1 Samuel
2 Samuel
1 Kings
2 Kings
1 Chronicles
2 Chronicles

Song of Songs



1 Corinthians
2 Corinthians
1 Thessalonians
2 Thessalonians
1 Timothy
2 Timothy

1 Peter
2 Peter
1 John
2 John
3 John

Revelation 1-11
Revelation 12-22

Notes on Second Corinthians
From the Original 1599 Geneva Bible Notes

2Co 1:1

1:1 Paul, {1} an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, and Timothy [our] brother, unto the church of God which is at Corinth, with all the saints which are in all Achaia:

      (1) See the declaration of such salutations in the former epistles.

2Co 1:3

1:3 {2} {a} Blessed [be] God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of {b} mercies, and the God of all comfort;

      (2) He begins after this manner with thanksgiving, which nonetheless (otherwise than he was accustomed to) he applies to himself: beginning his epistle with the setting forth of the dignity of his apostleship, forced (as it should seem) by their importunity which took an occasion to despise him, by reason of his miseries. But he answers, that he is not so afflicted but that his comforts do exceed his afflictions, showing the ground of them, even the mercy of God the Father in Jesus Christ.
      (a) To him be praise and glory given.
      (b) Most merciful.

2Co 1:4

1:4 Who comforteth us in all our tribulation, {3} that we may be able to comfort them which are in any trouble, by the comfort wherewith we ourselves are comforted of God.

      (3) The Lord comforts us to this end and purpose, that we may so much the more surely comfort others.

2Co 1:5

1:5 For as the {c} sufferings of Christ abound in us, so our consolation also aboundeth by Christ.

      (c) The miseries which we suffer for Christ, or which Christ suffers in us.

2Co 1:6

1:6 {4} And whether we be afflicted, [it is] for your consolation and salvation, which is {d} effectual in the enduring of the same sufferings which we also suffer: or whether we be comforted, [it is] for your consolation and salvation.

      (4) He denies that either his afflictions with which he was often afflicted, or the consolations which he received of God, may justly be despised, seeing that the Corinthians both ought and might take great occasion to be strengthened and encouraged by either of them.
      (d) Although salvation is given to us freely, yet because there is a way appointed to us by which we must come to it, which is the race of an innocent and upright life which we must run, therefore we are said to work our salvation; Php 2:12 . And because it is God alone that of his free good will works all things in us, therefore is he said to work the salvation in us by that very same way by which we must pass to everlasting life, after we have once overcome all incumbrances.

2Co 1:8

1:8 {5} For we would not, brethren, have you ignorant of our trouble which came to us in Asia, that we were pressed out of measure, above strength, insomuch that we {e} despaired even of life:

      (5) He witnesses that he is not ashamed of his afflictions, and further that he desires also to have all men know the greatness of them, and also his delivery from them, although it is not yet perfect.
      (e) I did not know at all what to do, neither did I see by man's help which way to save my life.

2Co 1:9

1:9 But we had the sentence of death in {f} ourselves, that we should not trust in ourselves, but in God which raiseth the dead:

      (f) I was resolved within myself to die.

2Co 1:10

1:10 Who delivered us from so {g} great a death, and doth deliver: in whom we trust that he will yet deliver [us];

      (g) From these great dangers.

2Co 1:11

1:11 {6} Ye also helping together by prayer for us, {7} that for the gift [bestowed] upon us by the means of many persons thanks may be given by many on our behalf.

      (6) That he may not seem to boast of himself, he attributes all to God, and in so doing also confesses that he attributes much to the prayers of the faithful.
      (7) The end of the afflictions of the saints is the glory of God, and therefore they ought to be precious to us.

2Co 1:12

1:12 {8} For our rejoicing is this, the testimony of our conscience, that in simplicity and godly {h} sincerity, not with fleshly wisdom, but by the {i} grace of God, we have had our conversation in the world, and more abundantly to you-ward.

      (8) Secondly, he dismisses another slander, that is, that he was a light man, and such a one as was not lightly to be trusted, seeing that he promised to come to them, and did not come. And first he speaks of the singleness of his mind, and sincerity, which they knew both by his voice when he was present, and they ought to acknowledge it also in his letters, being absent: and moreover he protests that he will never be otherwise.
      (h) With clearness, and holy and true plainness of mind, as God himself can witness.
      (i) Trusting to that very wisdom which God of his free goodness has given me from heaven.

2Co 1:13

1:13 For we write {k} none other things unto you, than what ye read or acknowledge; and I trust ye shall acknowledge even to the {l} end;

      (k) He says that he writes plainly and simply: for he that writes in an elaborate way, is rightly said to write otherwise than we read. And this, he says, the Corinthians will truly know and like very well.
      (l) Perfectly.

2Co 1:14

1:14 As also ye have acknowledged us in part, that we are your {m} rejoicing, even as ye also [are] ours in the {n} day of the Lord Jesus.

      (m) Paul's rejoicing in the Lord was that he had won the Corinthians: and they themselves rejoiced that such an apostle was their instructor, and taught them so purely and sincerely.
      (n) When he will sit as judge.

2Co 1:15

1:15 And in this confidence I was minded to come unto you before, that ye might have a {o} second benefit;

      (o) Another benefit.

2Co 1:17

1:17 {9} When I therefore was thus minded, did I use lightness? or the things that I purpose, do I purpose according to the {p} flesh, that with me there should be {q} yea yea, and nay nay?

      (9) He dismisses their slander and false report by denying it, and first of all in that different ones went about to persuade the Corinthians, that in the preaching of the Gospel, Paul agreed not to himself: for this was the matter and the case.
      (p) As men do who will rashly promise anything, and change their purpose constantly.
      (q) That I should say and not say a thing?

2Co 1:18

1:18 {10} But [as] God [is] {r} true, our word toward you was not yea and nay.

      (10) He calls God as witness and as judge of his constancy in preaching and teaching one self same Gospel.
      (r) True, and of whose faithful witness it would be horribly wicked to doubt.

2Co 1:19

1:19 {11} For the Son of God, Jesus Christ, who was preached among you by us, [even] by me and Silvanus and Timotheus, {s} was not yea and nay, but in {t} him was yea.

      (11) He adds also with himself his companions, as witnesses with whom he fully consented in teaching the same thing, that is, the same Christ.
      (s) Was not different and wavering.
      (t) That is, in God.

2Co 1:20

1:20 {12} For all the promises of God in him [are] yea, and in {u} him Amen, unto the glory of God by {x} us.

      (12) Last of all he declares the sum of his doctrine, that is, that all the promises of salvation are sure and ratified in Christ.
      (u) Christ is set also forth to exhibit and fulfil them most assuredly, and without any doubt.
      (x) Through our ministry.

2Co 1:21

1:21 {13} Now he which stablisheth us with you in Christ, and hath anointed us, [is] God;

      (13) He attributes the praise of this constancy only to the grace of God, through the Holy Spirit. In addition he concludes that they cannot doubt of his faith and his fellows, without doing injury to the Spirit of God, seeing that they themselves know all this to be true.

2Co 1:22

1:22 Who hath also sealed us, and given the {y} earnest of the Spirit in our hearts.

      (y) An earnest is whatever is given to confirm a promise.

2Co 1:23

1:23 {14} Moreover I call God for a record upon my {z} soul, that to spare you I came not as yet unto Corinth.

      (14) Now coming to the matter, he swears that he did not lightly alter his purpose of coming to them, but rather that he did not come to them for this reason, that he, being present, might not be forced to deal more sharply with them than he would like.
      (z) Against myself, and to the danger of my own life.

2Co 1:24

1:24 {15} Not for that we have dominion over your faith, but are helpers of your {a} joy: for by faith ye stand.

      (15) He removes all suspicion of arrogance, declaring that he speaks not as a lord to them, but as a servant, appointed by God to comfort them.
      (a) He sets the joy and peace of conscience, which God is author of, as opposed to tyrannous fear, and in addition shows the result of the Gospel.

2Co 2:1

2:1 But I determined this with myself, that I would not come again to you in {a} heaviness.

      (a) Causing grief among you, which he would have done if he had come to them before they had repented.

2Co 2:3

2:3 And I wrote this same unto you, lest, when I came, I should have sorrow from them of whom I ought to rejoice; having {b} confidence in you all, that my joy is [the joy] of you all.

      (b) For I trusted that you would immediately take that out of the way which you knew I was discontented with, considering how you are persuaded that my joy is your joy.

2Co 2:5

2:5 {1} But if any have caused grief, he hath not {c} grieved me, but {d} in part: that I may not {e} overcharge you all.

      (1) He passes to another part of this epistle: which nonetheless is put among the first, and to which he returns afterwards: and he handles the releasing and unloosing of the incestuous person, because he seemed to have been given sufficient testimony of his repentance. And this shows the true use of excommunication, that is, that it proceeds not from hatred, but from love, and so end, lest if we keep it up, we serve Satan the devil.
      (c) As if he said, "All that sorrow is so completely wiped away, that I have never felt it."
      (d) As for me, says Paul, I have no more to do with him.
      (e) Lest I should overcharge him who is burdened enough as it is, which burden I would be glad if it were taken from him.

2Co 2:7

2:7 So that contrariwise ye [ought] rather to {f} forgive [him], and comfort [him], lest perhaps such a one should be swallowed up with overmuch sorrow.

      (f) That whereas before you punished him sharply, you should now forgive him.

2Co 2:8

2:8 Wherefore I beseech you that ye would {g} confirm [your] love toward him.

      (g) That at my entreaty you would declare by the consent of the whole church, that you take him again as a brother.

2Co 2:10

2:10 To whom ye forgive any thing, I [forgive] also: for if I forgave any thing, to whom I forgave [it], for your sakes [forgave I it] in the {h} person of Christ;

      (h) Truly, and from the heart.

2Co 2:11

2:11 Lest Satan should get an advantage of us: for we are not ignorant of his {i} devices.

      (i) Of his mischievous counsel and devilish will.

2Co 2:12

2:12 {2} Furthermore, when I came to Troas to [preach] Christ's gospel, and a door was opened unto me of the Lord,

      (2) He returns to the confirmation of his apostleship, and brings forth both the testimonies of his labours, and also of God's blessing.

2Co 2:14

2:14 Now thanks [be] unto God, which always causeth us to triumph in Christ, and maketh manifest the {k} savour of his knowledge by us in every place.

      (k) He alludes to the anointing of the priests, and the incense of the sacrifices.

2Co 2:15

2:15 {3} For we are unto God a sweet savour of Christ, in them that are saved, and in them that perish:

      (3) He denies that anything should be taken away from the dignity of his apostleship, because they saw that it was not received with like success in every place. But rather very many rejected and detested him, seeing that he preached Christ not only as a saviour of those that believe, but also as a judge of those that condemn him.

2Co 2:16

2:16 To the one [we are] the savour of death unto death; and to the other the savour of life unto life. {4} And who [is] sufficient for these things?

      (4) Again, he dismisses all suspicion of arrogance, attributing all things that he did to the power of God, whom he serves sincerely, and with honest affection. And he makes them witnesses of this, even to the sixth verse of the next chapter 2Co 2:17 - 3:6 .

2Co 2:17

2:17 For we are not as many, which {l} corrupt the word of God: but as of sincerity, but as of God, in the sight of God speak we in Christ.

      (l) We do not handle it craftily and covetously, or less sincerely than we ought. And he uses a metaphor, which is taken from hucksters, who used to play the false harlot with whatever came into their hands.

2Co 3:3

3:3 [Forasmuch as ye are] {a} manifestly declared to be the epistle of Christ {b} ministered by us, written not with ink, but with the Spirit of the {c} living God; {1} not in tables of stone, but in fleshy tables of the heart.

      (a) The apostle says this wisely, that by little and little he may come from the commendation of the person to the matter itself.
      (b) Which I took pains to write as it were.
      (c) Along the way he sets the power of God against the ink with which epistles are commonly written, to show that it was accomplished by God.
      (1) He alludes along the way to the comparison of the outward ministry of the priesthood of Levi with the ministry of the Gospel, and the apostolical ministry, which he handles afterward more fully.

2Co 3:4

3:4 And such {d} trust have we through Christ to God-ward:

      (d) This boldness we show, and thus may we boast gloriously of the worthiness and fruit of our ministry.

2Co 3:5

3:5 Not that we are sufficient of ourselves to think any thing as of ourselves; but our {e} sufficiency [is] of God;

      (e) In that we are proper and able to make other men partakers of so great a grace.

2Co 3:6

3:6 {2} Who also hath made us able ministers of the new testament; not of the {f} letter, but of the spirit: for the letter killeth, but the spirit giveth life.

      (2) He amplifies his ministry and his fellows: that is to say, the ministry of the Gospel comparing it with the ministry of the Law, which he considers in the person of Moses, by whom the Law was given: against whom he sets Christ the author of the Gospel. Now this comparison is taken from the very substance of the ministry. The Law is as it were a writing in itself, dead, and without efficacy: but the Gospel, and new Covenant, as it were the very power of God itself, in renewing, justifying, and saving men. The Law offers death, accusing all men of unrighteousness: the Gospel offers and gives righteousness and life. The administration of the Law served for a time to the promise: the Gospel remains to the end of the world. Therefore what is the glory of the Law in comparison of the majesty of the Gospel?
      (f) Not of the Law but of the Gospel.

2Co 3:7

3:7 But if the ministration of death, written {g} [and] engraven in stones, was {h} glorious, so that the children of Israel could not stedfastly behold the face of Moses for the glory of his countenance; which [glory] was to be done away:

      (g) Imprinted and engraved: so that by this place we may plainly perceive that the apostle speaks not of the ceremonies of the Law, but of the ten commandments.
      (h) This word "glorious" indicates a brightness, and a majesty which was in Moses physically, but in Christ spiritually.

2Co 3:8

3:8 How shall not the {i} ministration of the spirit be rather glorious?

      (i) By which God offers, indeed, and gives the Spirit, not as a dead thing, but a living Spirit, working life.

2Co 3:9

3:9 For if the ministration of condemnation [be] glory, much more doth the ministration of {k} righteousness exceed in glory.

      (k) That is, of Christ. And since he is imputed to us as our own, we are not condemned, and what is more we are also crowned as righteous.

2Co 3:11

3:11 For if that which is {l} done away [was] glorious, much more that which remaineth [is] glorious.

      (l) The Law, indeed, and the ten commandments themselves, together with Moses, are all abolished, if we consider the ministry of Moses apart by itself.

2Co 3:12

3:12 {3} Seeing then that we have such hope, we use great plainness of speech:

      (3) He shows what this glory of the preaching of the Gospel consists in: that is, in that it sets forth plainly and evidently that which the Law showed darkly, for it sent those that heard it to be healed by Christ, who was to come, after it had wounded them.

2Co 3:13

3:13 {4} And not as Moses, [which] put a vail over his face, that the children of Israel could not stedfastly look to the {m} end of that which is abolished:

      (4) He expounds along the way the allegory of Moses' covering, which was a token of the darkness and weakness that is in men, who were rather dulled by the bright shining of the Law then given. And this covering was taken away by the coming of Christ, who enlightens the hearts, and turns them to the Lord, that we may be brought from the slavery of this blindness, and set in the liberty of the light by the power of Christ's Spirit.
      (m) Into the very bottom of Moses' ministry.

2Co 3:17

3:17 Now the {n} Lord is that Spirit: and where the Spirit of the Lord [is], there [is] liberty.

      (n) Christ is that Spirit who takes away that covering, by working in our hearts, to which also the Law itself called us, though in vain, because it speaks to dead men, until the Spirit makes us alive.

2Co 3:18

3:18 {5} But we all, with open face beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord, are changed into the same image from glory to glory, [even] as by the Spirit of the Lord.

      (5) Continuing in the allegory of the covering, he compares the Gospel to a glass, which although it is most bright and sparkling, yet it does not dazzle their eyes who look in it, as the Law does, but instead transforms them with its beams, so that they also are partakers of the glory and shining of it, to enlighten others: as Christ said unto his own, "You are the light of the world", whereas he himself alone is the light. We are also commanded in another place to shine as candles before the world, because we are partakers of God's Spirit. But Paul speaks here properly of the ministers of the Gospel, as it appears both by that which goes before, and that which comes after, and in that he sets before them his own example and that of his fellows.

2Co 4:1

4:1 Therefore {1} seeing we have this ministry, as we have received mercy, we {a} faint not;

      (1) Now he plainly witnesses that both he and his associates
      (through the mercy of God) do their vocation and duty uprightly and sincerely, neglecting all dangers.
      (a) Though we are broken in pieces with miseries and calamities, yet we do not yield.

2Co 4:2

4:2 But have renounced the {b} hidden things of dishonesty, not walking in craftiness, nor handling the word of God {c} deceitfully; but by manifestation of the truth commending ourselves to every man's conscience in the sight of God.

      (b) Subtilty and every type of deceit which men hunt after, as it were dens and lurking holes, to cover their shameless dealings with.
      (c) This is that which he called in the former chapter, making merchandise of the word of God.

2Co 4:3

4:3 {2} But if our gospel be hid, it is hid to them that are lost:

      (2) An objection: many hear the Gospel, and yet are no more enlightened by it than by the preaching of the Law. He answers, "The fault is in the men themselves, whose eyes Satan plucks out, who rules in this world." And yet nonetheless he and his associates set forth the most clear light of the Gospel to be seen and beheld, seeing that Christ only whom they preach, is he in whom God will be known, and as it were seen.

2Co 4:4

4:4 In whom the god of this world hath blinded the minds of them which believe not, lest the {d} light of the glorious gospel of Christ, who is the {e} image of God, should shine unto them.

      (d) The light of plain and enlightening preaching, which shows forth the glory of Christ.
      (e) In whom the Father sets himself forth to be seen and beheld.

2Co 4:5

4:5 {3} For we preach not ourselves, but Christ Jesus the Lord; and ourselves your servants for {f} Jesus' sake.

      (3) He removes according to his accustomed manner, all suspicion of ambition, affirming that he teaches faithfully, but as a servant, and witnessing that all this light which he and his associates give to others, proceeds from the Lord.
      (f) To preach this self same Jesus to you.

2Co 4:6

4:6 For God, {g} who commanded the light to shine out of darkness, hath shined in our hearts, to [give] the {h} light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ.

      (g) Who made with his word alone.
      (h) That being enlightened by God, we should in the same way give that light to others.

2Co 4:7

4:7 {4} But we have this treasure in earthen vessels, {5} that the excellency of the power may be of God, and not of us.

      (4) He takes away a stumbling block, which darkened among some, the bright shining of the ministry of the Gospel, that is, because the apostles were the most miserable of all men. Paul answers that he and his associates are as it were, earthen vessels, but yet there is in them a most precious treasure.
      (5) He brings marvellous reasons why the Lord does so afflict his principal servants, to the end, he says, that all men may perceive that they do not stand by any man's power, but by the singular power of God, in that they die a thousand times, but never perish.

2Co 4:10

4:10 {6} Always bearing about in the body the {i} dying of the Lord Jesus, that the life also of Jesus might be made manifest in our body.

      (6) An amplification of the former sentence, in which he compares his afflictions to a daily death, and the power of the Spirit of God in Christ to life, who oppresses that death.
      (i) So Paul calls that miserable estate and condition that the faithful, but especially the minsters, are in.

2Co 4:11

4:11 For we which {k} live are alway delivered unto death for Jesus' sake, that the life also of Jesus might be made manifest in our {l} mortal flesh.

      (k) Who live that life, that is, by the Spirit of Christ, among so many and so great miseries.
      (l) Subject to that miserable condition.

2Co 4:12

4:12 {7} So then death worketh in us, but life in you.

      (7) A very wise conclusion: as if he would say, "Therefore, to be short, we die that you may live by our death", because they ventured into all those dangers for the building of the Church's sake, and they ceased not to strengthen and encourage all the faithful with the examples of their patience.

2Co 4:13

4:13 {8} We having the same {m} spirit of faith, according as it is written, I believed, and therefore have I spoken; we also believe, and therefore speak;

      (8) He declares the former sentence, showing that he and his associates die in a way to purchase life for others, but yet nonetheless they are partakers of the same life with them: because they themselves do first believe that which they offer to others to believe, that is, that they also will be saved together with them in Christ.
      (m) The same faith, by the inspiration of the same Spirit.

2Co 4:15

4:15 {9} For all things [are] for your sakes, {n} that the abundant grace might through the thanksgiving of many redound to the glory of God.

      (9) He shows how this constancy is preserved in them, that is, because they are doing it for God's glory, and the salvation of the churches committed to them.
      (n) When it will please God to deliver me, and restore me to you, that exceeding benefit which will be poured upon me will in like sort result to the glory of God, by the thanksgiving of many.

2Co 4:16

4:16 For which cause we faint not; {10} but though our outward man perish, yet the inward [man] is {o} renewed day by day.

      (10) He adds as it were a triumphant song, that he is outwardly afflicted, but inwardly he profits daily: and he is not bothered by all the miseries that may be sustained in this life, in comparison of that most constant and eternal glory.
      (o) Gathers new strength so that the outward man is not overcome with the miseries which come freshly one after another, being maintained and upheld with the strength of the inward man.

2Co 4:17

4:17 For our {p} light affliction, which is but for a moment, worketh for us a far more exceeding [and] eternal weight of {q} glory;

      (p) Afflictions are not called light, as though they were light in themselves, but because they pass away quickly, as indeed our whole life is not of very long continuance.
      (q) Which remains forever firm and stable, and can never be shaken.

2Co 5:1

5:1 For {1} we know that if our earthly house of [this] tabernacle were dissolved, we have a building of God, an house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens.

      (1) Taking occasion by the former comparison, he compares this miserable body as it is in this life, to a frail and brittle tabernacle. And contrasts this with the heavenly tabernacle, which he calls that sure and everlasting condition of this same body glorified in heaven. And this is so, he says, in that we are addicted to this tabernacle, but also with sobs and sighs desire rather that tabernacle. And so this place concerning the glory to come is put within the treatise of the dignity of the ministry, just as it also was in the beginning of the second chapter.

2Co 5:2

5:2 For in this we groan, earnestly desiring to be {a} clothed upon with our house which is from {b} heaven:

      (a) He calls the glory of immortality, which we will be as it were clothed with, a garment.
      (b) Heavenly, not that the substance of it is heavenly, but rather the glory of it.

2Co 5:3

5:3 {2} If so be that being clothed we shall not be found naked.

      (2) An exposition of the former saying: we do not without reason desire to be clad with the heavenly house, that is, with that everlasting and immortal glory, as with a garment. For when we depart from here we will not remain naked, having cast off the covering of this body, but we will take our bodies again, which will put on as it were another garment besides. And therefore we do not sigh because of the weariness of this life, but because of the desire of a better life. Neither is this desire in vain, for we are made to that life, the pledge of which we have, even the Spirit of adoption.

2Co 5:5

5:5 Now he that hath {c} wrought us for the selfsame thing [is] God, who also hath given unto us the earnest of the Spirit.

      (c) He means that first creation, to show us that our bodies were made to this end, that they should be clothed with heavenly immortality.

2Co 5:6

5:6 {3} Therefore [we are] always {d} confident, knowing that, whilst we are at home in the body, we are absent from the Lord:

      (3) He concludes something here from verse four, and states it in the following way: "Therefore, seeing that we know by the Spirit that we are strangers so long as we are here, we patiently suffer this delay (for we are now so with God, that we behold him only by faith, and are therefore now absent from him) but so that we aspire and have a longing always to him. Therefore also we behave ourselves in such a way that we may be acceptable to him, both while we live here, and when we go from here to him." 2Co 5:4
      (d) He calls them "confident" who are always resolved with a quiet and settled mind to suffer any danger at all, not doubting at all that their end will be happy.

2Co 5:7

5:7 (For we walk by {e} faith, not by sight:)

      (e) Faith, of those things which we hope for, not having God presently in our physical view.

2Co 5:8

5:8 We are {f} confident, [I say], and willing rather to be absent from the body, and to be present with the Lord.

      (f) And yet we are in such a manner confident and do so pass on our pilgrimage with a valiant and peaceful mind, that yet nonetheless we had rather depart from here to the Lord.

2Co 5:9

5:9 Wherefore we {g} labour, that, whether present or absent, we may be accepted of him.

      (g) And seeing that it is so, we strive to live so, that both in this our pilgrimage here we may please him, and that at length we may be received home to him.

2Co 5:10

5:10 {4} For we must all {h} appear before the judgment seat of Christ; that every one may receive the things [done] in [his] body, according to that he hath done, whether [it be] good or bad.

      (4) That no man might think that what he spoke of that heavenly glory pertains to all, he adds that every one will first render an account of his pilgrimage, after he has departed from here.
      (h) We must all appear personally, and enquiry will be made of us, that all may see how we have lived.

2Co 5:11

5:11 {5} Knowing therefore the {i} terror of the Lord, we persuade men; but we are made manifest unto God; and I trust also are made manifest in your consciences.

      (5) Now he moves on, and taking occasion of the former sentence returns to 2Co 4:16 , confirming his own and his associates sincerity.
      (i) That terrible judgment.

2Co 5:12

5:12 {6} For we commend not ourselves again unto you, but give you occasion to glory on our behalf, that ye may have somewhat to [answer] them which glory in {k} appearance, and not in heart.

      (6) He removes all suspicion of pride by a new reason, because it is a responsibility, not for his part but for theirs, that his apostleship be considered sincere compared to the vain display of a few others.
      (k) In outward disguising, and that pretentious show of man's wisdom and eloquence, and not in true godliness, which is sealed in the heart.

2Co 5:13

5:13 {7} For whether we be beside ourselves, [it is] to God: or whether we be sober, [it is] for your cause.

      (7) The meaning is: even when I am mad (as some men think of me), while I seem as a fool to boast about myself, I do it for your profit, to the same extent that I do when I preach only the Gospel to you.

2Co 5:14

5:14 {8} For the love of Christ {l} constraineth us; because we thus judge, that if {m} one died for all, then were all dead:

      (8) He continues dismissing all suspicion of desire of estimation and boasting. For the love of Christ, he says, compels us to this, that seeing he died for us all, who were dead when as we lived to ourselves (that is, while we were yet given to these earthly affections) we in like sort should consecrate our whole life which we have received from him, to him. That is, being endued with the Holy Spirit to this end and purpose, that we should meditate upon nothing but that which is heavenly.
      (l) Wholly possesses us.
      (m) He speaks here of sanctification, by which it comes to pass that Christ lives in us.

2Co 5:15

5:15 And [that] he died for all, that they which live should not henceforth {n} live unto themselves, but unto him which died for them, and rose again.

      (n) See Ro 6:1-7:25

2Co 5:16

5:16 {9} Wherefore henceforth know we no man after the flesh: {10} yea, though we have known Christ after the flesh, yet now henceforth know we [him] no more.

      (9) He shows what it is not to live to ourselves but to Christ, that is, to know no man according to the flesh. That is to say, to be conversant among men and yet not to care for those worldly and carnal things, as those do who have regard for a man's family, his country, form, glory, riches, and such like, in which men commonly dote and weary themselves.
      (10) An amplification: "This is", he says, "so true, that we do not now think carnally of Christ himself, who has now left the world, and therefore he must be thought of spiritually by us."

2Co 5:17

5:17 {11} Therefore if any man [be] in Christ, [he is] a {o} new creature: old things are passed away; behold, all things are become new.

      (11) An exhortation for every man who is renewed with the Spirit of Christ to meditate on heavenly things, and not earthly.
      (o) As a thing made new by God, for though a man is not newly created when God gives him the spirit of regeneration, but only his qualities are changed, yet nonetheless it pleased the Holy Spirit to speak so, to teach us that we must attribute all things to the glory of God. Not that we are as rocks or stones, but because God creates in us both the will to will well, and the power to do well.

2Co 5:18

5:18 {12} And all things [are] of God, who hath reconciled us to himself by Jesus Christ, and hath given to us the ministry of reconciliation;

      (12) He commends the excellency of the ministry of the Gospel, both by the authority of God himself, who is the author of that ministry, and also by the excellency of the doctrine of it. For it announces atonement with God by free forgiveness of our sins, and justification offered to us in Christ, and that so lovingly and freely, that God himself does in a way beseech men by the mouth of his ministers to have consideration of themselves, and not to despise so great a benefit. And when he says so, he plainly reprehends those who falsely attribute to themselves the name of "pastor", as this calling can only come from God.

2Co 5:19

5:19 To wit, that God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto himself, not imputing their trespasses unto them; and hath {p} committed unto us the word of reconciliation.

      (p) Used our labour and travail.

2Co 5:21

5:21 For he hath made him [to be] {q} sin for us, who {r} knew no sin; that we might be made the {s} righteousness of God in him.

      (q) A sinner, not in himself, but by imputation of the guilt of all our sins to him.
      (r) Who was completely void of sin.
      (s) Righteous before God, and that with righteousness which is not fundamental in us, but being fundamental in Christ, God imputes it to us through faith.

2Co 6:1

6:1 We {1} then, [as] workers together [with him], beseech [you] also that ye receive not the grace of God in vain.

      (1) Men do not only need the ministry of the Gospel before they have received grace, in order that they may be partakers of the Gospel, but also after they have received grace they need to continue in it.

2Co 6:2

6:2 {2} (For he saith, I have heard thee in a time {a} accepted, and in the day of salvation have I succoured thee: behold, now [is] the accepted time; behold, now [is] the day of salvation.)

      (2) In that grace is offered, it is by the grace of God, who has appointed times and seasons to all things, that we may take occasion when it is offered.
      (a) Which I of my free mercy and love towards you liked and appointed. And at this time God poured out his marvellous love upon us.

2Co 6:3

6:3 {3} Giving no offence in any thing, that the ministry be not blamed:

      (3) He shows the Corinthians a pattern of a true minister in his own example, and in Timothy and Silvanus, to the end that he might procure authority for himself and his companions like him, as he purposed from the beginning.

2Co 6:4

6:4 But in all [things] {b} approving ourselves as the ministers of God, {4} in much patience, in afflictions, in necessities, in distresses,

      (b) Declare and indeed show.
      (4) He first of all reckons up those things which are neither always in the ministers, nor without exception, unless they are there according to the minister's bodily condition. Patience, however, is an exception, which also is one of the virtues which ought to always be in a good minister.

2Co 6:5

6:5 In stripes, in imprisonments, in {c} tumults, in labours, in watchings, in fastings;

      (c) In tossing to and fro, finding no place of rest and quietness.

2Co 6:6

6:6 {5} By pureness, by knowledge, by longsuffering, by kindness, by the Holy Ghost, by love unfeigned,

      (5) Secondly he reckons up such virtues as are necessary, and ought alway be in them, and by which as by good armour, all pitfalls and hindrances may be overcome.

2Co 6:7

6:7 By the {d} word of truth, by the {e} power of God, by the {f} armour of righteousness on the right hand and on the left,

      (d) Preaching of the Gospel.
      (e) Power to work miracles, and to subdue the wicked.
      (f) Uprightness.

2Co 6:11

6:11 {6} O [ye] Corinthians, our mouth is {g} open unto you, our heart is enlarged.

      (6) Going about to rebuke them he says first that he deals with them sincerely and with an open and plain heart, and in addition complains that they do not do the same in loving their Father.
      (g) The opening of the mouth and heart signifies a most earnest affection in him that speaks, as it happens commonly with those that are in some great joy.

2Co 6:12

6:12 Ye are not {h} straitened in us, but ye are straitened in your own {i} bowels.

      (h) You are in my heart as in a house, and that no narrow or confined house, for I have opened my whole heart to you; but you are inwardly narrow towards me.
      (i) After the manner of the Hebrews, he calls those tender affections which rest in the heart, "bowels".

2Co 6:14

6:14 {7} Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers: for what fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness? and what communion hath light with darkness?

      (7) Now he rebukes them boldly, because they became fellows with infidels in outward idolatry, as though it were an indifferent thing. And this is the fourth part of this epistle, the conclusion of which is, that those whom the Lord has condescended to in calling them his children, must keep themselves pure, not only in mind, but also in body, that they may be completely holy to the Lord.

2Co 6:15

6:15 And what concord hath Christ with Belial? or what {k} part hath he that believeth with an infidel?

      (k) What can there be between them?

2Co 6:16

6:16 And what agreement hath the temple of God with idols? for ye are the temple of the {l} living God; as God hath said, I will {m} dwell in them, and walk in [them]; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people.

      (l) He sets the living God against idols.
      (m) God dwells with us, because Christ has become God with us.

2Co 7:1

7:1 Having therefore these promises, dearly beloved, let us cleanse ourselves from all filthiness of the {a} flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God.

      (a) Both of body and soul, that by this means the sanctification may be perfect, consisting in both the parts of the flesh.

2Co 7:2

7:2 {1} {b} Receive us; we have wronged no man, we have corrupted no man, we have defrauded no man.

      (1) He returns again from that admonition to his own person, contrasting with them the testimonies both of his faithfulness and also of his continual good will towards them.
      (b) Let me have some place among you, that I may teach you.

2Co 7:3

7:3 I speak not [this] to {c} condemn [you]: for I have said before, that ye are in our hearts to die and live with [you].

      (c) To condemn you of unkindness or treachery.

2Co 7:6

7:6 Nevertheless God, that comforteth those that are {d} cast down, comforted us by the {e} coming of Titus;

      (d) Whose hearts are cast down, and are very much worn out.
      (e) With those things which Titus told me of you at his coming, that is, how fruitfully you read over my letters. And moreover and besides that, I am exceedingly refreshed with his presence.

2Co 7:8

7:8 {2} For though I made you sorry with a letter, I do not repent, though I did repent: for I perceive that the same epistle hath made you sorry, though [it were] but for a season.

      (2) An objection: but you have handled us roughly. The apostle answers that he did not use his roughness without grief. And he adds moreover, that he is also glad now that he drove them to that sorrow even though it was against his will, since it was so profitable to them. For there is a sorrow not only praiseworthy, but also necessary, that is, by which repentance grows by certain degrees: and for this repentance he praises them highly. And this is the fifth part of this epistle.

2Co 7:9

7:9 Now I rejoice, not that ye were made sorry, but that ye sorrowed to {f} repentance: for ye were made sorry after a godly manner, that ye might receive damage by us in nothing.

      (f) In that this sorrow did you much good in leading you to amend your obscene behaviour and sins.

2Co 7:10

7:10 For {g} godly sorrow worketh repentance to salvation not to be repented of: but the sorrow of the world worketh death.

      (g) God's sorrow occurs when we are not terrified with the fear of punishment, but because we feel we have offended God our most merciful Father. Contrary to this there is another sorrow, that only fears punishment, or when a man is vexed for the loss of some worldly goods. The fruit of the first is repentance, and the fruit of the second is desperation, unless the Lord quickly helps.

2Co 7:12

7:12 Wherefore, though I wrote unto you, [I did it] not for his cause that had done the wrong, nor for his cause that suffered wrong, but that our care for you in the {h} sight of God might appear unto you.

      (h) It was neither fake nor counterfeit, but such as I dare give account of before God.

2Co 8:1

8:1 Moreover, {1} brethren, we do you to wit of the {a} grace of God bestowed on the churches of Macedonia;

      (1) The sixth part of this epistle containing different exhortations to stir up the Corinthians to liberality, with which the poverty of the church of Jerusalem might be helped at an appropriate time. And first of all he sets before them the example of the churches of Macedonia, which otherwise were brought by great misery to extreme poverty, so that the Corinthians should follow them.
      (a) The benefit that God bestowed upon the Corinthians.

2Co 8:2

8:2 How that in a {b} great trial of affliction the abundance of their joy and their deep poverty abounded unto the riches of their liberality.

      (b) For those manifold afflictions with which the Lord tried them did not stop their joyful readiness, but also made it much more excellent and well-known.

2Co 8:3

8:3 For to [their] power, I bear record, yea, and beyond [their] power [they were] {c} willing of themselves;

      (c) Of their own accord they were generous.

2Co 8:4

8:4 Praying us with much intreaty that we would receive the {d} gift, and [take upon us] the fellowship of the ministering to the saints.

      (d) He calls that "gift" which other men would have called a burden. And this verse is to be explained by 2Co 8:6 .

2Co 8:5

8:5 {2} And [this they did], not as we hoped, but first gave their own selves to the Lord, and unto us by the will of God.

      (2) He amplifies the eagerness of the Macedonians in this, that they also desired Paul to stir up the Corinthians to accomplish the giving of alms by sending Titus to them again.

2Co 8:8

8:8 {3} I speak not by commandment, but by occasion of the {e} forwardness of others, and to prove the {f} sincerity of your love.

      (3) Thirdly, he warns them to live up to the expectation which Paul and his companions have conceived of them.
      (e) At the request of the Macedonians.
      (f) The naturalness of our love appears when we truly, and that frankly and freely, help our brethren even for Christ's sake.

2Co 8:9

8:9 {4} For ye know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that, though he was rich, yet for your sakes he became poor, that ye through his poverty might be rich.

      (4) The fourth argument taken from the example of Christ.

2Co 8:10

8:10 {5} And herein I give [my] advice: for this is expedient for you, who have begun before, not only to do, but also to {g} be forward a year ago.

      (5) He takes good heed that he seem not to wrest it out of them by force, for unless it is voluntary, God does not accept it.
      (g) Not only to do, but also to do willingly: for he notes out of a ready willingness, without any enforcement by any other men. And much less did it come out of ambition and vain glory.

2Co 8:12

8:12 {6} For if there be first a willing mind, [it is] accepted according to that a man hath, [and] not according to that he hath not.

      (6) Against those who excused themselves because they are not rich, as though it were only the duty of rich men to help the poor.

2Co 8:13

8:13 {7} For [I mean] not that other men be eased, and ye burdened:

      (7) Christian liberality is mutual, so that one does not have too much, and the other to little.

2Co 8:14

8:14 But by an {h} equality, [that] now at this time your abundance [may be a supply] for their want, that their abundance also may be [a supply] for your want: that there may be equality:

      (h) That as now in your abundance you help others with a share of your goods, so should others in the same way bestow some of their goods upon you.

2Co 8:16

8:16 {8} But thanks [be] to God, which put the same earnest care into the heart of Titus for you.

      (8) He commends Titus and his two companions for many reasons, both that their credit might not be suspected, as though he had sent them slyly to rob the churches, and also so that they might be all the more ready to contribute.

2Co 8:18

8:18 And we have sent with him the brother, whose praise [is] {i} in the gospel throughout all the churches;

      (i) In the preaching of the Gospel.

2Co 8:19

8:19 And not [that] only, but who was also chosen of the churches to travel with us with this {k} grace, which is administered by us to the glory of the same Lord, and [declaration of] your ready mind:

      (k) These alms which are bestowed for the relief of the church of Jerusalem.

2Co 8:20

8:20 Avoiding this, that no man should blame us in this {l} abundance which is administered by us:

      (l) In this plentiful liberality of the churches, which is committed to our trust.

2Co 8:23

8:23 Whether [any do enquire] of Titus, [he is] my partner and fellowhelper concerning you: or our {m} brethren [be enquired of, they are] the messengers of the churches, [and] the {n} glory of Christ.

      (m) The two companions of Titus.
      (n) By whom the glory of Christ is set forth.

2Co 8:24

8:24 Wherefore shew ye to them, and before the {o} churches, the proof of your love, and of our boasting on your behalf.

      (o) All the churches in whose presence you are in will be witnesses of this your godly behaviour, for these men are the messengers whom they have chosen by common consent, and sent to you.

2Co 9:1

9:1 For {1} as touching the ministering to the saints, it is superfluous for me to write to you:

      (1) He wisely answers the suspicion which the Corinthians might conceive, as though the apostle in urging them so carefully was doubting of their good will. Therefore he witnesses that he does it not to teach them that they ought to help the saints, seeing that he had become surety for them to the Macedonians. But only to stir those up who were labouring by themselves, to the end that all things might both be in a better readiness, and also be more plentiful.

2Co 9:4

9:4 Lest haply if they of Macedonia come with me, and find you unprepared, we (that we say not, ye) should be ashamed in this same {a} confident boasting.

      (a) The word which he uses signifies a mind so steady and established that it cannot be moved by any terror or fear.

2Co 9:5

9:5 Therefore I thought it necessary to exhort the brethren, that they would go before unto you, and make up beforehand your bounty, whereof ye had notice before, that the same might be ready, as [a matter of] bounty, and not as [of] {b} covetousness.

      (b) As from covetous men.

2Co 9:6

9:6 {2} But this [I say], He which soweth sparingly shall reap also sparingly; and he which soweth bountifully shall reap also bountifully.

      (2) Alms must be given neither grudgingly, nor with a loathful mind, or sparingly. And a generous and free alms is compared to a sowing which has a most plentiful harvest of most abundant blessing following it.

2Co 9:7

9:7 Every man according as he {c} purposeth in his heart, [so let him give]; not {d} grudgingly, or of {e} necessity: for God loveth a cheerful giver.

      (c) Determines and appoints freely with himself.
      (d) With a sparing and grudging heart.
      (e) Against his will, not wanting to have evil spoken of him.

2Co 9:8

9:8 And God [is] able to make {f} all grace abound toward you; that ye, always having all sufficiency in all [things], may abound to {g} every good work:

      (f) All the bountiful liberality of God.
      (g) To help others by all means possible, in doing them good in their needs.

2Co 9:9

9:9 (As it is written, He hath dispersed abroad; he hath given to the poor: his righteousness remaineth for {h} ever.

      (h) Is everlasting: now David speaks of a man that fears God, and loves his neighbour, who will always be able (he says) to give to others.

2Co 9:10

9:10 Now he that ministereth seed to the sower both minister bread for [your] food, and multiply your seed sown, and increase the {i} fruits of your righteousness;)

      (i) There is no inheritance as good to the godly as bountifulness is.

2Co 9:12

9:12 {3} For the administration of this service not only supplieth the want of the saints, but is abundant also by many thanksgivings unto God;

      (3) Another excellent and double fruit of liberality towards the saints is this, that it gives occasion to praise God, and that our faith also is by it made manifest.

2Co 9:13

9:13 Whiles by the {k} experiment of this ministration they glorify God for your {l} professed subjection unto the gospel of Christ, and for [your] liberal distribution unto them, and unto all [men];

      (k) By this proof of your liberality in this helping of them.
      (l) In showing with one consent that you acknowledge that Gospel alone which you have willingly submitted yourselves to, declaring by this that you agree with the church of Jerusalem.

2Co 9:15

9:15 {m} Thanks [be] unto God for his unspeakable gift.

      (m) Lest by this great commendation and praise the Corinthians should be puffed up, he concludes this exhortation with this exclamation.

2Co 10:1

10:1 Now {1} I Paul myself beseech you by the meekness and {a} gentleness of Christ, who in presence [am] base among you, but being absent am bold toward you:

      (1) He returns to the defence of his apostleship, but in such a way that he uses his authority in his defence: for he warns them earnestly and gravely, using also terrible threatenings, to show themselves to be those who are able to be instructed. And he reviles certain proud men who made no better account of him, than of a bragging proud man, in that he used to be sharp against them when he was absent, because they saw no great majesty in him after the manner of men; and besides, he had proved his gentleness, even though in his absence he had written to them sharply. Therefore first of all he professes that he was gentle and moderate, but after the example of Christ: but if they continue still to despise his gentleness, he protests to them that he will show indeed how far they are deceived, who judge the office of an apostle in the same way that they judge worldly offices, that is, according to the outward appearance.
      (a) That nature which is inclined to mercy, rather than to rigor of justice.

2Co 10:2

10:2 But I beseech [you], that I may not be bold when I am present with that confidence, wherewith I think to be bold against some, which think of us as if we walked {b} according to the flesh.

      (b) As though I had no other aid and help than that which outwardly I seem to have: and therefore Paul contrasts his flesh, that is, his weak condition and state, with his spiritual and apostolic dignity.

2Co 10:3

10:3 {2} For though we walk in the flesh, we do not war after the flesh:

      (2) Secondly, he witnesses that although he is similar to other men, yet he comes furnished with that strength which no defence of man can match, whether they resist by craft and deceit, or by force and might, because he battles with divine weapons.

2Co 10:4

10:4 (For the weapons of our warfare [are] not {c} carnal, but mighty through {d} God to the pulling down of strong holds;)

      (c) Are not those weapons that men get authority over one another with, and do great acts.
      (d) Stand upon the foundation of God's infinite power.

2Co 10:5

10:5 Casting down imaginations, and every high thing that exalteth itself against the knowledge of God, {3} and bringing into captivity every thought to the obedience of Christ;

      (3) An amplification of this spiritual power, which conquers the enemies in such a way, be they ever so crafty and mighty, that it brings some of them by repentance to Christ, and justly avenges others that are stubbornly obstinate, separating them from the others who allow themselves to be ruled.

2Co 10:7

10:7 {4} Do ye look on things after the {e} outward appearance? If any man trust to himself that he is Christ's, let him of {f} himself think this again, that, as he [is] Christ's, even so [are] we Christ's.

      (4) He emphasises the same matter with very weighty words and sentences.
      (e) Do you judge things according to the outward appearance?
      (f) Not being told about it by me.

2Co 10:10

10:10 For [his] letters, say {g} they, [are] weighty and powerful; but [his] bodily presence [is] weak, and [his] speech contemptible.

      (g) He notes out those who were the cause of these words.

2Co 10:12

10:12 {5} For we {h} dare not make ourselves of the number, or compare ourselves with some that commend themselves: but they measuring themselves by {i} themselves, and {k} comparing themselves among themselves, are not wise.

      (5) Being forced to refute the foolish braggings of certain ambitious men, he witnesses that they are able to bring nothing, but that they falsely think highly of themselves. And as for himself, although he brags of excellent things, yet he will not pass the bounds which God has measured him out. And according to these bounds he came even to them in preaching the Gospel of Christ, and trusts that he will go further, when they have so profited that he will not need to remain any longer among them to instruct them. And to this is added an amplification, in that he never followed the labours of other men.
      (h) This is spoken in a taunting manner.
      (i) Upon a vain persuasion that they have of themselves, they attribute to themselves anything at all.
      (k) They condemn others, and measure all their doings only by themselves.

2Co 10:13

10:13 But we will not boast of things without [our] {l} measure, but according to the measure of the rule which God hath distributed to us, a measure to reach even unto you.

      (l) Of those things which God has not measured to me.

2Co 10:15

10:15 Not boasting of things {m} without [our] measure, [that is], of other men's labours; but having hope, when your faith is increased, that we shall be enlarged by you according to our rule abundantly,

      (m) As though God had divided the whole world among the apostles to be governed.

2Co 10:16

10:16 To preach the gospel in the [regions] beyond you, [and] not to boast in {n} another man's line of things made ready to our hand.

      (n) In countries which other men have prepared and cultivated with the preaching of the Gospel.

2Co 10:17

10:17 {6} But he that glorieth, let him glory in the Lord.

      (6) He somewhat moderates that which he spoke of himself, and in so doing also prepares the Corinthians to hear other things, witnessing that he seeks nothing else but to approve himself to God, whose glory alone he seeks.

2Co 11:1

11:1 Would {1} to God ye could bear with me a little in [my] folly: and indeed bear with me.

      (1) He grants that in a way he is playing the fool in this exalting of things, but he adds that he does it against his will for their profit, because he sees them deceived by certain vain and crafty men, through the craft and subtilty of Satan.

2Co 11:2

11:2 For I am jealous over you with {a} godly jealousy: for I have espoused you to one husband, that I may {b} present [you as] a chaste virgin to Christ.

      (a) He speaks as one who woos them, but yet as one that seeks them not for himself, but for God.
      (b) To marry you together.

2Co 11:3

11:3 But I fear, lest by any means, as the serpent beguiled Eve through his subtilty, so your minds should be {c} corrupted from the simplicity that is in {d} Christ.

      (c) This passage is to be noted against those who hate the plain and pure simplicity of the scriptures, in comparison of the elegance and fluency of man's eloquence.
      (d) Which is proper for those who are in Christ.

2Co 11:4

11:4 {2} For if he that cometh preacheth {e} another Jesus, whom we have not preached, or [if] ye receive another spirit, which ye have not received, or another gospel, which ye have not accepted, ye might well bear with [him].

      (2) He shows that they deceive themselves, if they look to receive from any other man, either a more excellent Gospel, or more excellent gifts of the Holy Spirit.
      (e) A more perfect doctrine of Jesus Christ.

2Co 11:6

11:6 {3} But though [I be] {f} rude in speech, yet not in knowledge; but we have been throughly made manifest among you in all things.

      (3) He refutes the slanders of those boastful and proud men. I grant, he says, that I am not so eloquent an orator, but yet they cannot take away the knowledge of the Gospel from me, of which you have had good proof, and that in every manner of way.
      (f) Paul did not lack the type of eloquence which is proper for a man, and fit for the Gospel, but he willingly lacked that eloquent type of speech, which too many now a days search after and follow.

2Co 11:7

11:7 {4} Have I committed an offence in abasing myself that ye might be exalted, because I have preached to you the gospel of God freely?

      (4) Another slander, that is, that he was a rascal, and lived by the labour of his own hands. But in this, the apostle says, what can you lay against me, except that I was content to take any pains for your sakes? For when I lacked, I travailed for my living with my own hands. And also when poverty forced me, I chose rather to seek my sustenance than to be any burden to you, even though I preached the Gospel to you.

2Co 11:9

11:9 And when I was present with you, and wanted, I was chargeable to no man: for that which was lacking to me the brethren which came from Macedonia supplied: and in all [things] I have kept myself from being burdensome unto you, {5} and [so] will I keep [myself].

      (5) An amplification: so far is he from being ashamed of this act, that he has also resolved with himself to act in no other way while he is among them, in order that it may always be truly said that he taught in Achaia for nothing. And this is not because he disdains the Corinthians, but rather so that these proud and boastful men may never find the occasion which they have already sought for, and he in the meantime may set something before the Corinthians to follow, so that at length they may truly say that they are like Paul.

2Co 11:10

11:10 As the {g} truth of Christ is in me, no man shall {h} stop me of this boasting in the regions of Achaia.

      (g) This is a form of an oath, as if he said, "Let me not be thought to have any truth in me."
      (h) Will be always open to me.

2Co 11:12

11:12 But what I do, that I will do, that I may cut off occasion from them which desire occasion; that wherein they {i} glory, they may be found even as we.

      (i) Paul's adversaries sought all occasions they could to be equal to him. And therefore seeing they had rather live off the Corinthians then preach to them for nothing, they sought another occasion, that is, to make Paul take something. And if he had done this, then they hoped by this means to be equal to him. For they made such a show of zeal and knowledge, and set it forth with such a flattering type of eloquence, that some of them even despised Paul. But he shows that all this is nothing but frivolities and pretensions.

2Co 11:13

11:13 {6} For such [are] false apostles, deceitful workers, transforming themselves into the apostles of Christ.

      (6) Now at length he portrays these fellows as they truly are, forewarning that it will come to pass that they will at length betray themselves, no matter how they may be pretending that they have a zeal for God's glory.

2Co 11:14

11:14 And no marvel; for Satan himself is transformed into an angel of {k} light.

      (k) By light is meant the heavenly glory, of which the angels are partakers.

2Co 11:16

11:16 {7} I say again, Let no man think me a fool; if otherwise, yet as a fool receive me, that I may boast myself a little.

      (7) He goes forward boldly, and using a vehement irony or type of taunting, desires the Corinthians to pardon him, if for a time he argues as a fool before them, who are wise, along with those other wise ones, as he talks about those external things such as his stock, his ancestors, and valiant acts.

2Co 11:20

11:20 {8} For ye suffer, if a man bring you into bondage, if a man devour [you], if a man take [of you], if a man exalt himself, if a man smite you on the face.

      (8) Before he comes to the matter, he talks directly to the Corinthians, who persuading themselves to be very wise men, did not mark in the meanwhile that those false apostles had abused their simplicity for advantage.

2Co 11:21

11:21 I speak as concerning {l} reproach, as though we had been {m} weak. Howbeit whereinsoever any is bold, (I speak foolishly,) I am bold also.

      (l) As if he said, "In respect of that reproach which they do to you, which surely is as evil as if they beat you."
      (m) Paul is called weak, in that he seems to be to the Corinthians a vile and abject man, a beggarly craftsman, a most wretched and miserable idiot, whereas in reality God's mighty power was made manifest in that.

2Co 11:23

11:23 Are they ministers of Christ? (I speak as a fool) I [am] {n} more; in labours more abundant, in stripes above measure, in prisons more frequent, in {o} deaths oft.

      (n) Paul being honourable indeed, defends his ministry openly, not for his own sake, but because he saw his doctrine come into danger.
      (o) In danger of present death.

2Co 11:24

11:24 Of the Jews {p} five times received I forty [stripes] save one.

      (p) He alludes to that which is written in De 25:3 . And moreover this place shows us that Paul suffered many more things which Luke omitted in writing Acts.

2Co 11:25

11:25 {q} Thrice was I beaten with rods, once was I stoned, thrice I suffered shipwreck, a night and a day I have been in the deep;

      (q) By the Roman magistrates.

2Co 11:27

11:27 In weariness and {r} painfulness, in watchings often, in hunger and thirst, in fastings often, in cold and nakedness.

      (r) Painfulness is a troublesome sickness, as when a man who is weary and wants rest is forced to begin new labour.

2Co 11:28

11:28 {9} Beside those things that are without, that which cometh upon me daily, the care of all the churches.

      (9) He further adds this in conclusion, that the Corinthians should be ashamed to despise him upon whose care almost all churches depended, as it was plainly seen by experience.

2Co 11:30

11:30 {10} If I must needs glory, I will glory of the things which concern mine infirmities.

      (10) He turns that against the adversaries which they objected against him: as if he should say, "They allege my calamities to take away my authority from me: but if I would boast myself, I could use no better argument. And God himself is my witness that I am not making up or forging anything."

2Co 12:1

12:1 It {1} is not expedient for me doubtless to glory. I will come to visions and revelations of the Lord.

      (1) He continues in his purpose, and because those braggarts boasted of revelations, he reckons up those things which lift him up above the common capacity of men. But he uses a preface, and prudently excuses himself.

2Co 12:2

12:2 I knew a man {a} in Christ above fourteen years ago,
(whether in the body, I cannot tell; or whether out of the body, I cannot tell: God knoweth;) such an one caught up to the {b} third heaven.

      (a) I speak this in Christ, that is, it is spoken without boastfulness, for I seek nothing but Christ Jesus only.
      (b) Into the highest heaven: for we do not need to dispute subtly upon the word "third". But yet this passage is to be marked against those who would make heaven to be everywhere.

2Co 12:4

12:4 How that he was caught up into {c} paradise, and heard {d} unspeakable words, which it is not {e} lawful for a man to utter.

      (c) So the Greeks name that which we call a park, that is to say, a place where trees are planted, and wild beasts kept. And those that translated the Old Testament out of Hebrew into Greek, called the garden of Eden by this name, into which Adam was put immediately after his creation, as a most delicate and pleasant place. And from this it occurred that the blessed seat of the glory of God is called by that name.
      (d) Which no man is able to utter.
      (e) Which the saints themselves are not by any means able to express, because it is God himself. This is the way that Clement of Alexandria explains this passage, Strom. 5.

2Co 12:5

12:5 {2} Of such an one will I glory: yet of myself I will not glory, but in mine infirmities.

      (2) To remove all suspicion of seeking glory, he witnesses that he brags not of those things as though they were of himself, but as outside of himself. And yet nonetheless he pretends nothing, lest by this occasion other men should attribute to him more than he indeed is: and therefore he would rather glory in his miseries.

2Co 12:7

12:7 {3} And lest I should be exalted above measure through the abundance of the revelations, there was given to me {f} a thorn in the flesh, the messenger of {g} Satan to buffet me, lest I should be exalted above measure.

      (3) An excellent doctrine: why God will have even his best servants to be vexed by Satan, and by every type of temptations: that is, lest they should be too much puffed up, and also that they may be made perfect by being continually exercised in them.
      (f) He means sinful lust, that sticks fast in us as it were a thorn, to such a degree that it forced Paul himself who was regenerated to cry out, "I do not that good that I would", etc. And he calls it a thorn by a metaphor taken from thorns, or stumps, which are very dangerous and harmful for the feet, if a man walks through woods that are cut down.
      (g) Which sets those lusts on fire.

2Co 12:8

12:8 For this thing I besought the Lord {h} thrice, that it might depart from me.

      (h) Often.

2Co 12:9

12:9 And he said unto me, My grace is sufficient for thee: for my strength is made perfect in weakness. {4} Most gladly therefore will I rather glory in my infirmities, that the power of Christ may {i} rest upon me.

      (4) He concludes that he will only set his miseries against the vain braggings of the false apostles, and with this also excuses himself, because by their troublesome braggings he was forced to speak as much of those things as he did. That is, because if his apostleship were subverted, his doctrine would necessarily fall.
      (i) That I might feel the power of Christ more and more: for the weaker that our tabernacles are, the more does Christ's power appear in them.

2Co 12:10

12:10 Therefore I take {k} pleasure in infirmities, in reproaches, in necessities, in persecutions, in distresses for Christ's sake: for when I am weak, then am I strong.

      (k) I do not only take them patiently and with a good heart, but I also take great pleasure in them.

2Co 12:11

12:11 I am become a fool in glorying; ye have compelled me: {5} for I ought to have been commended of you: for in nothing am I behind the very chiefest apostles, though I be nothing.

      (5) Again he makes the Corinthians witnesses of those things by which God had sealed his apostleship among them, and again he declares by certain arguments how far he is from all covetousness, and also how he is affectionate towards them.

2Co 12:12

12:12 Truly the {l} signs of an apostle were wrought among you in all patience, in signs, and wonders, and mighty deeds.

      (l) The arguments by which it may well appear that I am indeed an apostle of Jesus Christ.

2Co 12:13

12:13 For what is it wherein ye were inferior to other churches, except [it be] that I myself was not {m} burdensome to you? forgive me this wrong.

      (m) I was not slothful with my own hands, so that I might not be burdensome to you.

2Co 12:16

12:16 {6} But be it so, I did not burden you: nevertheless, being crafty, I caught you with guile.

      (6) He sets aside another most grievous slander, that is, that he did subtly and by others make his gain and profit of them.

2Co 12:19

12:19 {7} Again, think ye that we excuse ourselves unto you? we speak before God in {n} Christ: but [we do] all things, dearly beloved, for your edifying.

      (7) He concludes that he does not write these things to them as though he needed to defend himself, for he is guilty of nothing: but because it is appropriate for them to doubt nothing of his fidelity, who instructed them.
      (n) As it becomes him to speak truly and sincerely, that professes himself to be in Christ, that is to say, to be a Christian.

2Co 12:20

12:20 {8} For I fear, lest, when I come, I shall not find you such as I would, and [that] I shall be found unto you such as ye would not: lest [there be] debates, envyings, wraths, strifes, backbitings, whisperings, swellings, tumults:

      (8) Having confirmed his authority to them, he rebukes them sharply, and threatens them also like an apostle, showing that he will not spare them from now on, unless they repent, seeing that this is the third time that he has warned them.

2Co 13:3

13:3 {1} Since ye seek a proof of Christ speaking in me, which to you-ward is not weak, but is {a} mighty in you.

      (1) A most sharp reprehension, because, while they despise the apostle's admonitions, they tempt Christ's own patience: and also while they condemn him as wretched and miserable, they lay nothing against him, which is not common to him with Christ.
      (a) And will be most mighty to be avenged upon you, when need will be.

2Co 13:4

13:4 For though he was crucified through {b} weakness, yet he liveth by the power of God. For we also are weak in him, but we shall live with him by the power of God toward you.

      (b) Regarding that base form of a servant which he took upon him when he abased himself.

2Co 13:5

13:5 {2} Examine yourselves, whether ye be in the faith; prove your own selves. Know ye not your own selves, how that Jesus Christ is in you, except ye be reprobates?

      (2) He confirms that which he spoke about the power of God appearing in his ministry, and he gathers by the mutual relation between the people's faith and the minister's preaching, that they must either reverence his apostleship, upon whose doctrine their faith is grounded, or they must condemn themselves of infidelity, and must confess themselves not to be of Christ's body.

2Co 13:6

13:6 {3} But I trust that ye shall know that we are not reprobates.

      (3) He appeases that sharpness, trusting that they will show themselves towards their faithful apostle, able and willing to be taught. And he also adds this, that he does not seek his own fame and estimation, so that they may serve their saviour, which is the only mark that he shoots at.

2Co 13:7

13:7 Now I pray to God that ye do no evil; not that we should appear approved, but that ye should do that which is honest, though we be as {c} reprobates.

      (c) In men's judgment.

2Co 13:9

13:9 For we are glad, when we are weak, and ye are strong: and this also we wish, [even] your {d} perfection.

      (d) That all things may be in good order among you, and the members of the church restored into their place, which have been shaken and are out of place.

2Co 13:11

13:11 {4} Finally, brethren, farewell. Be perfect, be of good comfort, be of one mind, live in peace; and the God of love and peace shall be with you.

      (4) A brief exhortation, but yet such a one as comprehends all the parts of a Christian man's life.

2Co 13:12

13:12 {5} Greet one another with an holy kiss.

      (5) He salutes them familiarly, and in conclusion wishes well to them.

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