of one disposition.

1Pe 1:16

1:16 {9} Because it is written, Be ye holy; for I am holy.

      (9) He shows that sanctification does necessarily follow adoption.

1Pe 1:17

1:17 {10} And if ye {i} call on the Father, who without respect of persons judgeth according to every man's work, pass the time of your sojourning [here] in fear:

      (10) As before he distinguished true faith and hope from false, so does he now obedience, setting the quick and sharp sight of God, against an outward mask, and earnest reverence against vain severity.
      (i) If you will be called the sons of that father.

1Pe 1:18

1:18 (11) Forasmuch as ye know that ye were not redeemed with corruptible things, [as] silver and gold, from your vain conversation [received] by tradition from your fathers;

      (11) An exhortation, in which he sets forth the excellency and greatness of the benefit of God the Father in sanctifying us by the death of his own Son. And he partly sets the purifyings of the law against the thing itself, that is, against the blood of Christ, and partly also men's traditions, which he condemns as utterly vain and superstitious, be they never so old and ancient.

1Pe 1:20

1:20 {12} Who verily was foreordained before the {k} foundation of the world, but was manifest in these last times for you,

      (12) The taking away of an objection: what was done to the world, before Christ was sent into the world? was there no holiness before, and was there no Church? The apostle answers, that Christ was ordained and appointed to redeem and deliver mankind, before mankind was: much less was there any Church without him before his coming in the flesh: yet we are happiest about the rest, to whom Christ was exhibited indeed, in this that he having suffered and overcome death for us, does now most effectually work in us by the power of his Spirit, to create in us faith, hope, and charity.
      (k) From everlasting.

1Pe 1:22

1:22 {13} Seeing ye have purified your souls in obeying the truth through the Spirit unto unfeigned love of the brethren, [see that ye] love one another with a pure heart fervently:

      (13) He commends the practice of obedience, that is, charity: earnestly repeating again, that he speaks not of any common charity, and such as proceeds from that our corrupt nature, but of that whose beginning is the Spirit of God, which purifies our souls through the word laid hold on by faith, and engenders also in us a spiritual and everlasting life, as God himself is most pure and truly living.

1Pe 1:24

1:24 {14} For all {l} flesh [is] as grass, and all the glory of man as the flower of grass. The grass withereth, and the flower thereof falleth away:

      (14) A reason why we need this heavenly birth, that is, because men, though their glory may not be great, are by nature void of all true and sound goodness.
      (l) The word, "flesh", shows the weakness of our nature, which is chiefly to be considered in the flesh itself.

1Pe 1:25

1:25 {15} But the word of the Lord endureth for ever. And this is the word which by the gospel is preached unto you.

      (15) Again lest any man should seek that spiritual force and virtue in feigned imaginations, the apostle calls us back to the word of God: teaching us furthermore, that there is no other word of the Lord to be looked for than this that is preached, in which we must trust alone.

1Pe 2:1

2:1 Wherefore {1} laying aside all malice, and all guile, and hypocrisies, and envies, and all evil speakings,

      (1) Having laid for the foundation the Spirit of God effectually working by the word, and having built on it three virtues which are the grounds of all Christian actions, that is, faith, hope, and charity: now he proceeds to a general exhortation the first part being that we flee all show of both secret and open malice.

1Pe 2:2

2:2 {2} As {a} newborn babes, desire the sincere milk of the word, that ye may grow thereby:

      (2) The second is, that being newly begotten and born of the new seed of the incorrupt word, drinking and sucking greedily the same word as milk, we should grow more and more in that spiritual life. And he calls it, sincere, not only because it is a most pure thing, but also that we should take heed of them which corrupt it.
      (a) As it becomes new men.

1Pe 2:3

2:3 {3} If so be ye have tasted that the Lord [is] gracious.

      (3) He commends that spiritual nourishment for the sweetness and profit of it.

1Pe 2:4

2:4 {4} To whom coming, [as unto] a living stone, disallowed indeed of men, but chosen of God, [and] precious,

      (4) He advances the same exhortation, but uses another kind of borrowed speech, alluding to the temple. Therefore he says, that the company of the faithful is as a certain holy and spiritual building, built of the living stones, the foundation of which is Christ, as a living stone sustaining all that are joined to him with his living power and knitting them together with himself, although this great treasure is neglected by men.

1Pe 2:5

2:5 Ye also, as lively stones, are built up a spiritual house, {5} an holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God by Jesus Christ.

      (5) Continuing, he compares us now to priests, placed for this purpose in the spiritual temple, that we should serve him with a spiritual worship, that is, with holiness and righteousness: but as the temple, so is the priesthood built upon Christ, in who alone all our spiritual offerings are accepted.

1Pe 2:6

2:6 {6} Wherefore also it is contained in the scripture, Behold, I lay in Sion a chief corner stone, elect, precious: and he that believeth on him shall not be confounded.

      (6) He proves it by the testimony of the prophet Isaiah.

1Pe 2:7

2:7 {7} Unto you therefore which believe [he is] precious: but unto them which be disobedient, the stone which the builders disallowed, the same is made the head of the corner,

      (7) By setting the most blessed condition of the believers and triumphs over the other: and also prevents an offence which arises here, that none do more resist this doctrine of the gospel, than they who are chiefest among the people of God. In the time that Peter wrote these things, they were the priests, elders and scribes. Therefore he answers first of all, that there is no reason why any man should be astonished by their stubbornness, as though it were a strange matter, seeing as we have been foretold so long before, that it should so come to pass: and moreover, that it pleased God to create and make certain for this same purpose, that the Son of God might be glorified in their just condemnation. Thirdly, that the glory of Christ is hereby set forth greatly, whereas nonetheless Christ remains the sure head of his Church, and they that are offended by him, cast down and overthrow themselves, and not Christ. Fourthly, although they are created for this end and purpose, yet their fall and destruction is not to be attributed to God, but to their own obstinate stubbornness, which comes between God's decree, and the execution of it, or their condemnation, and is the true and proper cause of their destruction.

1Pe 2:9

2:9 {8} But ye [are] a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people; that ye should shew forth the praises of him who hath called you out of darkness into his marvellous light:

      (8) On the other hand, he describes the singular excellency of the elect, and also lest any man should doubt whether he is chosen or not, the apostle calls us back to the effectual calling, that is, to the voice of the gospel sounding both in our ears and minds by the outward preaching and ordinances, by which we may certainly understand that everlasting decree of our salvation (which otherwise is most secret and hidden) and that through the only mercy of God who freely chooses and calls us. Therefore only this remains, faith, that by all means possible we set forth the great goodness of the most mighty God.

1Pe 2:11

2:11 {9} Dearly beloved, {10} I beseech [you] as strangers and pilgrims, {11} abstain from fleshly lusts, {12} which war against the soul;

      (9) He returns to that general exhortation.
      (10) A reason why we ought to live holy, that is, because we are citizens of heaven, and therefore we ought to live not according to the laws of this world, which is most corrupt, but of the heavenly city, although we are strangers in the world.
      (11) Another argument: The children of God live not according to the flesh, that is, according to that corrupt nature, but according to the Spirit. Therefore fleshly actions should not rule us.
      (12) The third argument: for although those lusts gratify us, yet they do not cease to fight against our salvation.

1Pe 2:12

2:12 {13} Having your conversation honest among the Gentiles: that, whereas they speak against you as evildoers, they {14} may by [your] good works, which they shall behold, glorify God in the day of {b} visitation.

      (13) The fourth argument, taken from the profit of so doing: for by this means also we provide for our good name and estimation, while we compel them at length to change their minds, who speak evil of us.
      (14) The fifth argument, which is also of great force: because the glory of God is greatly set forth by that means, by example of our honest life, then the most corrupt men are brought to God, and submit themselves to him.
      (b) When God shall have mercy on them.

1Pe 2:13

2:13 {15} Submit yourselves to {c} every ordinance of man {16} for the Lord's sake: {17} whether it be to the king, as supreme;

      (15) That which he spoke generally, he now expounds in detail, describing individually every man's duty. First, he speaks of the obedience that is due both to the laws, and also to the magistrates both higher and lower.
      (c) By ordinance, is meant the inventing and ordering of civil government, which he calls ordinance of man, not because man invented it, but because it is proper for men.
      (16) The first argument: because the Lord is the author and avenger of this policy of men, that is, which is set among men: and therefore the true servants of the Lord must above all others be diligent observers of this order.
      (17) He prevents a frivolous objection which is made by some, who say they will obey kings and the higher magistrates, and yet condemn their ministers, as though their ministers were not armed with the authority of those who sent them.

1Pe 2:14

2:14 Or unto governors, as unto them that are sent by him {18} for the punishment of evildoers, and for the praise of them that do well.

      (18) The second argument taken from the end of this order, which is not only most profitable, but also very necessary: seeing that by that this means virtue is rewarded, and vice punished, in which the peacefulness and happiness if this life consists.

1Pe 2:15

2:15 {19} For so is the will of God, that with well doing ye may put to silence the ignorance of foolish men:

      (19) He declares the first argument more amply, showing that Christian liberty does among all things least or not at all consist in this, that is, to cast off the bridle of laws (as at that time some altogether unskilful in the kingdom of God reported) but rather in this, that living holy lives according to the will of God, we should reveal to all men, that the gospel is not a cloak for sin and wickedness, seeing we are free of this sort, that yet we are still the servants of God, and not of sin.

1Pe 2:17

2:17 {20} {d} Honour all [men]. Love the {e} brotherhood. Fear God. Honour the king.

      (20) He divides the civil life of man, by occasion of those things of which he spoke, into two general parts: that is, into those duties which private men owe to private men, and especially the faithful to the faithful, and into that subjection by which inferiors are bound to their superiors, but so that kings are not made equal to God, seeing that fear is due to God, and honour to kings.
      (d) Be charitable and dutiful towards all men.
      (e) The assembly and fellowship of the brethren. Zec 11:14

1Pe 2:18

2:18 {21} Servants, [be] subject to [your] masters with all fear; not only to the good and gentle, but also to the froward.

      (21) He goes to the duty of servants towards their masters, which he describes with these bounds, that servants submit themselves willingly and not by force, not only to the good and courteous, but also to the perverse and severe matters.

1Pe 2:19

2:19 {22} For this [is] thankworthy, if a man for {f} conscience toward God endure grief, suffering wrongfully.

      (22) The taking away of an objection: indeed the condition of servants is hard, especially if they have perverse masters, but thus their subjection shall be so much more acceptable to God, if his will prevails more with servants, than the masters wrong treatment.
      (f) Because he makes a conscience of it, to offend God, by whose good will and appointment he knows this burden is laid upon him.

1Pe 2:21

2:21 {23} For even hereunto were ye called: because Christ also suffered for us, leaving us an {g} example, that ye should follow his steps:

      (23) He alleviates the grievousness of servanthood, while he shows plainly that Christ died also for servants, that they should bear so much more patiently this inequality between men who are of the same nature: moreover setting before them Christ the Lord of lords for an example, he signifies that they cannot but seem too subdued, who show themselves more grieved in the bearing of injuries, than Christ himself who was most just, and most severely of all afflicted, and yet was most patient.
      (g) A metaphor of speech taken from painters and schoolmasters.

1Pe 2:23

2:23 Who, when he was reviled, reviled not again; when he suffered, he threatened not; but {24} committed [himself] to him {25} that judgeth righteously:

      (24) He shows them a remedy against injuries, that is, that they commend their cause to God, by the example of Christ.
      (25) He seems now to turn his speech to masters, who have also themselves a master and judge in heaven, who will justly avenge the injuries that are done to servants, without any respecting of people.

1Pe 2:24

2:24 {26} Who his own self bare our sins in his own body on the tree, that we, being dead to sins, should live unto righteousness: by whose stripes ye were healed.

      (26) He calls the servants back from considering the injuries which they are constrained to bear, to think instead on the greatness and the end of the benefit received from Christ.

1Pe 3:1

3:1 Likewise, {1} ye wives, [be] in subjection to your own husbands; {2} that, if any obey not the word, they also may without the word be won by the conversation of the wives;

      (1) In the third place he sets forth the wives' duties to their husbands, commanding them to be obedient.
      (2) He speaks namely of those who had husbands who were not Christians, who ought so much the more be subject to their husbands, that by their honest and chaste conversation, they may win them to the Lord.

1Pe 3:3

3:3 {3} Whose adorning let it not be that outward [adorning] of plaiting the hair, and of wearing of gold, or of putting on of apparel;

      (3) He condemns the unrestrained indulgences and excesses of women, and sets forth their true apparel, such as is precious before God, that is, the inward and incorruptible, which consists in a meek and quiet spirit.

1Pe 3:4

3:4 But [let it be] the {a} hidden man of the heart, in that which is not corruptible, [even the ornament] of a meek and quiet spirit, which is {b} in the sight of God of great price.

      (a) Who has his abiding place fastened in the heart: so that the hidden man is set against the outward adorning of the body.
      (b) Precious indeed and so taken of God.

1Pe 3:5

3:5 {4} For after this manner in the old time the holy women also, who trusted in God, adorned themselves, being in subjection unto their own husbands:

      (4) An argument taken from the example of women, and especially of Sarah, who was the mother of all believers.

1Pe 3:6

3:6 Even as Sara obeyed Abraham, calling him lord: whose daughters ye are, as long as ye do well, and are {5} not afraid with any amazement.

      (5) Because women are by nature fearful, he gives them to understand that he requires of them that subjection, which is not wrung out from them either by force or fear.

1Pe 3:7

3:7 {6} Likewise, ye husbands, {c} dwell with [them] according to {d} knowledge, {7} giving {e} honour unto the wife, as unto the weaker {f} vessel, {8} and as being heirs together of the {g} grace of life; {9} that your prayers be not hindered.

      (6) He also teaches husbands their duties, that is, that the more understanding and wisdom they have, the more wisely and circumspectly they behave themselves.
      (c) Do all the duties of wedlock.
      (d) The more wisdom the husband has, the more circumspectly he must behave himself in bearing those inconveniences, which through the woman's weakness often cause trouble both to the husband and the wife.
      (7) The second argument: because the wife nonetheless is weaker by nature than the man, she is an excellent instrument of the man, made for far more excellent uses: upon which it follows that she is not therefore to be neglected, because she is weak, but on the contrary she ought to be so much more cared for.
      (e) Having an honest care for her.
      (f) The woman is called a vessel after the manner of the Hebrews, because the husband uses her as his friend and helper, to live faithfully before God.
      (8) The third argument: for that they are equal in that which is the most important (that is to say, in the benefit of eternal life) who otherwise are unequal concerning the leadership and conduct at home, and therefore they are not to be despised although they are weak.
      (g) Of that gracious and free benefit, by which we have everlasting life given to us.
      (9) The fourth argument: All fighting and rebuking must be avoided, because they hinder prayers and the whole service of God, to which both the husband and wife are equally called.

1Pe 3:8

3:8 {10} Finally, [be ye] all of one mind, having compassion one of another, love as brethren, [be] pitiful, [be] courteous:

      (10) He turns to common exhortations, and commends harmony and whatever things pertain to the maintenance of peace and mutual love.

1Pe 3:9

3:9 {11} Not rendering evil for evil, or railing for railing: but contrariwise blessing; {12} knowing that ye are thereunto called, that ye should inherit a blessing.

      (11) We must not only not recompense injury for injury, but we must also recompense them with benefits.
      (12) An argument taken by comparison: Seeing that we ourselves are unworthy of so great bountifulness, than forgive one another's faults? And from this verse to the end of the chapter, 1Pe 3:9-22 , there is a digression, to exhort us valiantly to bear afflictions.

1Pe 3:10

3:10 {13} For he that will love life, and {h} see good days, let him refrain his tongue from evil, and his lips that they speak no guile:

      (13) A secret objection: But this our patience shall be nothing else but an inciting and hardening of the wicked in their wickedness, to make them set upon us more boldly and destroy us. Indeed (faith the apostle by the words of David) to live without doing harm, and to follow after peace when it flies away, is the way to that happy and quiet peace. If so be any man be afflicted for doing justly, the Lord marks all things, and will in his time deliver the godly, who cry to him, and will destroy the wicked.
      (h) Lead a blessed and happy life.

1Pe 3:12

3:12 For the eyes of the Lord [are] over the righteous, and his ears [are open] unto their prayers: but the {i} face of the Lord [is] against them that do evil.

      (i) This word "face" after the manner of the Hebrews, is taken for "anger".

1Pe 3:13

3:13 {14} And who [is] he that will harm you, if ye be followers of that which is good?

      (14) The second argument: when the wicked are provoked, they are more wayward: therefore they must instead be won by good deeds. If they cannot be gained by that means also, yet nonetheless we shall be blessed if we suffer for righteousness sake.

1Pe 3:14

3:14 But and if ye suffer for righteousness' sake, happy [are ye]: {15} and be not afraid of their {k} terror, neither be troubled;

      (15) A most certain counsel in afflictions, be they never so terrible, to be of a steady mind and to stand fast. But how shall we attain to it? If we sanctify God in our minds and hearts, that is to say, if we rest upon him as one that is almighty that loves mankind, that is good and true indeed.
      (k) Be not dismayed as they are.

1Pe 3:15

3:15 But {l} sanctify the Lord God in your hearts: {16} and [be] ready always to [give] an answer to every man that asketh you a reason of the hope that is in you with meekness and fear:

      (l) Give him all prayers and glory, and hang only on him.
      (16) He will have us, when we are afflicted for righteousness sake, to be careful not for redeeming of our life, either with denying or renouncing the truth, or with like violence, or any such means: but rather to give an account of our faith boldly, and yet with a meek spirit, and full of godly reverence, that the enemies may not have anything justly to object, but may rather be ashamed of themselves.

1Pe 3:17

3:17 {17} For [it is] better, if the will of God be so, that ye suffer for well doing, than for evil doing.

      (17) A reason which stands upon two general rules of Christianity, which nonetheless all men do not allow. The one is, if we must suffer afflictions, it is better to suffer wrongfully than rightfully: the other is this, because we are so afflicted not by accident, but by the will of our God.

1Pe 3:18

3:18 {18} For Christ also hath once suffered for sins, {19} the just for the unjust, {20} that he might bring us to God, {21} being put to death in the {m} flesh, but quickened by the Spirit:

      (18) A proof of either of the rules, by the example of Christ himself our chief pattern, who was afflicted not for his own sins (which were none) but for ours, and that according to his Father's decree.
      (19) An argument taken by comparison: Christ the just, suffered for us that are unjust and shall it grieve us who are unjust, to suffer for the cause of Christ.
      (20) Another argument being partly taken of things coupled together, that is, because Christ brings us to his Father that same way that he went himself, and partly from the cause efficient: that is, because Christ is not only set before us for an example to follow, but also he holds us up by his power in all the difficulties of this life, until he bring us to his Father.
      (21) Another argument taken from the happy end of these afflictions, in which Christ also goes before us both in example and power, as one who suffered most grievous torments even to death, although but only in one part of him, that is, in the flesh or man's nature: but yet became conqueror by virtue of his divinity.
      (m) As touching his manhood, for his body was dead, and his soul felt the sorrows of death.

1Pe 3:19

3:19 {22} By which also he went and preached unto the spirits in prison;

      (22) A secret objection: Christ indeed might do this, but what is that to us? Indeed (faith the apostle) for Christ has showed his power in all ages both in the preservation of the godly, were they never so few and miserable, and in avenging the rebellion of his enemies, as it appears by the history of the flood: for Christ is he who in those days (when God through his patience appointed a time of repentance to the world) was present, not in corporal presence, but by his divine power, preaching repentance, even by the mouth of Noah himself who then prepared the ark, to those disobedient spirits who are now in prison, waiting for the full recompence of their rebellion, and saved those few, (that is, only eight people) in the water.

1Pe 3:20

3:20 Which sometime were disobedient, when {n} once the longsuffering of God waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was a preparing, wherein few, that is, eight {o} souls were saved by water.

      (n) This word "once" shows that there was a furthermost day appointed, and if that were once past, there should be no more.
      (o) Men.

1Pe 3:21

3:21 {23} The like figure whereunto [even] baptism doth also now save us (not the putting away of the filth of the flesh, but the answer of a good conscience toward {p} God,) {24} by the resurrection of Jesus Christ:

      (23) A proportional applying of the former example to the time which followed the coming of Christ: for the preservation of Noah in the waters, was a figure of our baptism, not as though the material water of baptism shows us, as those waters which bare up the ark saved Noah, but because Christ with his inward virtue, which the outward baptism shadows, preserves us being washed, so that we may call upon God with a good conscience.
      (p) The conscience being sanctified, may freely call upon God.
      (24) That same virtue, by which Christ rose again, and now being carried up into heaven has received all power, does at this day defend and preserve us.

1Pe 4:1

4:1 Forasmuch {1} then as Christ hath suffered for us in the flesh, arm yourselves likewise with the same mind: for he that hath suffered in the flesh hath ceased from sin;

      (1) Having ended his digression and sliding from his matter, now he returns to the exhortation which he broke off, taking occasion by that which he said concerning the death and resurrection of Christ, so defining our sanctification, that to be sanctified, is all one has to suffer in the flesh, that is to say, to leave off from our wickedness and viciousness: and to rise again to God, that is to say, to be renewed by the virtue of the holy Spirit, that we may lead the rest of our life which remains after the will of God.

1Pe 4:2

4:2 That he no longer should live the {a} rest of [his] time in the flesh to the lusts of men, but to the will of God.

      (a) So much of this present life as remains yet to be passed over.

1Pe 4:3

4:3 {2} For the time past of [our] life may suffice us to have wrought the {b} will of the Gentiles, when we walked in lasciviousness, lusts, excess of wine, revellings, banquetings, and abominable idolatries:

      (2) By putting us in mind of the dishonesty of our former life led in the filth of sin, he calls us to earnest repentance.
      (b) Wickedly and licentiously after the manner of the Gentiles.

1Pe 4:4

4:4 {3} Wherein they think it {c} strange that ye run not with [them] to the same excess of riot, speaking evil of [you]:

      (3) That we be not moved with the enemies perverse and slanderous judgments of us, we have to set against them that last judgment of God which remains for them: for none, whether they be then found living or were dead before, shall escape it.
      (c) They think it a new and strange matter.

1Pe 4:6

4:6 {4} For this cause was the gospel preached also to them that are dead, that they might be judged according to men in the flesh, but live according to God in the spirit.

      (4) A digression because he made mention of the last general judgement. He prevents an objection, that, seeing Christ came very lately, they may seem to be excusable who died before. But this the apostle denies: for (faith he) this same gospel was preached to them also (for he speaks to the Jews) and that to the same end that I now preach it to you, that is, that the flesh being abolished and put away (that is to say, that wicked and disobedient corruption which reigns in men) they should suffer themselves to be governed by the virtue of the Spirit of God.

1Pe 4:7

4:7 {5} But the end of all things is at hand: be ye therefore sober, and watch unto prayer.

      (5) He returns to his purpose, using an argument taken from the circumstance of the time. Because the last end is at hand, and therefore we must much more diligently watch and pray, with true sobriety of mind.

1Pe 4:8

4:8 {6} And above all things have fervent charity among yourselves: for charity shall cover the multitude of sins.

      (6) He commends charity towards one another, because it buries a multitude of sins, and therefore preserves and maintains peace and harmony: for they who love one another easily forgive one another their offences.

1Pe 4:9

4:9 {7} Use hospitality one to another without grudging.

      (7) Of all the duties of charity, he commends one, namely that which was at that time most necessary, that is, hospitality, which he would have be voluntary and most courteous and bountiful.

1Pe 4:10

4:10 {8} As every man hath received the gift, [even so] minister the same one to another, {9} as good stewards of the manifold grace of God.

      (8) He shows the use of charity, that is, that every man bestow that gift which he hath received, to the profit of his neighbour.
      (9) A reason, because that whatever gift we have, we have received it from God on this condition, to be his disposers and stewards.

1Pe 4:11

4:11 {10} If any man speak, [let him speak] as the oracles of God; if any man minister, [let him do it] as of the ability which God giveth: that God in all things may be glorified through Jesus Christ, to whom be praise and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.

      (10) He reckons up two kinds of these gifts as chief, that is, the office of teaching in the Church, and the other ecclesiastical functions, in which two things especially are to be observed: that is, that the pure word of God be taught, and whatever is done, be referred to the glory of God the Father in Christ, as to the proper mark.

1Pe 4:12

4:12 {11} Beloved, think it not {d} strange {12} concerning the fiery trial which is to try you, as though some strange thing happened unto you:

      (11) Because that cross is joined with the sincere profession of religion, the apostle fitly repeats what he touched on before, warning us not to be troubled at persecutions and afflictions, as at a new and strange thing.
      (d) As though some new thing had befallen you, which you never thought of before.
      (12) The first reason: because the Lord does not mean to confuse us with his fire (as it were) but to purge us of our impurities and make us perfect.

1Pe 4:13

4:13 {13} But rejoice, inasmuch as ye are partakers of Christ's sufferings; that, when his glory shall be revealed, ye may be glad also with exceeding joy.

      (13) Another reason: because the afflictions of the godly and the wicked differ very much, and chiefly in three points. First, because the godly communicate with Christ in the afflictions, and therefore shall in their time also be partakers of his glory.

1Pe 4:14

4:14 {14} If ye be reproached for the name of Christ, happy [are ye]; for the {e} spirit of glory and of God resteth upon you: on their part he is evil spoken of, but on your part he is glorified.

      (14) Secondly, although the infidels think otherwise, who in afflicting the godly blaspheme God, yet the godly in that they are so abused, are honoured by God with true spiritual glory, and their adoption is sealed by the Spirit of God.
      (e) By "Spirit" he means the gifts of the Spirit.

1Pe 4:15

4:15 {15} But let none of you suffer as a murderer, or [as] a thief, or [as] an evildoer, or as a busybody in other men's matters.

      (15) The third difference: the godly are not afflicted for their evil doings, but for righteousness' sake as Christians: by which it comes to pass that the cross, seeing it is a testimony to them of faith and righteousness, ministers to them not an occasion of sorrow, but of unspeakable joy: now the apostle propounds this third difference under the form of an exhortation.

1Pe 4:17

4:17 {16} For the time [is come] that judgment must begin at the house of God: and {17} if [it] first [begin] at us, what shall the end [be] of them that obey not the gospel of God?

      (16) The third reason: because the Lord of all the world being especially watchful over those in his household, does therefore discipline them first of all, yet so that he keeps a measure in his greatest severity. As he always used to do until now, so he does now especially when he exhibited himself in person to his Church.
      (17) Lest the godly should be offended and stumble at that vain shadow of happiness of the wicked, as though God were not the governor of the world, for that the wicked are in good case, and the godly in evil, the apostle teaches by an argument of a comparison of them together, that God who spares not his own, but nurtures them under the cross, will at length in his time handle the rebellious and wicked far otherwise, whom he has appointed to utter destruction.

1Pe 4:19

4:19 {18} Wherefore let them that suffer according to the will of God commit the keeping of their souls [to him] in well doing, as unto a faithful Creator.

      (18) The conclusion: seeing the godly are not afflicted by chance, but by the will of God, they ought not to despair, but go forward nonetheless in the way of holiness and well doing, commending themselves to God their faithful creator, that is to say, their Father.

1Pe 5:1

5:1 The {1} elders which are among you {2} I exhort, who am also an elder, and a witness of the sufferings of Christ, and also a partaker of the glory that shall be revealed:

      (1) He describes peculiarly the office of the Elders, that is to say, of them that have the care of the Church.
      (2) He uses a preface concerning the circumstance of his own person: that is, that he as their companion communes with them not of manners which he knows not, but in which he is as well experienced as any, and propounds to them no other condition but that which he himself has sustained before them, and still takes the same trouble, and also has the same hope together with them.

1Pe 5:2

5:2 {3} {a} Feed the {4} flock of God which is {5} among you, {6} taking the oversight [thereof], not by constraint, but willingly; not for filthy lucre, but of a ready mind;

      (3) The first rule: he that is a shepherd let him feed the flock.
      (4) The second: Let not shepherd consider, that the flock is not his, but Gods.
      (5) The third: Let not shepherds invade other men's flocks, but let them feed that which God hath committed unto them.
      (6) Let the shepherds govern the Church with the word and example of godly and unblamable life, not by force but willingly, not for greedy gain, but with a ready mind, not as lords over God's portion and heritage, but as his ministers.

1Pe 5:3

5:3 Neither as being lords over [God's] {b} heritage, but being ensamples to the flock.

      (b) Which is the Christian people.

1Pe 5:4

5:4 {7} And when the chief Shepherd shall appear, ye shall receive a crown of glory that fadeth not away.

      (7) That the shepherds' minds are not overcome either with the wickedness of men, or their cruelty, he warns them to continually look at the chief shepherd, and the crown which is laid up for them in heaven.

1Pe 5:5

5:5 {8} Likewise, ye younger, submit yourselves unto the elder. Yea, all [of you] be subject one to another, and be clothed with humility: {9} for God resisteth the proud, and giveth grace to the humble.

      (8) He commends many peculiar Christian virtues, and especially modesty: an admonition all of us need, but especially the younger ones by reason of the perverseness and pride of that age.
      (9) Because pride seems to many to be the way to the glory of this life, the apostle testifies to the opposite, that dishonour and shame is the reward of pride, and glory the reward of modesty.

1Pe 5:6

5:6 Humble yourselves therefore {10} under the mighty hand of God, that he may exalt you in due time:

      (10) Because those proud and lofty spirits threaten the modest and humble, the apostle warns us to set the power of God against the vanity of proud men, and to rely completely on his providence.

1Pe 5:8

5:8 {11} Be sober, be vigilant; because your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about, seeking whom he may devour:

      (11) The cruelty of Satan, who seeks by all means to devour us, is overcome by watchfulness and faith.

1Pe 5:9

5:9 Whom resist stedfast in the faith, {12} knowing that the same afflictions are accomplished in your {c} brethren that are in the world.

      (12) The persecutions which Satan stirs up, are neither new nor proper to any one man, but from old and ancient times common to the whole Church, and therefore we must suffer patiently, in which we have such and so many fellows of our conflicts and combats.
      (c) Amongst your brethren which are dispersed throughout the world.

1Pe 5:10

5:10 {13} But the God of all grace, who hath called us unto his eternal glory by Christ Jesus, after that ye have suffered a while, make you perfect, stablish, strengthen, settle [you].

      (13) He seals up as with a seal the former exhortation with a solemn prayer, again willing them to ask increase of strength at his hands, of whom they had the beginning, and hope to have the accomplishment: that is, of God the Father in Christ Jesus, in whom we are sure of the glory of eternal life.

1Pe 5:12

5:12 {14} By Silvanus, a faithful brother unto you, as I suppose, I have written briefly, exhorting, and testifying that this is the true grace of God wherein ye stand.

      (14) Continuance and perseverance in the doctrine of the apostles is the only ground and foundation of Christian strength: Now the sum of the apostles doctrine, is salvation freely given by God.

1Pe 5:13

5:13 {15} The [church that is] at {d} Babylon, elected together with [you], saluteth you; and [so doth] Marcus my son.

      (15) Familiar salutations.
      (d) In that famous city of Assyria, where Peter the apostle of circumcision then was.

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