1 Samuel
2 Samuel
1 Kings
2 Kings
1 Chronicles
2 Chronicles

Song of Songs



1 Corinthians
2 Corinthians
1 Thessalonians
2 Thessalonians
1 Timothy
2 Timothy

1 Peter
2 Peter
1 John
2 John
3 John

Revelation 1-11
Revelation 12-22

Notes on First Samuel
From the Original 1599 Geneva Bible Notes

1Sa 1:1

1:1 Now there was a certain man of {a} Ramathaimzophim, of mount Ephraim, and his name [was] Elkanah, the son of Jeroham, the son of Elihu, the son of Tohu, the son of Zuph, an Ephrathite:

The Argument - As God had ordained in De 17:14, that when the Israelites entered the land of Canaan, he would appoint a king for them: so here in the first book of Samuel the state of the people under their first king Saul is declared. Not content with the order that God had temporarily appointed for the government of his Church, they demanded a king, so that they might be as other nations. As well they thought they would be better off, not because they could serve God better by it, but because they would be under the safeguard of him who represented Jesus Christ the true deliverer. Therefore God gave them a tyrant and a hypocrite to rule over them, so that they might learn that a king is not sufficient to defend them, unless God by his power preserves and keeps them. Therefore he punishes the ingratitude of his people, and sends them continual wars both at home and abroad. Also, because Saul, whom God had given to the honour of a king out of nothing, did not acknowledge God's mercy to him, but rather disobeyed the word of God and was not zealous of his glory, he was removed from his estate by God, and David the true figure of Messiah was placed in his stead. His patience, modesty, constancy, persecution by open enemies, feigned friends, and deceitful flatterers, is left to the Church and to every member of it, as a pattern and example of their state and calling.

      (a) There were two Ramatus, so that in this city in mount Ephraim were Zophim, that is, the learned men and prophets.

1Sa 1:3

1:3 And this man went up out of his city yearly to worship and to sacrifice unto the LORD of hosts in {b} Shiloh. And the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, the priests of the LORD, [were] there.

      (b) For the ark was there at that time.

1Sa 1:5

1:5 But unto Hannah he gave a worthy {c} portion; for he loved Hannah: but the LORD had shut up her womb.

      (c) Some read, a portion with a hearty cheer.

1Sa 1:8

1:8 Then said Elkanah her husband to her, Hannah, why weepest thou? and why eatest thou not? and why is thy heart grieved? [am] not I better to thee than ten {d} sons?

      (d) Let this comfort you, that I love you no less than if you had many children.

1Sa 1:9

1:9 So Hannah rose up after they had eaten in Shiloh, and after they had drunk. Now Eli the priest sat upon a seat by a post of the {e} temple of the LORD.

      (e) That is of the house where the ark was.

1Sa 1:18

1:18 And she said, Let thine handmaid find {f} grace in thy sight. So the woman went her way, and did eat, and her countenance was no more [sad].

      (f) That is, pray to the Lord for me.

1Sa 1:19

1:19 And they rose up in the morning early, and worshipped before the LORD, and returned, and came to their house to Ramah: and Elkanah knew Hannah his wife; and the LORD {g} remembered her.

      (g) According to her petition.

1Sa 1:21

1:21 And the man {h} Elkanah, and all his house, went up to offer unto the LORD the yearly sacrifice, and his vow.

      (h) This Elkanah was a Levite, 1Ch 6:27, and as some write once a year they were accustomed to appear before the Lord with their families.

1Sa 1:23

1:23 And Elkanah her husband said unto her, Do what seemeth thee good; tarry until thou have weaned him; only the LORD establish his {i} word. So the woman abode, and gave her son suck until she weaned him.

      (i) Because her prayer took effect, therefore it was called the Lord's promise.

1Sa 1:26

1:26 And she said, Oh my lord, [as] thy {k} soul liveth, my lord, I [am] the woman that stood by thee here, praying unto the LORD.

      (k) That is, most certainly.

1Sa 1:28

1:28 Therefore also I have lent him to the LORD; as long as he liveth he shall be lent to the LORD. And he {l} worshipped the LORD there.

      (l) Meaning, Eli gave thanks to God for her.

1Sa 2:1

2:1 And Hannah {a} prayed, and said, My heart rejoiceth in the LORD, mine {b} horn is exalted in the LORD: my mouth is {c} enlarged over mine enemies; because I rejoice in thy salvation.

      (a) After she had obtained a son by prayer she gave thanks.
      (b) I have recovered strength and glory by the benefit of the Lord.
      (c) I can answer them that criticize my barrenness.

1Sa 2:3

2:3 Talk {d} no more so exceeding proudly; let [not] arrogancy come out of your mouth: for the LORD [is] a God of knowledge, and by him actions are weighed.

      (d) In that you condemn my barrenness, you show your pride against God.

1Sa 2:5

2:5 [They that were] full have hired out themselves for {e} bread; and [they that were] hungry ceased: so that the barren hath born seven; and she that hath many children is waxed feeble.

      (e) They sell their labours for necessary food.

1Sa 2:8

2:8 He raiseth up the poor out of the dust, [and] lifteth up the beggar from the dunghill, to set [them] among {f} princes, and to make them inherit the throne of glory: for the pillars of the earth [are] the {g} LORD'S, and he hath set the world upon them.

      (f) He prefers to honour, and does according to his own will, though man's judgment is contrary.
      (g) Therefore he may dispose all things according to his will.

1Sa 2:10

2:10 The adversaries of the LORD shall be broken to pieces; out of heaven shall he thunder upon them: the LORD shall judge the ends of the earth; and he shall give strength unto his {h} king, and exalt the horn of his anointed.

      (h) She grounded her prayer on Jesus Christ who was to come.

1Sa 2:11

2:11 And Elkanah went to Ramah to his house. And the child did minister unto the {i} LORD before Eli the priest.

      (i) In all that Eli commanded him.

1Sa 2:12

2:12 Now the sons of Eli [were] sons of Belial; they {k} knew not the LORD.

      (k) That is, they neglected his ordinance.

1Sa 2:14

2:14 And he struck [it] into the pan, or kettle, or caldron, or pot; {l} all that the fleshhook brought up the priest took for himself. So they did in Shiloh unto all the Israelites that came thither.

      (l) Transgressing the order appointed in the Law, Le 7:31, for their bellies sake.

1Sa 2:15

2:15 Also before they burnt the {m} fat, the priest's servant came, and said to the man that sacrificed, Give flesh to roast for the priest; for he will not have sodden flesh of thee, but raw.

      (m) Which was commanded first to have been offered to God.

1Sa 2:16

2:16 And [if] any man said unto him, Let them not fail to burn the fat presently, and [then] take [as much] as thy soul {n} desireth; then he would answer him, [Nay]; but thou shalt give [it me] now: and if not, I will take [it] by force.

      (n) Not passing for their own profit, so that God might be served rightly.

1Sa 2:17

2:17 Wherefore the sin of the young men was very great before the LORD: for men {o} abhorred the offering of the LORD.

      (o) Seeing the horrible abuse of it.

1Sa 2:22

2:22 Now Eli was very old, and heard all that his sons did unto all Israel; and how they lay with the women that {p} assembled [at] the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.

      (p) Which was (as the Hebrews write) after their travail, when they came to be purified, read Ex 38:8, Le 12:6.

1Sa 2:24

2:24 Nay, my sons; for [it is] no good report that I hear: ye make the LORD'S people to {q} transgress.

      (q) Because they contemn their duty to God, 1Sa 2:17.

1Sa 2:25

2:25 If one man sin against another, the judge shall judge him: but if a man sin against the LORD, who shall intreat for him? Notwithstanding they hearkened not unto the voice of their father, because the LORD {r} would slay them.

      (r) So that to obey good admonition is God's mercy, and to disobey them is his just judgment for sin.

1Sa 2:27

2:27 And there came a man of God unto Eli, and said unto him, Thus saith the LORD, Did I plainly appear unto the house of thy {s} father, when they were in Egypt in Pharaoh's house?

      (s) That is, Aaron.

1Sa 2:29

2:29 Wherefore {t} kick ye at my sacrifice and at mine offering, which I have commanded [in my] habitation; and honourest thy sons above me, to make yourselves fat with the chiefest of all the offerings of Israel my people?

      (t) Why have you contemned my sacrifices, and as it were trod them under foot?

1Sa 2:30

2:30 Wherefore the LORD God of Israel saith, I said indeed [that] thy house, and the house of thy father, should walk before me for ever: but now the LORD saith, {u} Be it far from me; for them that honour me I will honour, and they that despise me shall be lightly esteemed.

      (u) God's promises are only effective to those he gives faith to fear and obey him.

1Sa 2:31

2:31 Behold, the days come, that I will cut off thine {x} arm, and the arm of thy father's house, that there shall not be an old man in thine house.

      (x) Thy power and authority.

1Sa 2:32

2:32 And thou {y} shalt see an enemy [in my] habitation, in all [the wealth] which [God] shall give Israel: and there shall not be an old man in thine house for ever.

      (y) Your posterity will see the glory of the chief priest given to another, whom they will envy, 1Ki 2:27.

1Sa 2:35

2:35 And I will raise me up a {z} faithful priest, [that] shall do according to [that] which [is] in mine heart and in my mind: and I will build him a sure house; and he shall walk before mine anointed for ever.

      (z) Meaning Zadok, who succeeded Abiathar, and was the figure of Christ.

1Sa 2:36

2:36 And it shall come to pass, [that] every one that is left in thine house shall come [and] {a} crouch to him for a piece of silver and a morsel of bread, and shall say, Put me, I pray thee, into one of the priests' offices, that I may eat a piece of bread.

      (a) That is, will be inferior to him.

1Sa 3:1

3:1 And the child Samuel ministered unto the LORD {a} before Eli. And the word of the LORD was {b} precious in those days; [there was] no open vision.

      (a) The Chaldee text reads "while Eli lived".
      (b) Because there were very few prophets to declare it.

1Sa 3:2

3:2 And it came to pass at that time, when Eli [was] laid down in his {c} place, and his eyes began to wax dim, [that] he could not see;

      (c) In the court next to the tabernacle.

1Sa 3:3

3:3 And ere the {d} lamp of God went out in the temple of the LORD, where the ark of God [was], and Samuel was laid down [to sleep];

      (d) That is, the lamps which burnt in the night.

1Sa 3:4

3:4 That the LORD {e} called Samuel: and he answered, Here [am] I.

      (e) Josephus writes that Samuel was 12 years old when the Lord appeared to him.

1Sa 3:7

3:7 Now Samuel did not yet know {f} the LORD, neither was the word of the LORD yet revealed unto him.

      (f) By vision.

1Sa 3:8

3:8 And the LORD called Samuel again the third time. And he arose and went to Eli, and said, Here [am] I; for thou didst call me. And Eli {g} perceived that the LORD had called the child.

      (g) Such was the corruption of those times that the chief priest had become dull and negligent to understand the Lord's appearing.

1Sa 3:11

3:11 And the LORD said to Samuel, Behold, I will do a thing in Israel, at which both the ears of every one that heareth it shall {h} tingle.

      (h) God declares that sudden fear will come on men when they hear that the ark is taken, and see Eli's house destroyed.

1Sa 3:14

3:14 And therefore I have sworn unto the house of Eli, that the iniquity of Eli's house shall not be purged with sacrifice nor offering for {i} ever.

      (i) Meaning that his posterity would never enjoy the chief priests office.

1Sa 3:17

3:17 And he said, What [is] the thing that [the LORD] hath said unto thee? I pray thee hide [it] not from me: God {k} do so to thee, and more also, if thou hide [any] thing from me of all the things that he said unto thee.

      (k) God punish you after this and that sort, unless you tell me the truth, Ru 1:17.

1Sa 3:19

3:19 And Samuel grew, and the LORD was with him, and did let none of his words {l} fall to the ground.

      (l) The Lord accomplished whatever he had said.

1Sa 4:3

4:3 And when the people were come into the camp, the elders of Israel said, {a} Wherefore hath the LORD smitten us to day before the Philistines? Let us fetch the ark of the covenant of the LORD out of Shiloh unto us, that, when it cometh among us, it may save us out of the hand of our enemies.

      (a) For it seems that this war was undertaken by Samuel's commandment.

1Sa 4:4

4:4 So the people sent to Shiloh, that they might bring from thence the ark of the covenant of the LORD of hosts, which {b} dwelleth [between] the cherubims: and the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, [were] there with the ark of the covenant of God.

      (b) For he used to appear to the Israelites between the cherubim over the ark of the covenant, Ex 25:17.

1Sa 4:7

4:7 And the Philistines were afraid, for they said, God is come into the camp. And they said, {c} Woe unto us! for there hath not been such a thing heretofore.

      (c) Before we fought against men, and now God has come to fight against us.

1Sa 4:8

4:8 Woe unto us! who shall deliver us out of the hand of these mighty Gods? these [are] the Gods that smote the Egyptians with all the plagues in the {d} wilderness.

      (d) For in the Red Sea in the wilderness the Egyptians were destroyed, which was the last of all his plagues.

1Sa 4:10

4:10 And the Philistines fought, and Israel was smitten, and they fled every man into his tent: and there was a very great slaughter; for there fell of Israel {e} thirty thousand footmen.

      (e) David alluding to this place in Ps 78:63 says they were consumed with fire: meaning they were suddenly destroyed.

1Sa 4:12

4:12 And there ran a man of Benjamin out of the army, and came to Shiloh the same day with his clothes {f} rent, and with earth upon his head.

      (f) In token of sorrow and mourning.

1Sa 4:13

4:13 And when he came, lo, Eli sat upon a seat by the wayside watching: for his heart {g} trembled for the ark of God. And when the man came into the city, and told [it], all the city cried out.

      (g) Lest it should be taken by the enemy.

1Sa 4:17

4:17 And the messenger answered and said, Israel is fled before the Philistines, and there hath been also a great slaughter among the people, and thy two sons also, Hophni and Phinehas, {b} are dead, and the ark of God is taken.

      (b) According as God had said before.

1Sa 4:19

4:19 And his daughter in law, Phinehas' wife, was with child, [near] to be delivered: and when she heard the tidings that the ark of God was taken, and that her father in law and her husband were dead, she {i} bowed herself and travailed; for her pains came upon her.

      (i) And positioned her body for her labour and delivery.

1Sa 4:22

4:22 And she said, {k} The glory is departed from Israel: for the ark of God is taken.

      (k) She uttered her great sorrow by repeating her words.

1Sa 5:1

5:1 And the Philistines took the ark of God, and brought it from Ebenezer unto {a} Ashdod.

      (a) Which was one of the five principal cities of the Philistines.

1Sa 5:2

5:2 When the Philistines took the ark of God, they brought it into the house of {b} Dagon, and set it by Dagon.

      (b) Which was their chief idol, and as some write, from the navel downward was like a fish, and upward like a man.

1Sa 5:5

5:5 Therefore neither the priests of Dagon, nor any that come into Dagon's house, {c} tread on the threshold of Dagon in Ashdod unto this day.

      (c) Thus instead of acknowledging the true God by this miracle, they fall into greater superstition.

1Sa 5:8

5:8 They sent therefore and gathered all the lords of the Philistines unto them, and said, {d} What shall we do with the ark of the God of Israel? And they answered, Let the ark of the God of Israel be carried about unto Gath. And they carried the ark of the God of Israel about [thither].

      (d) Though they had felt God's power and were afraid of it, yet they tried him even further, which God turned to their destruction and his glory.

1Sa 5:11

5:11 So they sent and gathered together all the lords of the Philistines, and said, Send {e} away the ark of the God of Israel, and let it go again to his own place, that it slay us not, and our people: for there was a deadly destruction throughout all the city; the hand of God was very heavy there.

      (e) The wicked when they feel the hand of God, grudge and reject him, where the godly humble themselves, and cry for mercy.

1Sa 6:1

6:1 And the ark of the LORD was in the country of the Philistines {a} seven months.

      (a) They thought by continuance of time the plague would have ceased, and so would have kept the ark still.

1Sa 6:3

6:3 And they said, If ye send away the ark of the God of Israel, send it not empty; but in any wise return him {b} a trespass offering: then ye shall be healed, and it shall be known to you why his hand is not removed from you.

      (b) The idolaters confess there is a true God, who punishes sin justly.

1Sa 6:5

6:5 Wherefore ye shall make images of your emerods, and images of your mice that mar the land; and ye shall give glory unto the God of Israel: peradventure he will lighten his hand from off you, and from off your {c} gods, and from off your land.

      (c) This is God's judgment on the idolaters, that knowing the true God, they do not worship him correctly.

1Sa 6:8

6:8 And take the ark of the LORD, and lay it upon the cart; and put the {d} jewels of gold, which ye return him [for] a trespass offering, in a coffer by the side thereof; and send it away, that it may go.

      (d) Meaning, the golden emerods and the golden mice.

1Sa 6:9

6:9 And see, if it goeth up by the way of his own coast to Bethshemesh, [then] {e} he hath done us this great evil: but if not, then we shall know that [it is] not his hand [that] smote us: it [was] a {f} chance [that] happened to us.

      (e) The God of Israel.
      (f) The wicked attribute almost all things to fortune and chance, whereas indeed there is nothing done without God's providence and decree.

1Sa 6:12

6:12 And the kine took the straight way to the way of Bethshemesh, [and] went along the highway, lowing as they went, and turned not aside [to] the right hand or [to] the left; and the lords of the Philistines went after {g} them unto the border of Bethshemesh.

      (g) For the trial of the matter.

1Sa 6:14

6:14 And the cart came into the field of Joshua, a Bethshemite, and stood there, where [there was] a great stone: and {h} they clave the wood of the cart, and offered the kine a burnt offering unto the LORD.

      (h) That is, the men of Bethshemesh, who were Israelites.

1Sa 6:17

6:17 And these [are] the golden emerods which the Philistines returned [for] a trespass offering unto the LORD; for {i} Ashdod one, for Gaza one, for Askelon one, for Gath one, for Ekron one;

      (i) These were the five principal cities of the Philistines, which were not all conquered to the time of David.

1Sa 6:19

6:19 And he smote the men of Bethshemesh, because they {k} had looked into the ark of the LORD, even he smote of the people fifty thousand and threescore and ten men: and the people lamented, because the LORD had smitten [many] of the people with a great slaughter.

      (k) For it was not lawful for anyone either to touch or to see it, only to Aaron and his sons Nu 4:15,20.

1Sa 7:1

7:1 And the men of {a} Kirjathjearim came, and fetched up the ark of the LORD, and brought it into the house of Abinadab in the hill, and sanctified Eleazar his son to keep the ark of the LORD.

      (a) A city in the tribe of Judah, called also Kirjathbaal, in Jos 15:60.

1Sa 7:2

7:2 And it came to pass, while the ark abode in Kirjathjearim, that the time was long; for it was twenty years: and all the house of Israel lamented {b} after the LORD.

      (b) Lamented for their sins, and followed the Lord.

1Sa 7:5

7:5 And Samuel said, Gather all Israel to {c} Mizpeh, and I will pray for you unto the LORD.

      (c) For Shiloh was now desolate, because the Philistines had taken the ark from it.

1Sa 7:6

7:6 And they gathered together to Mizpeh, and {d} drew water, and poured [it] out before the LORD, and fasted on that day, and said there, We have sinned against the LORD. And Samuel judged the children of Israel in Mizpeh.

      (d) The Chaldee text says that they drew water out of their heart: that is, wept abundantly for their sins.

1Sa 7:8

7:8 And the children of Israel said to Samuel, Cease not to {e} cry unto the LORD our God for us, that he will save us out of the hand of the Philistines.

      (e) Signifying that in the prayers of the godly, there should be a vehement zeal.

1Sa 7:10

7:10 And as Samuel was offering up the burnt offering, the Philistines drew near to battle against Israel: but the LORD {f} thundered with a great thunder on that day upon the Philistines, and discomfited them; and they were smitten before Israel.

      (f) According to the prophecy of Hannah Samuel's mother, 1Sa 2:10.

1Sa 7:12

7:12 Then Samuel took a stone, and set [it] between Mizpeh and {g} Shen, and called the name of it Ebenezer, saying, Hitherto hath the LORD helped us.

      (g) Which was a great rock over against Mizpeh.

1Sa 7:14

7:14 And the cities which the Philistines had taken from Israel were restored to Israel, from Ekron even unto Gath; and the coasts thereof did Israel deliver out of the hands of the Philistines. And there was peace between Israel and the {h} Amorites.

      (h) Meaning, the Philistines.

1Sa 7:17

7:17 And his return [was] to Ramah; for there [was] his house; and there he judged Israel; and there he built an {i} altar unto the LORD.

      (i) Which was not contrary to the Law: for as yet a certain place was not appointed.

1Sa 8:1

8:1 And it came to pass, when Samuel was old, that he {a} made his sons judges over Israel.

      (a) Because he was not able to bear the charge.

1Sa 8:2

8:2 Now the name of his firstborn was {b} Joel; and the name of his second, Abiah: [they were] judges in Beersheba.

      (b) Who was also called Vashni, 1Ch 6:28.

1Sa 8:4

8:4 Then all the elders of Israel gathered themselves together, and came to Samuel unto {c} Ramah,

      (c) For there his house was, 1Sa 7:17.

1Sa 8:6

8:6 But the thing {d} displeased Samuel, when they said, Give us a king to judge us. And Samuel prayed unto the LORD.

      (d) Because they were not content with the order that God had appointed, but would be governed as the Gentiles were.

1Sa 8:9

8:9 Now therefore hearken unto their voice: howbeit yet {e} protest solemnly unto them, and shew them the manner of the king that shall reign over them.

      (e) To prove if they will forsake their wicked purpose.

1Sa 8:11

8:11 And he said, This will be the {f} manner of the king that shall reign over you: He will take your sons, and appoint [them] for himself, for his chariots, and [to be] his horsemen; and [some] shall run before his chariots.

      (f) Not that kings have this authority by their office, but that such as reign in God's wrath would usurp this over their brethren, contrary to the law, De 17:20.

1Sa 8:18

8:18 And ye shall cry out in that day because of your king which ye shall have chosen you; and the LORD will not {g} hear you in that day.

      (g) Because you do not repent for your sins, but because you long for your afflictions, into which you cast yourselves willingly.

1Sa 9:1

9:1 Now there was a man of Benjamin, whose name [was] Kish, the son of Abiel, the son of Zeror, the son of Bechorath, the son of Aphiah, a Benjamite, a {a} mighty man of power.

      (a) That is, both valiant and rich.

1Sa 9:2

9:2 And he had a son, whose name [was] Saul, a {b} choice young man, and a goodly: and [there was] not among the children of Israel a goodlier person than he: from his shoulders and upward [he was] higher than any of the people.

      (b) So that it might seem that God approved their request in appointing such a person.

1Sa 9:3

9:3 And the asses of Kish Saul's father were lost. And Kish said to Saul his son, Take now one of the servants with thee, and arise, go {c} seek the asses.

      (c) All these circumstances were means to serve God's providence, by which Saul (though not approved by God) was made king.

1Sa 9:5

9:5 [And] when they were come to the land of {d} Zuph, Saul said to his servant that [was] with him, Come, and let us return; lest my father leave [caring] for the asses, and take thought for us.

      (d) Where was Ramath Zophim, the city of Samuel.

1Sa 9:8

9:8 And the servant answered Saul again, and said, Behold, I have here at hand the fourth part of a {e} shekel of silver: [that] will I give to the man of God, to tell us our way.

      (e) Which is about five pence, read Ge 23:15.

1Sa 9:9

9:9 (Beforetime in Israel, when a man went to enquire of God, thus he spake, Come, and let us go to the {f} seer: for [he that is] now [called] a Prophet was beforetime called a Seer.)

      (f) So called because he foresaw things to come.

1Sa 9:12

9:12 And they answered them, and said, He is; behold, [he is] before you: make haste now, for he came to day to the city; for [there is] a {g} sacrifice of the people to day in the high place:

      (g) That is, a feast after the offering, which would be kept in a high place of the city appointed for that use.

1Sa 9:13

9:13 As soon as ye be come into the city, ye shall straightway find him, before he go up to the high place to eat: for the people will not eat until he come, because he doth {h} bless the sacrifice; [and] afterwards they eat that be bidden. Now therefore get you up; for about this time ye shall find him.

      (h) That is, give thanks and distribute the meat according to their custom.

1Sa 9:16

9:16 To morrow about this time I will send thee a man out of the land of Benjamin, and thou shalt anoint him [to be] captain over my people Israel, that he may {i} save my people out of the hand of the Philistines: for I have looked upon my people, because their cry is come unto me.

      (i) Despite their wickedness, yet God was ever mindful of his inheritance.

1Sa 9:19

9:19 And Samuel answered Saul, and said, I [am] the seer: go up before me unto the high place; for ye shall eat with me to day, and to morrow I will let thee go, and will tell thee all that [is] in thine {k} heart.

      (k) Meaning, all that you desire to know.

1Sa 9:20

9:20 And as for thine asses that were lost three days ago, set not thy mind on them; for they are found. And {l} on whom [is] all the desire of Israel? [Is it] not on thee, and on all thy father's house?

      (l) Whom does Israel desire to be their king, but thee?

1Sa 9:22

9:22 And Samuel took Saul and his servant, and brought them into the {m} parlour, and made them sit in the chiefest place among them that were bidden, which [were] about thirty persons.

      (m) Where the feast was.

1Sa 9:24

9:24 And the cook took up the shoulder, and [that] which [was] {n} upon it, and set [it] before Saul. And [Samuel] said, Behold that which is left! set [it] before thee, [and] eat: for unto this time hath it been kept for thee since I said, I {o} have invited the people. So Saul did eat with Samuel that day.

      (n) That is, the shoulder with the breast, which the priest had for his family in all peace offerings, Le 10:14
      (o) That both by the assembling of the people, and by the meat prepared for you, you might understand that I knew of your coming.

1Sa 9:26

9:26 And they arose early: and it came to pass about the spring of the day, that Samuel called Saul to the {p} top of the house, saying, Up, that I may send thee away. And Saul arose, and they went out both of them, he and Samuel, abroad.

      (p) To speak with him secretly: for the houses were flat above.

1Sa 9:27

9:27 [And] as they were going down to the end of the city, Samuel said to Saul, Bid the servant pass on before us,

      (and he passed on,) but stand thou still a while, that I may shew thee {q} the word of God.
      (q) God's commandment concerning you.

1Sa 10:1

10:1 Then Samuel took a vial of {a} oil, and poured [it] upon his head, and kissed him, and said, [Is it] not because the LORD hath anointed thee [to be] captain over his inheritance?

      (a) In the Law this anointing signified the gifts of the Holy Spirit, which were necessary for those who would rule.

1Sa 10:2

10:2 When thou art departed from me to day, then thou shalt find two men by Rachel's sepulchre in the border of Benjamin at Zelzah; and they will say unto thee, The {b} asses which thou wentest to seek are found: and, lo, thy father hath left the care of the asses, and sorroweth for you, saying, What shall I do for my son?

      (b) Samuel confirms him by these signs, that God has appointed him king.

1Sa 10:5

10:5 After that thou shalt come to the {c} hill of God, where [is] the garrison of the Philistines: and it shall come to pass, when thou art come thither to the city, that thou shalt meet a company of prophets coming down from the high place with a psaltery, and a tabret, and a pipe, and a harp, before them; and they shall prophesy:

      (c) Which was a high place in the city Kirjath-jearim, where the ark was, 1Sa 7:2.

1Sa 10:9

10:9 And it was [so], that when he had turned his back to go from Samuel, God gave him another {d} heart: and all those signs came to pass that day.

      (d) He gave him such virtues as were fitting for a king.

1Sa 10:12

10:12 And one of the same place answered and said, But who [is] their {e} father? Therefore it became a proverb, [Is] Saul also among the {f} prophets?

      (e) Meaning, that prophecy comes not by succession, but is given to whom it pleases God.
      (f) Noting by it him that from low degree comes suddenly to honour.

1Sa 10:17

10:17 And Samuel {g} called the people together unto the LORD to Mizpeh;

      (g) Both to declare to them their fault in asking a king, and also to show God's sentence in it.

1Sa 10:20

10:20 And when Samuel had caused all the tribes of Israel to come near, the tribe of Benjamin was {h} taken.

      (h) That is, by casting of lot.

1Sa 10:22

10:22 Therefore they enquired of the LORD further, if the man should yet come thither. And the LORD answered, Behold, he {i} hath hid himself among the stuff.

      (i) As though he were unworthy and unwilling.

1Sa 10:25

10:25 Then Samuel told the people {k} the manner of the kingdom, and wrote [it] in a book, and laid [it] up before the LORD. And Samuel sent all the people away, every man to his house.

      (k) As it is written in De 17:15.

1Sa 10:27

10:27 But the children of Belial said, How shall this man save us? And they despised him, and brought him no presents. But he {l} held his peace.

      (l) Both to avoid disputing and also to win them by patience.

1Sa 11:1

11:1 Then Nahash the Ammonite {a} came up, and encamped against Jabeshgilead: and all the men of Jabesh said unto Nahash, Make a covenant with us, and we will serve thee.

      (a) After that Saul was chosen king: for fear of whom they asked a king, as in 1Sa 12:12.

1Sa 11:2

11:2 And Nahash the Ammonite answered them, On this [condition] will I make [a covenant] with you, that I may thrust out all your {b} right eyes, and lay it [for] a reproach upon all Israel.

      (b) This declares that the closer the tyrants are to their destruction, the more cruel they are.

1Sa 11:6

11:6 And the Spirit of God {c} came upon Saul when he heard those tidings, and his anger was kindled greatly.

      (c) God gave him the spirit of strength and courage to go against this tyrant.

1Sa 11:7

11:7 And he took a yoke of oxen, and hewed them in pieces, and sent [them] throughout all the coasts of Israel by the hands of messengers, saying, Whosoever cometh not forth after Saul and after {d} Samuel, so shall it be done unto his oxen. And the fear of the LORD fell on the people, and they came out with one consent.

      (d) He adds Samuel because Saul was not yet approved by all.

1Sa 11:9

11:9 And {e} they said unto the messengers that came, Thus shall ye say unto the men of Jabeshgilead, To morrow, by [that time] the sun be hot, ye shall have help. And the messengers came and shewed [it] to the men of Jabesh; and they were glad.

      (e) Meaning, Saul and Samuel.

1Sa 11:10

11:10 Therefore the men of Jabesh said, To morrow we will come out unto {f} you, and ye shall do with us all that seemeth good unto you.

      (f) That is, to the Ammonites, concealing that they had hope of aid.

1Sa 11:12

11:12 And the people said unto Samuel, {g} Who [is] he that said, Shall Saul reign over us? bring the men, that we may put them to death.

      (g) By this victory the Lord won the hearts of the people to Saul.

1Sa 11:13

11:13 And Saul said, There shall not a man be {h} put to death this day: for to day the LORD hath wrought salvation in Israel.

      (h) By showing mercy he thought to overcome their malice.

1Sa 11:15

11:15 And all the people went to Gilgal; and there they made Saul king before the LORD in Gilgal; and there they sacrificed sacrifices of {i} peace offerings before the LORD; and there Saul and all the men of Israel rejoiced greatly.

      (i) In sign of thanksgiving for the victory.

1Sa 12:1

12:1 And Samuel said unto all Israel, Behold, I have {a} hearkened unto your voice in all that ye said unto me, and have made a king over you.

      (a) I have granted your petition.

1Sa 12:2

12:2 And now, behold, the king walketh {b} before you: and I am old and grayheaded; and, behold, my sons [are] with you: and I have walked before you from my childhood unto this day.

      (b) To govern you in peace and war.

1Sa 12:3

12:3 Behold, here I [am]: witness against me before the LORD, and before his anointed: {c} whose ox have I taken? or whose ass have I taken? or whom have I defrauded? whom have I oppressed? or of whose hand have I received [any] bribe to blind mine eyes therewith? and I will restore it you.

      (c) God would have this confession be a pattern for all who have any charge or office.

1Sa 12:5

12:5 And he said unto them, The LORD [is] witness against you, and his {d} anointed [is] witness this day, that ye have not found ought in my hand. And they answered, [He is] witness.

      (d) Your King, who is anointed by the commandment of the Lord.

1Sa 12:9

12:9 And when they forgat the LORD their God, he sold them into the hand of Sisera, {e} captain of the host of Hazor, and into the hand of the Philistines, and into the hand of the king of Moab, and they fought against them.

      (e) Captain of Jabin's host, king of Hazor.

1Sa 12:11

12:11 And the LORD sent Jerubbaal, {f} and Bedan, and Jephthah, and Samuel, and delivered you out of the hand of your enemies on every side, and ye dwelled safe.

      (f) That is Samson, Jud 13:25.

1Sa 12:12

12:12 And when ye saw that Nahash the king of the children of Ammon came against you, ye said unto me, {g} Nay; but a king shall reign over us: when the LORD your God [was] your king.

      (g) Leaving God to seek the help of man, 1Sa 8:5.

1Sa 12:14

12:14 If ye will fear the LORD, and serve him, and obey his voice, and not rebel against the commandment of the LORD, then shall both ye and also the king that reigneth over you continue {h} following the LORD your God:

      (h) You shall be preserved as they that follow the Lord's will.

1Sa 12:15

12:15 But if ye will not obey the voice of the LORD, but rebel against the commandment of the LORD, then shall the hand of the LORD be against you, as [it was] against your {i} fathers.

      (i) Meaning, the governors.

1Sa 12:17

12:17 [Is it] not wheat harvest to day? I will call unto the LORD, and he shall send thunder and rain; that ye may perceive and see that your wickedness [is] {k} great, which ye have done in the sight of the LORD, in asking you a king.

      (k) In that you have forsaken him, who has all power in his hand, for a mortal man.

1Sa 12:19

12:19 And all the people said unto Samuel, Pray for thy servants unto the LORD thy God, that we die not: for we have added unto {l} all our sins [this] evil, to ask us a king.

      (l) Not only at other times, but now chiefly.

1Sa 12:20

12:20 And Samuel said unto the people, Fear not: ye have done all this wickedness: {m} yet turn not aside from following the LORD, but serve the LORD with all your heart;

      (m) He shows that there is no sin so great, but it shall be forgiven, if the sinner turn again to God.

1Sa 12:22

12:22 For the LORD will not forsake his people for his great name's sake: because it hath pleased the LORD to make you {n} his people.

      (n) Of his free mercy, and not of your merits, and therefore he will not forsake you.

1Sa 12:24

12:24 Only fear the LORD, and serve him in truth with all your {o} heart: for consider how great [things] he hath done for you.

      (o) Unfeignedly, and without hypocrisy.

1Sa 13:1

13:1 Saul reigned {a} one year; and when he had reigned {b} two years over Israel,

      (a) While these things were done.
      (b) Before he took upon himself the state of a king.

1Sa 13:3

13:3 And Jonathan smote the garrison of the Philistines that [was] in {c} Geba, and the Philistines heard [of it]. And Saul blew the {d} trumpet throughout all the land, saying, Let the Hebrews hear.

      (c) Of Kirjath-jearim, where the ark was, 1Sa 10:5.
      (d) That everyone should prepare themselves to fight.

1Sa 13:5

13:5 And the Philistines gathered themselves together to fight with Israel, thirty thousand chariots, and six thousand horsemen, and people as the sand which [is] on the sea shore in multitude: and they came up, and pitched in Michmash, eastward from {e} Bethaven.

      (e) Which was also called Beth-el, in the tribe of Benjamin.

1Sa 13:7

13:7 And [some of] the Hebrews went over Jordan to the land of {f} Gad and Gilead. As for Saul, he [was] yet in Gilgal, and all the people followed him trembling.

      (f) Where the two tribes and the half remained.

1Sa 13:8

13:8 And he tarried seven days, according to the set time that Samuel [had appointed]: but Samuel came not to Gilgal; and the people were {g} scattered from him.

      (g) Thinking that the absence of the prophet was a sign, that they would lose the victory.

1Sa 13:11

13:11 And Samuel said, What hast thou done? And Saul said, Because I saw that the people were {h} scattered from me, and [that] thou camest not within the days appointed, and [that] the Philistines gathered themselves together at Michmash;

      (h) Though these causes seem sufficient in man's judgment: yet because they had not the word of God, they turned to his destruction.

1Sa 13:13

13:13 And Samuel said to Saul, Thou hast done foolishly: thou hast not kept the commandment of the LORD thy {i} God, which he commanded thee: for now would the LORD have established thy kingdom upon Israel for ever.

      (i) Who willed you to obey him, and rest on the words spoken by his prophet.

1Sa 13:14

13:14 But now thy kingdom shall not continue: the LORD hath sought him a {k} man after his own heart, and the LORD hath commanded him [to be] captain over his people, because thou hast not kept [that] which the LORD commanded thee.

      (k) That is, David.

1Sa 13:15

13:15 And Samuel arose, and gat him up from Gilgal unto {l} Gibeah of Benjamin. And Saul numbered the people [that were] present with him, about six hundred men.

      (l) And went to his city Ramah.

1Sa 13:18

13:18 And another company turned the way [to] Bethhoron: and {m} another company turned [to] the way of the border that looketh to the valley of Zeboim toward the wilderness.

      (m) So that to man's judgment these three armies would have overrun the whole country.

1Sa 13:22

13:22 So it came to pass in the day of battle, that there was neither {n} sword nor spear found in the hand of any of the people that [were] with Saul and Jonathan: but with Saul and with Jonathan his son was there found.

      (n) To declare that the victory only came from God, and not by their force.

1Sa 14:1

14:1 Now it came to pass upon a day, that Jonathan the son of Saul said unto the young man that bare his armour, {a} Come, and let us go over to the Philistines' garrison, that [is] on the other side. But he told not his father.

      (a) By this example God declared to Israel that the victory did not consist in multitude or armour, but only because of his grace.

1Sa 14:6

14:6 And Jonathan said to the young man that bare his armour, Come, and let us go over unto the garrison of these {b} uncircumcised: it may be that the LORD will work for us: for [there is] no restraint to the LORD to save by many or by few.

      (b) That is, the Philistines.

1Sa 14:7

14:7 And his armourbearer said unto him, Do all that [is] in thine heart: turn thee; behold, {c} I [am] with thee according to thy heart.

      (c) I will follow you wherever you go.

1Sa 14:9

14:9 {d} If they say thus unto us, Tarry until we come to you; then we will stand still in our place, and will not go up unto them.

      (d) This he spoke by the spirit of prophecy, and by this God gave him assurance of victory.

1Sa 14:11

14:11 And both of them discovered themselves unto the garrison of the Philistines: and the Philistines said, Behold, the Hebrews come forth out of the {e} holes where they had hid themselves.

      (e) Thus they spoke contemptuously and by derision.

1Sa 14:13

14:13 And Jonathan climbed up upon {f} his hands and upon his feet, and his armourbearer after him: and they fell before Jonathan; and his armourbearer slew after him.

      (f) That is, he crept up, or went up with all haste.

1Sa 14:14

14:14 And that {g} first slaughter, which Jonathan and his armourbearer made, was about twenty men, within as it were an half acre of land, [which] a yoke [of oxen might plow].

      (g) The second was when they slew one another, and the third when the Israelites chased them.

1Sa 14:15

14:15 And there was trembling in the host, in the field, and among all the people: the garrison, and the spoilers, they also trembled, and the earth {h} quaked: so it was a very great trembling.

      (h) In that the insensible creatures tremble for fear of God's judgment, it declares how terrible his vengeance will be against his enemies.

1Sa 14:19

14:19 And it came to pass, while Saul talked unto the priest, that the noise that [was] in the host of the Philistines went on and increased: and Saul said unto the priest, {i} Withdraw thine hand.

      (i) Leave the Ephod alone, for I have no time now to ask counsel from God, Nu 27:21.

1Sa 14:21

14:21 Moreover the Hebrews [that] were with the Philistines before that time, which went up with them into the camp [from the country] round about, even they also [turned] to be with the {k} Israelites that [were] with Saul and Jonathan.

      (k) Though before for fear of the Philistines they declared themselves as enemies to their brethren.

1Sa 14:24

14:24 And the men of Israel were distressed that day: for Saul had adjured the people, saying, {l} Cursed [be] the man that eateth [any] food until evening, that I may be avenged on mine enemies. So none of the people tasted [any] food.

      (l) Such was his hypocrisy and arrogancy, that he thought to attribute to his policy that which God had given by the hand of Jonathan.

1Sa 14:26

14:26 And when the people were come into the wood, behold, the honey dropped; but no man put his hand to his mouth: for the people feared the {m} oath.

      (m) That is, the punishment if they break their oath.

1Sa 14:27

14:27 But Jonathan heard not when his father charged the people with the oath: wherefore he put forth the end of the rod that [was] in his hand, and dipped it in an honeycomb, and put his hand to his mouth; and his {n} eyes were enlightened.

      (n) Which were dim before from weariness and hunger.

1Sa 14:29

14:29 Then said Jonathan, My father hath {o} troubled the land: see, I pray you, how mine eyes have been enlightened, because I tasted a little of this honey.

      (o) By making this cruel law.

1Sa 14:33

14:33 Then they told Saul, saying, Behold, the people sin against the LORD, in that they eat with the blood. And he said, Ye have transgressed: {p} roll a great stone unto me this day.

      (p) That the blood of the beast that shall be slain, may be pressed out upon it.

1Sa 14:36

14:36 And Saul said, Let us go down after the Philistines by night, and spoil them until the morning light, and let us not leave a man of them. And they said, Do whatsoever seemeth good unto thee. Then said the priest, Let us {q} draw near hither unto God.

      (q) To ask counsel from him.

1Sa 14:41

14:41 Therefore Saul said unto the LORD God of Israel, Give {r} a perfect [lot]. And Saul and Jonathan were taken: but the people escaped.

      (r) Cause the lot to fall on him that has broken the oath, but he does not consider his presumption in commanding the same oath.

1Sa 14:45

14:45 And the people said unto Saul, {s} Shall Jonathan die, who hath wrought this great salvation in Israel? God forbid: [as] the LORD liveth, there shall not one hair of his head fall to the ground; for he hath wrought with God this day. So the people rescued Jonathan, that he died not.

      (s) The people thought it their duty to rescue him, who out of ignorance had broken a rash law, and by whom they had received so great a benefit.

1Sa 14:48

14:48 And he gathered an host, and smote the {t} Amalekites, and delivered Israel out of the hands of them that spoiled them.

      (t) As the Lord had commanded, De 25:17.

1Sa 14:49

14:49 Now the sons of Saul were Jonathan, {u} and Ishui, and Melchishua: and the names of his two daughters [were these]; the name of the firstborn Merab, and the name of the younger {x} Michal:

      (u) Called also Abinadab, 1Sa 31:2.
      (x) Who was the wife of David, 1Sa 18:27.

1Sa 14:50

14:50 And the name of Saul's wife [was] Ahinoam, the daughter of Ahimaaz: and the name of the captain of his host [was] {y} Abner, the son of Ner, Saul's uncle.

      (y) Whom Joab, David's captain, slew 2sa 3:27.

1Sa 14:52

14:52 And there was sore war against the Philistines all the days of Saul: {z} and when Saul saw any strong man, or any valiant man, he took him unto him.

      (z) As Samuel had forewarned in 1Sa 8:11.

1Sa 15:1

15:1 Samuel also said unto Saul, The LORD sent me to anoint thee [to be] king over his people, over Israel: now therefore {a} hearken thou unto the voice of the words of the LORD.

      (a) Because he has preferred you to this honour, you are bound to obey him.

1Sa 15:3

15:3 Now go and smite Amalek, and utterly destroy all that they have, and spare them not; but {b} slay both man and woman, infant and suckling, ox and sheep, camel and ass.

      (b) That this might be an example of God's vengeance against those who deal cruelly with his people.

1Sa 15:6

15:6 And Saul said unto the {c} Kenites, Go, depart, get you down from among the Amalekites, lest I destroy you with them: for ye shewed {d} kindness to all the children of Israel, when they came up out of Egypt. So the Kenites departed from among the Amalekites.

      (c) Which were the posterity of Jethro, Moses father in law.
      (d) For Jethro came to visit them, and gave them good counsel, Ex 18:19.

1Sa 15:11

15:11 It {e} repenteth me that I have set up Saul [to be] king: for he is turned back from following me, and hath not performed my commandments. And it grieved Samuel; and he cried unto the LORD all night.

      (e) God in his eternal counsel never changes or repents, as in 1Sa 15:29, though he seems to us to repent when anything goes contrary to his temporal election.

1Sa 15:13

15:13 And Samuel came to Saul: and Saul said unto him, Blessed [be] thou of the LORD: I have performed the {f} commandment of the LORD.

      (f) This is the nature of hypocrites to be impudent against the truth, to condemn others, and justify themselves.

1Sa 15:17

15:17 And Samuel said, When thou [wast] {g} little in thine own sight, [wast] thou not [made] the head of the tribes of Israel, and the LORD anointed thee king over Israel?

      (g) Meaning, of base condition as in 1Sa 9:21.

1Sa 15:20

15:20 And Saul said unto Samuel, Yea, {h} I have obeyed the voice of the LORD, and have gone the way which the LORD sent me, and have brought Agag the king of Amalek, and have utterly destroyed the Amalekites.

      (i) He stands most impudently in his own defence both against God and his own conscience.

1Sa 15:23

15:23 For {i} rebellion [is as] the sin of witchcraft, and stubbornness [is as] iniquity and idolatry. Because thou hast rejected the word of the LORD, he hath also rejected thee from [being] king.

      (i) God hates nothing more than the disobedience of his commandment, even though the intent seems good to man.

1Sa 15:25

15:25 Now therefore, I pray thee, pardon my {k} sin, and turn again with me, that I may worship the LORD.

      (k) This was not true repentance, but deceit out of fear for the loss of his kingdom.

1Sa 15:28

15:28 And Samuel said unto him, The LORD hath rent the kingdom of Israel from thee this day, and hath given it to a {l} neighbour of thine, [that is] better than thou.

      (l) That is, to David.

1Sa 15:29

15:29 And also the {m} Strength of Israel will not lie nor repent: for he [is] not a man, that he should repent.

      (m) Meaning God, who maintains and prefers his own.

1Sa 15:32

15:32 Then said Samuel, Bring ye hither to me Agag the king of the Amalekites. And Agag came unto him delicately. And Agag said, Surely the {n} bitterness of death is past.

      (n) He expected nothing less than death, or as some write, he passed not for death.

1Sa 15:34

15:34 Then Samuel went to {o} Ramah; and Saul went up to his house to Gibeah of Saul.

      (o) Where his house was.

1Sa 15:35

15:35 And Samuel came no more to {p} see Saul until the day of his death: nevertheless Samuel mourned for Saul: and the LORD {q} repented that he had made Saul king over Israel.

      (p) Though Saul came where Samuel was, 1Sa 19:22.
      (q) As in 1Sa 15:11.

1Sa 16:1

16:1 And the LORD said unto Samuel, How long wilt thou mourn for Saul, {a} seeing I have rejected him from reigning over Israel? fill thine horn with oil, and go, I will send thee to Jesse the Bethlehemite: for I have provided me a king among his sons.

      (a) Signifying that we should not show ourselves more pitiful than God, nor to lament those whom he casts out.

1Sa 16:2

16:2 And Samuel said, How can I go? if Saul hear [it], he will kill me. And the LORD said, Take an heifer with thee, and say, I am come {b} to sacrifice to the LORD.

      (b) That is, to make a peace offering, which may be done even though the ark was not there.

1Sa 16:4

16:4 And Samuel did that which the LORD spake, and came to Bethlehem. And the elders of the town {c} trembled at his coming, and said, Comest thou peaceably?

      (c) Afraid, lest some grievous crime had been committed, because the prophet was not wont to come there.

1Sa 16:6

16:6 And it came to pass, when they were come, that he looked on Eliab, and said, Surely the LORD'S {d} anointed [is] before him.

      (d) Thinking that Eliab had been appointed by God to be made king.

1Sa 16:14

16:14 But the Spirit of the LORD departed from Saul, and an {e} evil spirit from the LORD troubled him.

      (e) The wicked spirits are at God's commandment to execute his will against the wicked.

1Sa 16:18

16:18 Then answered one of the servants, and said, Behold, I have seen a {f} son of Jesse the Bethlehemite, [that is] cunning in playing, and a mighty valiant man, and a man of war, and prudent in matters, and a comely person, and the LORD [is] with him.

      (f) Though David was now anointed king by the prophet, yet God would strengthen and test him in various ways before he had the use of his kingdom.

1Sa 16:23

16:23 And it came to pass, when the [evil] spirit from God was upon Saul, that David took an harp, and played with his hand: so Saul was {g} refreshed, and was well, and the evil spirit departed from him.

      (g) God would have Saul receive this benefit from David's hand, that his condemnation might be even more evident, for his cruel hate toward him.

1Sa 17:4

17:4 And there {a} went out a champion out of the camp of the Philistines, named Goliath, of Gath, whose height [was] six cubits and a span.

      (a) Between the two camps.

1Sa 17:5

17:5 And [he had] an helmet of brass upon his head, and he [was] armed with a coat of mail; and the weight of the coat [was] five thousand {b} shekels of brass.

      (b) That is, 156 pounds 4 ounces, after half and ounce to the shekel: and 600 shekels weight amounts to 18 3/4 pounds.

1Sa 17:15

17:15 But David {c} went and returned from Saul to feed his father's sheep at Bethlehem.

      (c) To serve Saul, 1Sa 16:19.

1Sa 17:17

17:17 And Jesse said unto David his son, {d} Take now for thy brethren an ephah of this parched [corn], and these ten loaves, and run to the camp to thy brethren;

      (d) Though Jesse meant one thing, yet God's providence directed David to another end.

1Sa 17:18

17:18 And carry these ten cheeses unto the captain of [their] thousand, and look how thy brethren fare, and take their {e} pledge.

      (e) If they have laid anything to gauge for their necessity, redeem it out.

1Sa 17:23

17:23 And as he talked with them, behold, there came up the champion, the Philistine of Gath, Goliath by name, out of the armies of the Philistines, and spake according to the {f} same words: and David heard [them].

      (f) As in 1Sa 17:8,9.

1Sa 17:25

17:25 And the men of Israel said, Have ye seen this man that is come up? surely to defy Israel is he come up: and it shall be, [that] the man who killeth him, the king will enrich him with great riches, and will give him his daughter, and make his father's house {g} free in Israel.

      (g) From taxes and payments.

1Sa 17:26

17:26 And David spake to the men that stood by him, saying, What shall be done to the man that killeth this Philistine, and taketh away the {h} reproach from Israel? for who [is] this uncircumcised Philistine, that he should defy the armies of the living God?

      (h) This dishonour that he does to Israel.

1Sa 17:29

17:29 And David said, What have I now done? [Is there] not a {i} cause?

      (i) For his father's sending was a just occasion, and also he felt himself inwardly moved by God's Spirit.

1Sa 17:33

17:33 And Saul said to David, Thou art not {k} able to go against this Philistine to fight with him: for thou [art but] a youth, and he a man of war from his youth.

      (k) Here Satan proves David's faith, by the infidelity of Saul.

1Sa 17:34

17:34 And David said unto Saul, Thy servant kept his father's sheep, and there came a {l} lion, and a bear, and took a lamb out of the flock:

      (l) David, because of previous experience with God's help, did not doubt to overcome this danger, seeing as he was zealous for God's honour.

1Sa 17:37

17:37 David said moreover, The LORD that delivered me out of the paw of the lion, and out of the paw of the bear, he will deliver me out of the hand of this Philistine. And Saul said unto David, {m} Go, and the LORD be with thee.

      (m) For by these examples he saw that the power of God was with him.

1Sa 17:40

17:40 And he took his {n} staff in his hand, and chose him five smooth stones out of the brook, and put them in a shepherd's bag which he had, even in a scrip; and his sling [was] in his hand: and he drew near to the Philistine.

      (n) So that by these weak means, It might be known that only God was the author of this victory.

1Sa 17:43

17:43 And the Philistine said unto David, [Am] I a dog, that thou comest to me with staves? And the Philistine {o} cursed David by his gods.

      (o) He swore by his gods that he would destroy him.

1Sa 17:46

17:46 This {p} day will the LORD deliver thee into mine hand; and I will smite thee, and take thine head from thee; and I will give the carcases of the host of the Philistines this day unto the fowls of the air, and to the wild beasts of the earth; that all the earth may know that there is a God in Israel.

      (p) David being assured both of his cause and of his calling prophecies of the destruction of the Philistines.

1Sa 17:48

17:48 And it came to pass, when the Philistine arose, and came and drew nigh to meet David, that David {q} hasted, and ran toward the army to meet the Philistine.

      (q) Being moved with a fervent zeal to be revenged of this blaspheme of God's name.

1Sa 17:55

17:55 And when Saul saw David go forth against the Philistine, he said unto Abner, the captain of the host, Abner, {e} whose son [is] this youth? And Abner said, [As] thy soul liveth, O king, I cannot tell.

      (e) That is, of what family and tribe is he? He had forgotten David, even though he had received so great a benefit by him.

1Sa 18:1

18:1 And it came to pass, when he had made an end of speaking unto Saul, that the {a} soul of Jonathan was knit with the soul of David, and Jonathan loved him as his own soul.

      (a) His affection was fully bent toward him.

1Sa 18:5

18:5 And David went out whithersoever Saul sent him, [and] behaved himself {b} wisely: and Saul set him over the men of war, and he was accepted in the sight of all the people, and also in the sight of Saul's servants.

      (b) That is, he prospered in all his doings.

1Sa 18:6

18:6 And it came to pass as they came, when David was returned from the slaughter of the {c} Philistine, that the women came out of all cities of Israel, singing and dancing, to meet king Saul, with tabrets, with joy, and with instruments of musick.

      (c) That is, Goliath.

1Sa 18:9

18:9 And Saul {d} eyed David from that day and forward.

(d) Because he envied and hated him.

1Sa 18:10

18:10 And it came to pass on the morrow, that the evil spirit from God came upon Saul, and he {e} prophesied in the midst of the house: and David played with his hand, as at other times: and [there was] a javelin in Saul's hand.

(e) That is, spoke as a man beside himself for so the people abused this word, when they could not understand.

1Sa 18:13

18:13 Therefore Saul removed him from him, and made him his captain over a thousand; and he went {f} out and came in before the people.

(f) Meaning he was captain over the people.

1Sa 18:17

18:17 And Saul said to David, Behold my elder daughter Merab, her will I give thee to wife: only be thou valiant for me, and {g} fight the LORD'S battles. For Saul said, Let not mine hand be upon him, but let the hand of the Philistines be upon him.

(g) Fight against them that war against God's people.

1Sa 18:19

18:19 But it came to pass at the time when Merab Saul's daughter should have been given to David, that {h} she was given unto Adriel the Meholathite to wife.

(h) By whom he had five sons who David put to death at the request of the Gibeonites, 2Sa 21:8.

1Sa 18:21

18:21 And Saul said, I will give him her, that she may be a {i} snare to him, and that the hand of the Philistines may be against him. Wherefore Saul said to David, Thou shalt this day be my son in law in [the one of] the twain.

(i) So his hypocrisy appears, for under pretence of favour he sought his destruction.

1Sa 18:23

18:23 And Saul's servants spake those words in the ears of David. And David said, {k} Seemeth it to you [a] light [thing] to be a king's son in law, seeing that I [am] a poor man, and lightly esteemed?

(k) Meaning, that he was not able to endow his wife with riches.

1Sa 18:26

18:26 And when his servants told David these words, it pleased David well to be the {l} king's son in law: and the days were not expired.

(l) Because he thought himself able to compass the king's request.

1Sa 18:27

18:27 Wherefore David arose and went, he and his men, and slew of the Philistines two hundred men; and David brought their foreskins, and {m} they gave them in full tale to the king, that he might be the king's son in law. And Saul gave him Michal his daughter to wife.

(m) Meaning, David and his soldiers.

1Sa 18:29

18:29 And Saul was yet the more afraid {n} of David; and Saul became David's enemy continually.

(n) To be deprived of his kingdom.

1Sa 18:30

18:30 Then the princes of the Philistines went forth: and it came to pass, after they went forth, [that] {o} David behaved himself more wisely than all the servants of Saul; so that his name was much set by.

(o) That is, David had better success against the Philistines than Saul's men.

1Sa 19:1

19:1 And Saul spake to Jonathan his son, and to all his servants, that they should {a} kill David.

(a) Before Saul sought David's life secretly, but now his hypocrisy grows to open cruelty.

1Sa 19:3

19:3 And I will go out and stand beside my father in the field where thou {b} [art], and I will commune with my father of thee; and what I see, that I will tell thee.

(b) That I may warn you what to do.

1Sa 19:6

19:6 And Saul hearkened unto the voice of Jonathan: and Saul {c} sware, [As] the LORD liveth, he shall not be slain.

(c) Whatever he pretended outwardly, yet his heart was full of malice.

1Sa 19:9

19:9 And the evil spirit from the LORD was upon Saul, as he sat in his house with his javelin in his hand: and David {d} played with [his] hand.

(d) He played on his harp to appease the rage of the evil spirit, 1Sa 16:23.

1Sa 19:12

19:12 So Michal {e} let David down through a window: and he went, and fled, and escaped.

(e) Thus God moved both the son and daughter of this tyrant to favour David against their father.

1Sa 19:15

19:15 And Saul sent the messengers [again] to see David, saying, Bring him up to me in the {f} bed, that I may slay him.

(f) Behold, how the tyrants to accomplish their rage, neither regard oath nor friendship, God nor man.

1Sa 19:18

19:18 So David fled, and escaped, and came to Samuel to Ramah, and told him all that Saul had done to him. And he and Samuel went and dwelt in {g} Naioth.

(g) Naioth was a school where the word of God was studied, near Ramah.

1Sa 19:20

19:20 And Saul sent messengers to take David: and when they saw the company of the prophets prophesying, and Samuel standing {h} [as] appointed over them, the Spirit of God was upon the messengers of Saul, and they also {i} prophesied.

(h) Being their chief instructor.
(i) Changed their minds and praised God.

1Sa 19:23

19:23 And he {k} went thither to Naioth in Ramah: and the Spirit of God was upon him also, and he went on, and prophesied, until he came to Naioth in Ramah.

(k) With a mind to persecute them.

1Sa 19:24

19:24 And he stripped off his {l} clothes also, and prophesied before Samuel in like manner, and lay {m} down naked all that day and all that night. Wherefore they say, [Is] Saul also among the prophets?

(l) His kingly apparel.

      (m) He humbled himself as others did.

1Sa 20:1

20:1 And David {a} fled from Naioth in Ramah, and came and said before Jonathan, What have I done? what [is] mine iniquity? and what [is] my sin before thy father, that he seeketh my life?

      (a) For Saul was detained, and prophesied a day and a night by God's providence, that David might have time to escape.

1Sa 20:3

20:3 And David sware moreover, and said, Thy father certainly knoweth that I have found grace in thine eyes; and he saith, Let not Jonathan know this, lest he be grieved: but truly [as] the LORD liveth, and [as] thy soul liveth, [there is] but a {b} step between me and death.

      (b) I am in great danger of death.

1Sa 20:5

20:5 And David said unto Jonathan, Behold, to morrow [is] the {c} new moon, and I should not fail to sit with the king at meat: but let me go, that I may hide myself in the field unto the third [day] at even.

      (c) At what time there would be a solemn sacrifice, Nu 28:11, to which they added peace offerings and feasts.

1Sa 20:6

20:6 If thy father at all miss me, then say, David earnestly asked [leave] of me that he might run to Bethlehem his city: for [there is] a {d} yearly sacrifice there for all the family.

      (d) Read 1Sa 1:21.

1Sa 20:9

20:9 And Jonathan said, Far be it from thee: for if I knew certainly that evil were {e} determined by my father to come upon thee, then would not I tell it thee?

      (e) That he were fully determined.

1Sa 20:10

20:10 Then said David to Jonathan, Who {f} shall tell me? or what [if] thy father answer thee roughly?

      (f) If your father favours me.

1Sa 20:13

20:13 The LORD {g} do so and much more to Jonathan: but if it please my father [to do] thee evil, then I will shew it thee, and send thee away, that thou mayest go in peace: and the LORD be with thee, as he hath been with my father.

      (g) The Lord punish me most grievously.

1Sa 20:14

20:14 And thou shalt not only while yet I live shew me the kindness of the LORD, {h} that I die not:

      (h) I know that if you were given the kingdom now, you would not destroy me, but show yourself friendly to my posterity.

1Sa 20:22

20:22 But if I say thus unto the young man, Behold, the arrows [are] beyond thee; go thy way: for the {i} LORD hath sent thee away.

      (i) The Lord is the author of your departure.

1Sa 20:26

20:26 Nevertheless Saul spake not any thing that day: for he thought, Something hath befallen him, he [is] not {k} clean; surely he [is] not clean.

      (k) Yet he might have some business to let him.

1Sa 20:27

20:27 And it came to pass on the morrow, [which was] the second [day] of the month, that David's place was empty: and Saul said unto Jonathan his son, Wherefore cometh not {l} the son of Jesse to meat, neither yesterday, nor to day?

      (l) Thus he speaks contemptuously of David.

1Sa 20:29

20:29 And he said, Let me go, I pray thee; for our family hath a sacrifice in the city; and my brother, he hath commanded me [to be there]: and now, if I have found favour in thine eyes, let me get away, I pray thee, and see my {n} brethren. Therefore he cometh not unto the king's table.

      (n) Meaning, all his kinsfolk.

1Sa 20:30

20:30 Then Saul's anger was kindled against Jonathan, and he said unto him, Thou {o} son of the perverse rebellious [woman], do not I know that thou hast chosen the son of Jesse to thine own confusion, and unto the confusion of thy mother's nakedness?

      (o) You are always contrary to me as your mother is.

1Sa 20:32

20:32 And Jonathan answered Saul his father, and said unto him, Wherefore shall he be {p} slain? what hath he done?

      (p) For it was too great tyranny to put one to death and not to give a reason why.

1Sa 20:35

20:35 And it came to pass in the morning, that Jonathan went out into the field {q} at the time appointed with David, and a little lad with him.

      (q) For this was the third day, as it was agreed on in 1Sa 20:5.

1Sa 20:38

20:38 And Jonathan cried after the lad, {r} Make speed, haste, stay not. And Jonathan's lad gathered up the arrows, and came to his master.

      (r) By these words be admonished David what he should do.

1Sa 20:41

20:41 [And] as soon as the lad was gone, David arose out of [a place] toward the {s} south, and fell on his face to the ground, and bowed himself three times: and they kissed one another, and wept one with another, until David exceeded.

      (s) It seems that he shot on the north side of the stone, least the boy should have seen David.

1Sa 20:42

20:42 And Jonathan said to David, Go in peace, forasmuch as we have {t} sworn both of us in the name of the LORD, saying, The LORD be between me and thee, and between my seed and thy seed for ever. And he arose and departed: and Jonathan went into the city.

      (t) Which oath he calls the covenant of the Lord in 1Sa 20:8.

1Sa 21:1

21:1 Then came David to {a} Nob to Ahimelech the priest: and Ahimelech was afraid at the meeting of David, and said unto him, Why [art] thou alone, and no man with thee?

      (a) Where the ark then was to ask counsel of the Lord.

1Sa 21:2

21:2 And David said unto Ahimelech the priest, The {b} king hath commanded me a business, and hath said unto me, Let no man know any thing of the business whereabout I send thee, and what I have commanded thee: and I have appointed [my] servants to such and such a place.

      (b) These infirmities that we see in the saints of God, teach us that no one has his justice in himself, but receives it from God's mercy.

1Sa 21:4

21:4 And the priest answered David, and said, [There is] no common bread under mine hand, but there is hallowed bread; if the young men have kept themselves at least from {c} women.

      (c) If they have not accompanied with their wives.

1Sa 21:5

21:5 And David answered the priest, and said unto him, Of a truth women [have been] kept from us about these three days, since I came out, and the {d} vessels of the young men are holy, and [the bread is] in a manner common, yea, though it {e} were sanctified this day in the vessel.

      (d) That is, their bodies.
      (e) Shall be more careful to keep his vessel holy, when he has eaten of this holy food.

1Sa 21:7

21:7 Now a certain man of the servants of Saul [was] there that day, {f} detained before the LORD; and his name [was] Doeg, an Edomite, the chiefest of the herdmen that [belonged] to Saul.

      (f) Tarrying to worship before the ark.

1Sa 21:9

21:9 And the priest said, The sword of Goliath the Philistine, whom thou slewest in the valley of Elah, behold, it [is here] wrapped in a cloth behind the {g} ephod: if thou wilt take that, take [it]: for [there is] no other save that here. And David said, [There is] none like that; give it me.

      (g) Behind that place where the high priests garment lay.

1Sa 21:10

21:10 And David arose, and {h} fled that day for fear of Saul, and went to Achish the king of Gath.

      (h) That is, out of Saul's domain.

1Sa 21:13

21:13 And he changed his behaviour before them, and feigned himself mad in their hands, and {i} scrabbled on the doors of the gate, and let his spittle fall down upon his beard.

      (i) By making marks and toys.

1Sa 21:15

21:15 Have I need of mad men, that ye have brought this [fellow] to play the mad man in my presence? {k} shall this [fellow] come into my house?

      (k) Is he fit to be in a king's house.

1Sa 22:1

22:1 David therefore departed thence, and escaped to the cave {a} Adullam: and when his brethren and all his father's house heard [it], they went down thither to him.

      (a) Which was in the tribe of Judah, near Bethlehem.

1Sa 22:3

22:3 And David went thence to Mizpeh of {b} Moab: and he said unto the king of Moab, Let my father and my mother, I pray thee, come forth, [and be] with you, till I know what God will do for me.

      (b) For there was another so called in Judah.

1Sa 22:4

22:4 And he {c} brought them before the king of Moab: and they dwelt with him all the while that David was in {d} the hold.

      (c) For he feared the rage of Saul against his house.
      (d) That is, in Mizpeh, which was a stronghold.

1Sa 22:6

22:6 When Saul heard that David was {e} discovered, and the men that [were] with him, (now Saul abode in Gibeah under a tree in Ramah, having his spear in his hand, and all his servants [were] standing about him;)

      (e) That a great brute came on him.

1Sa 22:7

22:7 Then Saul said unto his servants that stood about him, Hear now, ye {f} Benjamites; will the son of Jesse give every one of you fields and vineyards, [and] make you all captains of thousands, and captains of hundreds;

      (f) You that are of my tribe and lineage.

1Sa 22:8

22:8 That all of you have conspired against me, and [there is] none that sheweth me that my son hath made a league with the son of Jesse, and [there is] none of you that is sorry for me, or sheweth unto me that my {g} son hath stirred up my servant against me, to lie in wait, as at this day?

      (g) By this he would persuade them that this conspiracy was most horrible, where the son conspired against the father, and the servant against his master.

1Sa 22:11

22:11 Then the king sent to call Ahimelech the priest, the son of Ahitub, and all his father's house, {h} the priests that [were] in Nob: and they came all of them to the king.

      (h) Which were the remnant of the house of Eli, whose house God threatened to punish.

1Sa 22:15

22:15 {i} Did I then begin to enquire of God for him? be it far from me: let not the king impute [any] thing unto his servant, [nor] to all the house of my father: for thy servant knew nothing of all this, less or more.

      (i) Have I not at other times also, when he had great affairs, consulted with the Lord for him?

1Sa 22:17

22:17 And the king said unto the footmen that stood about him, Turn, and slay the priests of the LORD; because their hand also [is] with David, and because they knew when he fled, and did not shew it to me. But the servants of the king {k} would not put forth their hand to fall upon the priests of the LORD.

      (k) For they knew that they should not obey the wicked commandment of the king in slaying the innocent.

1Sa 22:20

22:20 And one of the sons of Ahimelech the son of Ahitub, named Abiathar, {l} escaped, and fled after David.

      (l) This was God's providence, who according to his promise preserved some of the house of Eli, 1Sa 2:33.

1Sa 23:1

23:1 Then they told David, saying, Behold, the Philistines fight against {a} Keilah, and they rob the threshingfloors.

      (a) Which was a city in the tribe of Judah, Jos 15:44.

1Sa 23:3

23:3 And David's men said unto him, Behold, we be afraid here in {b} Judah: how much more then if we come to Keilah against the armies of the Philistines?

      (b) That is, in the midst of Judah, much more when we come to the borders against our enemies.

1Sa 23:6

23:6 And it came to pass, when Abiathar the son of Ahimelech fled to David to Keilah, [that] he came down [with] an {c} ephod in his hand.

      (c) By God's providence the ephod was preserved and kept with David the true king.

1Sa 23:9

23:9 And David knew that Saul secretly practised mischief against him; and he said to Abiathar the priest, {d} Bring hither the ephod.

      (d) To consult with the Lord by Urim and Thummim.

1Sa 23:14

23:14 And David abode in the wilderness in strong holds, and remained in a mountain in the wilderness of Ziph. And Saul sought him every day, but God {e} delivered him not into his hand.

      (e) No power nor policy can prevail against God's children, but when he appoints the time.

1Sa 23:17

23:17 And he said unto him, Fear not: for the hand of Saul my father shall not find thee; and thou shalt be {f} king over Israel, and I shall be next unto thee; and that also Saul my father knoweth.

      (f) Jonathan assured David, that God would accomplish his promise, and that his father warred against his own conscience.

1Sa 23:21

23:21 And Saul said, {g} Blessed [be] ye of the LORD; for ye have compassion on me.

      (g) the Lord recompense this friendship.

1Sa 23:23

23:23 See therefore, and take knowledge of all the lurking places where he hideth himself, and come ye again to me with the certainty, and I will go with you: and it shall come to pass, if he be in the {h} land, that I will search him out throughout all the thousands of Judah.

      (h) In your country of Ziph, which is in Judah.

1Sa 23:25

23:25 Saul also and his men went to seek [him]. And they told David: wherefore he came down into a rock, and abode in the wilderness of {i} Maon. And when Saul heard [that], he pursued after David in the wilderness of Maon.

      (i) Which was also in the tribe of Judah, Jos 15:55.

1Sa 23:27

23:27 But there came a {k} messenger unto Saul, saying, Haste thee, and come; for the Philistines have invaded the land.

      (k) Thus the Lord can pull back the bridle of the tyrants and deliver his out of the lion's mouth.

1Sa 23:28

23:28 Wherefore Saul returned from pursuing after David, and went against the Philistines: therefore they called that place {l} Selahammahlekoth.

      (l) That is, stone of division, because there they divided themselves one from another.

1Sa 23:29

23:29 And David went up from thence, and dwelt in {a} strong holds at Engedi.

      (a) That is, in strong places, which were defended by nature.

1Sa 24:1

24:1 And it came to pass, when Saul was returned from following the Philistines, that it was told him, saying, Behold, David [is] in the wilderness of {b} Engedi.

      (b) A city of Judah, Jos 15:62.

1Sa 24:4

24:4 And the men of David said unto him, {c} Behold the day of which the LORD said unto thee, Behold, I will deliver thine enemy into thine hand, that thou mayest do to him as it shall seem good unto thee. Then David arose, and cut off the skirt of Saul's robe privily.

      (c) Here we see how ready we are to hasten God's promise, if the occasion serve never so little.

1Sa 24:5

24:5 And it came to pass afterward, that David's heart {d} smote him, because he had cut off Saul's skirt.

      (d) For seeing it was his own private cause, he repented that he had touched his enemy.

1Sa 24:9

24:9 And David said to Saul, {e} Wherefore hearest thou men's words, saying, Behold, David seeketh thy hurt?

      (e) Contrary to the report of those who said David was Saul's enemy, he proves himself to be his friend.

1Sa 24:16

24:16 And it came to pass, when David had made an end of speaking these words unto Saul, that Saul said, {f} [Is] this thy voice, my son David? And Saul lifted up his voice, and wept.

      (f) Though he was a cruel enemy to David, yet by his great gentleness his conscience compelled him to yield.

1Sa 24:20

24:20 And now, behold, I {g} know well that thou shalt surely be king, and that the kingdom of Israel shall be established in thine hand.

      (g) Though this tyrant saw and confessed the favour of God toward David, yet he did not cease to persecute him against his own conscience.

1Sa 25:1

25:1 And Samuel died; and all the Israelites were gathered together, and lamented him, and buried him in his {a} house at Ramah. And David arose, and went down to the wilderness of Paran.

      (a) That is, among his own kindred.

1Sa 25:2

25:2 And [there was] a man in {b} Maon, whose possessions [were] in Carmel; and the man [was] very great, and he had three thousand sheep, and a thousand goats: and he was shearing his sheep in Carmel.

      (b) Maon and Carmel were cities in the tribe of Judah. Carmel the mountain was in Galilee.

1Sa 25:6

25:6 And thus shall ye say {c} to him that liveth [in prosperity], Peace [be] both to thee, and peace [be] to thine house, and peace [be] unto all that thou hast.

      (c) Or, for salvation.

1Sa 25:8

25:8 Ask thy young men, and they will shew thee. Wherefore let the young men find favour in thine eyes: for we come in a good day: give, I pray thee, whatsoever {d} cometh to thine hand unto thy servants, and to thy son David.

      (d) Whatever you have ready for us.

1Sa 25:10

25:10 And Nabal answered David's servants, and said, Who [is] David? and who [is] the {e} son of Jesse? there be many servants now a days that break away every man from his master.

      (e) Thus the covetous wretches instead of relieving the needs of God's children, reviled their persons and condemned their cause.

1Sa 25:15

25:15 But the men [were] very good {f} unto us, and we were not hurt, neither missed we any thing, as long as we were conversant with them, when we were in the fields:

      (f) When we kept our sheep in the wilderness of Paran.

1Sa 25:19

25:19 And she said unto her servants, Go on before me; behold, I come after you. But she told not her {g} husband Nabal.

      (g) Because she knew his crooked nature, that he would rather die than agree to her enterprise.

1Sa 25:22

25:22 So and more also do God unto the enemies of David, if I leave of all that [pertain] to him by the morning light any that {h} pisseth against the wall.

      (h) Meaning by this proverb that he would destroy both small and great.

1Sa 25:26

25:26 Now therefore, my lord, [as] the LORD liveth, and [as] thy soul liveth, seeing the LORD hath withholden thee from coming to [shed] blood, and from avenging thyself with thine own {i} hand, now let thine enemies, and they that seek evil to my lord, be as Nabal.

      (i) That is, that you should not be revenged by your enemy.

1Sa 25:28

25:28 I pray thee, forgive the trespass of thine handmaid: for the LORD will certainly make my lord a {k} sure house; because my lord fighteth the battles of the LORD, and evil hath not been found in thee [all] thy days.

      (k) Confirm his kingdom to his posterity.

1Sa 25:29

25:29 Yet {l} a man is risen to pursue thee, and to seek thy soul: but the soul of my lord shall be bound in the {m} bundle of life with the LORD thy God; and the souls of thine enemies, them shall he sling out, [as out] of the middle of a sling.

      (l) That is, Saul.
      (m) God will preserve you long in his service, and destroy your enemies.

1Sa 25:31

25:31 That this shall be no grief unto thee, nor offence of heart unto my lord, either that thou hast shed blood causeless, or that my lord hath {n} avenged himself: but when the LORD shall have dealt well with my lord, then remember thine handmaid.

      (n) That he did not avenge himself, which would have tormented his conscience.

1Sa 25:33

25:33 And blessed [be] thy advice, and blessed [be] thou, which hast kept me this day from coming to [shed] blood, {o} and from avenging myself with mine own hand.

      (o) Read 1Sa 25:31.

1Sa 25:34

25:34 For in very deed, [as] the LORD God of Israel liveth, {p} which hath kept me back from hurting thee, except thou hadst hasted and come to meet me, surely there had not been left unto Nabal by the morning light any that pisseth against the wall.

      (p) He attributes it to the Lord's mercy, and not to himself that he was stayed.

1Sa 25:36

25:36 And Abigail came to Nabal; and, behold, he held a feast in his house, like the feast of a king; and Nabal's heart [was] merry within him, for he [was] very drunken: wherefore she told him {q} nothing, less or more, until the morning light.

      (q) For he had no reason either to consider, or to give thanks for this great benefit of deliverance.

1Sa 25:37

25:37 But it came to pass in the morning, when the wine was gone out of Nabal, and his wife had told him these things, that his heart died within him, and he became [as] {r} a stone.

      (r) For fear of the great danger.

1Sa 25:39

25:39 And when David heard that Nabal was dead, he said, Blessed [be] the LORD, that hath pleaded the cause of my reproach from the hand of Nabal, and hath kept his servant from evil: for the LORD hath returned the wickedness of Nabal upon his own head. And David sent and communed with Abigail, to {s} take her to him to wife.

      (s) For he had experienced her great godliness, wisdom and humility.

1Sa 26:2

26:2 Then Saul arose, and went down to the wilderness of Ziph, having three thousand {a} chosen men of Israel with him, to seek David in the wilderness of Ziph.

      (a) That is, of the most skilful and valiant soldiers.

1Sa 26:6

26:6 Then answered David and said to Ahimelech the {b} Hittite, and to Abishai the son of Zeruiah, brother to {c} Joab, saying, Who will go down with me to Saul to the camp? And Abishai said, I will go down with thee.

      (b) Who was a stranger, and not an Israelite.
      (c) Who afterward was David's chief captain.

1Sa 26:8

26:8 Then said Abishai to David, God hath delivered thine enemy into thine hand this day: now therefore let me smite him, I pray thee, with the spear even to the earth at once, and I will not [smite] him the {d} second time.

      (d) Meaning, he would make him sure at one stroke.

1Sa 26:9

26:9 And David said to Abishai, Destroy him not: for who can stretch forth his hand {e} against the LORD'S anointed, and be guiltless?

      (e) That is, in his own private cause: for Jehu slew two kings at God's appointment, 2Ki 9:24.

1Sa 26:15

26:15 And David said to Abner, [Art] not thou a [valiant] {f} man? and who [is] like to thee in Israel? wherefore then hast thou not kept thy lord the king? for there came one of the people in to destroy the king thy lord.

      (f) Esteemed most valiant and fit to save the king?

1Sa 26:17

26:17 And Saul knew David's voice, and said, [Is] this thy voice, {g} my son David? And David said, [It is] my voice, my lord, O king.

      (g) By this it appears, that the hypocrite persecuted David against his own conscience and contrary to his promise.

1Sa 26:19

26:19 Now therefore, I pray thee, let my lord the king hear the words of his servant. If the LORD have stirred thee up against me, let him {h} accept an offering: but if [they be] the children of men, cursed [be] they before the LORD; for they have driven me out this day from abiding in the inheritance of the LORD, saying, Go, serve {i} other gods.

      (h) Let his anger toward us be pacified by a sacrifice.
      (i) As much as lay in them, they compelled him to idolatry because they forced him to flee to the idolaters.

1Sa 26:21

26:21 Then said Saul, I have sinned: return, my son David: for I will no more do thee harm, because my soul was {k} precious in thine eyes this day: behold, I have played the fool, and have erred exceedingly.

      (k) Because you saved my life this day.

1Sa 26:23

26:23 The LORD render to every man his {l} righteousness and his faithfulness: for the LORD delivered thee into [my] hand to day, but I would not stretch forth mine hand against the LORD'S anointed.

      (l) Thus he protests his innocency toward Saul, not defending his justice in the sight of God, in whose presence none is righteous, Ps 14:3,130:3.

1Sa 26:25

26:25 Then Saul said to David, Blessed [be] thou, my son David: thou shalt both do great [things], and also shalt still prevail. So David went on his way, and Saul returned to his {m} place.

      (m) To Gibeah of Benjamin.

1Sa 27:1

27:1 And David said in his heart, I shall now {a} perish one day by the hand of Saul: [there is] nothing better for me than that I should speedily escape into the land of the Philistines; and Saul shall despair of me, to seek me any more in any coast of Israel: so shall I escape out of his hand.

      (a) David distrusts God's protection and therefore flees to the idolaters, who were enemies to God's people.

1Sa 27:3

27:3 And David {b} dwelt with Achish at Gath, he and his men, every man with his household, [even] David with his two wives, Ahinoam the Jezreelitess, and Abigail the Carmelitess, Nabal's wife.

      (b) Thus God by his providence changes the enemies hearts, and makes them favour his in their need.

1Sa 27:5

27:5 And David said unto Achish, If I have now found grace in thine eyes, {c} let them give me a place in some town in the country, that I may dwell there: for why should thy servant dwell in the royal city with thee?

      (c) Let your officers appoint me a place.

1Sa 27:8

27:8 And David and his men went up, and invaded the {d} Geshurites, and the Gezrites, and the Amalekites: for those [nations were] of old the inhabitants of the land, as thou goest to Shur, even unto the land of Egypt.

      (d) These were the wicked Canaanites, whom God had appointed to be destroyed.

1Sa 27:10

27:10 And Achish said, Whither have ye made a road to day? And David said, Against the south of Judah, and against the south of the {e} Jerahmeelites, and against the south of the Kenites.

      (e) A family of the tribe of Judah, 1Ch 2:9.

1Sa 28:1

28:1 And it came to pass in those days, that the Philistines gathered their armies together for warfare, to fight with Israel. And Achish said unto David, {a} Know thou assuredly, that thou shalt go out with me to battle, thou and thy men.

      (a) Though it was a great grief to David to fight against the people of God, yet such was his infirmity, he did not dare deny him.

1Sa 28:3

28:3 Now Samuel was dead, and all Israel had lamented him, and buried him in Ramah, even in his own city. And Saul had {b} put away those that had familiar spirits, and the wizards, out of the land.

      (b) According to the commandment of God, Ex 22:18, De 18:10,11.

1Sa 28:6

28:6 And when Saul enquired of the LORD, the LORD answered him not, neither by dreams, nor by {c} Urim, nor by prophets.

      (c) Meaning, the high priest, Ex 28:30.

1Sa 28:8

28:8 And Saul {d} disguised himself, and put on other raiment, and he went, and two men with him, and they came to the woman by night: and he said, I pray thee, divine unto me by the familiar spirit, and bring me [him] up, whom I shall name unto thee.

      (d) He does not seek God in his misery, but is led by Satan to unlawful means, which in his conscience he condemns.

1Sa 28:11

28:11 Then said the woman, Whom shall I bring up unto thee? And he said, Bring me up {e} Samuel.

      (e) He speaks according to his gross ignorance not considering the state of the saints after this life, and how Satan has no power over them.

1Sa 28:14

28:14 And he said unto her, What form [is] he of? And she said, An old man cometh up; and he [is] covered with a mantle. And Saul perceived that it [was] {f} Samuel, and he stooped with [his] face to the ground, and bowed himself.

      (f) To his imagination, even though it was Satan, who to blind his eyes took on him the form of Samuel, as he can do of an angel of light.

1Sa 28:17

28:17 And the LORD hath done to {g} him, as he spake by me: for the LORD hath rent the kingdom out of thine hand, and given it to thy neighbour, [even] to David:

      (g) That is, to David.

1Sa 28:19

28:19 Moreover the LORD will also deliver Israel with thee into the hand of the Philistines: {h} and to morrow [shalt] thou and thy sons [be] with me: the LORD also shall deliver the host of Israel into the hand of the Philistines.

      (h) You will die, 1Sa 31:6.

1Sa 28:20

28:20 Then Saul fell straightway all along on the earth, and was sore {i} afraid, because of the words of Samuel: and there was no strength in him; for he had eaten no bread all the day, nor all the night.

      (i) The wicked when they hear God's judgments, tremble and despair, but cannot seek for mercy by repentance.

1Sa 28:21

28:21 And the woman came unto Saul, and saw that he was sore troubled, and said unto him, Behold, thine handmaid hath obeyed thy voice, and I {k} have put my life in my hand, and have hearkened unto thy words which thou spakest unto me.

      (k) I have ventured my life.

1Sa 28:24

28:24 And the woman had a fat calf in the house; and she hasted, and killed it, and took flour, and kneaded [it], and did bake {l} unleavened bread thereof:

      (l) Because it required haste.

1Sa 29:2

29:2 And the lords of the Philistines passed on by {a} hundreds, and by thousands: but David and his men passed on in the rereward with Achish.

      (a) According to their bands, or ensigns.

1Sa 29:3

29:3 Then said the princes of the Philistines, What [do] these Hebrews [here]? And Achish said unto the princes of the Philistines, [Is] not this David, the servant of Saul the king of Israel, which hath been with me these days, {b} or these years, and I have found no fault in him since he fell [unto me] unto this day?

      (b) Meaning, a long time, that is, four months and certain days, 1Sa 27:7.

1Sa 29:4

29:4 And the princes of the Philistines were wroth with him; and the princes of the Philistines said unto him, Make this fellow return, that he may go again to his place which thou hast appointed him, and let him not go down with us to battle, lest in the battle he be an adversary to us: for wherewith should he reconcile himself unto his master? [should it] not [be] with the {c} heads of these men?

      (c) Would not Saul receive him to favour, if he would betray us?

1Sa 29:6

29:6 Then Achish called David, and said unto him, Surely, [as] the LORD liveth, thou hast been upright, and thy {d} going out and thy coming in with me in the host [is] good in my sight: for I have not found evil in thee since the day of thy coming unto me unto this day: nevertheless the lords favour thee not.

      (d) That is, was conversant with me.

1Sa 29:8

29:8 And David said unto Achish, But what have I done? and what hast thou found in thy servant so long as I have been with thee unto this day, that I may {e} not go fight against the enemies of my lord the king?

      (e) This deception cannot be excused, for it grieved him to go against the people of God.

1Sa 29:10

29:10 Wherefore now rise up early in the morning with thy {f} master's servants that are come with thee: and as soon as ye be up early in the morning, and have light, depart.

      (f) With them that fled to thee from Saul.

1Sa 30:1

30:1 And it came to pass, when David and his men were come to Ziklag on {a} the third day, that the Amalekites had invaded the south, and Ziklag, and {b} smitten Ziklag, and burned it with fire;

      (a) After that he departed from Achish.
      (b) That is, destroyed their city.

1Sa 30:3

30:3 So David and his men came to the city, and, behold, [it was] burned with fire; and their {c} wives, and their sons, and their daughters, were taken captives.

      (c) For those only remained in the city, when the men were gone to war.

1Sa 30:6

30:6 And David was greatly distressed; for the people {d} spake of stoning him, because the soul of all the people was grieved, every man for his sons and for his daughters: but David encouraged himself in the LORD his God.

      (d) Thus we see that in trouble and adversity we do not consider God's providence, but like raging beasts forget both our own duty and contemn God's appointment over us.

1Sa 30:8

30:8 And David enquired at the LORD, saying, Shall I pursue after this troop? shall I overtake them? And he answered him, Pursue: for thou shalt surely overtake [them], and without fail {e} recover [all].

      (e) Though God seem to leave us for a time, yet if we trust in him, we will be sure to find comfort.

1Sa 30:11

30:11 And they found an Egyptian in the field, and brought him to David, and gave him {f} bread, and he did eat; and they made him drink water;

      (f) God by his providence both provides for the needs of the poor stranger, and made him a guide to David to accomplish his enterprise.

1Sa 30:15

30:15 And David said to him, Canst thou bring me down to this company? And he said, {g} Swear unto me by God, that thou wilt neither kill me, nor deliver me into the hands of my master, and I will bring thee down to this company.

      (g) For others were in all ages held in most reverence, even among the heathen.

1Sa 30:16

30:16 And when he had brought him down, behold, [they were] spread abroad upon all the earth, (h) eating and drinking, and dancing, because of all the great spoil that they had taken out of the land of the Philistines, and out of the land of Judah.

      (h) The wicked in their pomp and pleasures do not consider the judgment of God, which is then at hand to smite them.

1Sa 30:17

30:17 And David smote them from the twilight even unto the evening {i} of the next day: and there escaped not a man of them, save four hundred young men, which rode upon camels, and fled.

      (i) Some read, and to the morrow of the two evenings, that is, three days.

1Sa 30:20

30:20 And David took all the flocks and the herds, [which] they drave before those [other] cattle, and said, This [is] David's {k} spoil.

      (k) Which the Amalekites had taken from others, and David from them, besides the goods of Ziklag.

1Sa 30:22

30:22 Then answered all the wicked men and [men] of Belial, of those that went with David, and said, Because they went not with us, we will not give them [ought] of the spoil that we have recovered, save to every man his {l} wife and his children, that they may lead [them] away, and depart.

      (l) Under these are understood the cattle and goods, which belonged to every man.

1Sa 30:25

30:25 {m} And it was [so] from that day forward, that he made it a statute and an ordinance for Israel unto this day.

      (m) Some refer these words to David, that he alleged an old custom and law, as if it were written, it is both now, and ever has been.

1Sa 30:31

30:31 And to [them] which [were] in Hebron, and {n} to all the places where David himself and his men were wont to haunt.

      (n) Showing himself mindful of their benefits towards him.

1Sa 31:4

31:4 Then said Saul unto his armourbearer, {a} Draw thy sword, and thrust me through therewith; lest these uncircumcised come and thrust me through, and abuse me. But his armourbearer would not; for he was sore afraid. Therefore Saul took a sword, and fell upon it.

      (a) So we see that his cruel life has a desperate end, as is commonly seen in those who persecute the children of God.

1Sa 31:7

31:7 And when the men of Israel that [were] on the other side of the {b} valley, and [they] that [were] on the other side {c} Jordan, saw that the men of Israel fled, and that Saul and his sons were dead, they forsook the cities, and fled; and the Philistines came and dwelt in them.

      (b) Near to Gilboa.
      (c) The tribes of Reuben and Gad, and half the tribe of Manasseh.

1Sa 31:9

31:9 And they cut off his head, and stripped off his armour, and sent into the land of the Philistines round about, to {d} publish [it in] the house of their idols, and among the people.

      (d) In token of victory and triumph.

1Sa 31:11

31:11 And when the inhabitants of {e} Jabeshgilead heard of that which the Philistines had done to Saul;

      (e) Whom he had delivered from their enemies, 1Sa 11:11.

1Sa 31:13

31:13 And they took their bones, and buried [them] under a tree at Jabesh, and {f} fasted seven days.

      (f) According to the custom of mourners.

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