1 Samuel
2 Samuel
1 Kings
2 Kings
1 Chronicles
2 Chronicles

Song of Songs



1 Corinthians
2 Corinthians
1 Thessalonians
2 Thessalonians
1 Timothy
2 Timothy

1 Peter
2 Peter
1 John
2 John
3 John

Revelation 1-11
Revelation 12-22

Notes on Hebrews

From the Original 1599 Geneva Bible Notes

Heb 1:1

1:1 God, who at {1} sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets,

The purpose of this epistle, is to show that Jesus Christ the Son of God both God and man is that true eternal and only Prophet, King and High Priest, that was shadowed by the figures of the old law, and is now indeed exhibited of whom the whole Church ought to be taught, governed and sanctified.

      (1) The first part of the general proposition of this epistle the son of God is indeed that prophet or teacher, who has actually now performed that which God after a sort and in shadows signified by his prophets, and has fully revealed his Father's will to the world.

Heb 1:2

1:2 Hath in these {a} last days spoken unto us by [his] {b} Son, {2} whom he hath appointed {c} heir of all things, by whom also he made the {d} worlds;

      (a) So that the former declaration made by the prophets was not complete, and nothing must be added to this latter.
      (b) That one Son is God and man.
      (2) The second part of the same statement: The same Son is appointed by the Father to be our king and Lord, by whom also he made all things: and in whom only he sets forth his glory, yea and himself also to be under obligation to us, who upholds and supports all things by his will and pleasure.
      (c) Possessor and equal partner of all things with the Father.
      (d) That is, whatever has been at any time, is, or shall be.

Heb 1:3

1:3 Who being the {e} brightness of [his] glory, and the express image of his {f} person, and {g} upholding all things by the word of his power, {3} when he had by himself purged our sins, {h} sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high;

      (e) He in whom the glory and majesty of the Father shines, who is otherwise infinite, and cannot be under obligation.
      (f) His Father's person.
      (g) Sustains, defends and cherishes.
      (3) The third part of the same proposition: The same Son executed the office of the High Priest in offering up himself, and is our only and most mighty Mediator in heaven.
      (h) This shows that the savour of that his sacrifice is not only most acceptable to the Father, but also is everlasting, and furthermore how far this High Priest surpasses all the other high priests.

Heb 1:4

1:4 {4} Being made so much better than the angels, as he hath by inheritance obtained a more excellent {i} name than they.

      (4) Before he comes to declare the office of Christ, he sets forth the excellency of his person. First of all he shows him to be man, and that in addition he is God also.
      (i) Dignity and honour.

Heb 1:5

1:5 {5} For unto which of the angels said he at any time, Thou art my Son, {k} this day have I begotten thee? {6} And again, I will be to him a Father, and he shall be to me a Son?

      (5) He proves and confirms the dignity of Christ revealed in the flesh, by these six evident testimonies by which it appears that he far surpasses all angels, so much so that he is called both Son, and God in Heb 1:5,6,7,8,10,13 .
      (k) The Father begat the Son from everlasting, but that everlasting generation was revealed and represented to the world in his time, and therefore he added this word "Today"
      (6) He proves and confirms the dignity of Christ revealed in the flesh, by these six evident testimonies by which it appears that he far surpasses all angels, so much so that he is called both Son, and God in Heb 1:5,6,7,8,10,13 .

Heb 1:6

1:6 {7} And {l} again, when he bringeth in the firstbegotten into the world, he saith, And let all the angels of God worship him.

      (7) He proves and confirms the dignity of Christ revealed in the flesh, by these six evident testimonies by which it appears that he far surpasses all angels, so much so that he is called both Son, and God in Heb 1:5,6,7,8,10,13 .
      (l) The Lord was not content to have spoken it once, but he repeats it in another place.

Heb 1:7

1:7 {8} And of the angels he saith, Who maketh his angels {m} spirits, and his ministers a {n} flame of fire.

      (8) He proves and confirms the dignity of Christ revealed in the flesh, by these six evident testimonies by which it appears that he far surpasses all angels, so much so that he is called both Son, and God in Heb 1:5,6,7,8,10,13 .
      (m) Cherub, Ps 18:11 .
      (n) Seraph, Isa 6:2 .

Heb 1:8

1:8 But unto the Son [he saith], Thy {o} throne, O God, [is] for ever {p} and ever: a {q} sceptre of righteousness [is] the sceptre of thy kingdom.

      (o) The throne is proper for princes and not for servants.
      (p) For everlasting, for this repeating of the word increases the significance of it beyond all measure.
      (q) The government of your kingdom is righteous.

Heb 1:9

1:9 Thou hast loved righteousness, and hated {r} iniquity; therefore God, [even] thy God, hath {s} anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy {t} fellows.

      (r) This type of speech in which the Jews use contrasting phrases, has great force in it.
      (s) In that, that the word became flesh, by sending the Holy Spirit on him without measure.
      (t) For he is the head and we are his members.

Heb 1:10

1:10 {9} And, Thou, Lord, in the beginning hast {u} laid the foundation of the earth; and the heavens are the works of thine hands:

      (9) He proves and confirms the dignity of Christ revealed in the flesh, by these six evident testimonies by which it appears that he far surpasses all angels, so much so that he is called both Son, and God in Heb 1:5,6,7,8,10,13 .
      (u) Made the earth firm and sure.

Heb 1:13

1:13 {10} But to which of the angels said he at any time, Sit on my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool?

      (10) He proves and confirms the dignity of Christ revealed in the flesh, by these six evident testimonies by which it appears that he far surpasses all angels, so much so that he is called both Son, and God in Heb 1:5,6,7,8,10,13 .

Heb 1:14

1:14 Are they not all {x} ministering spirits, sent forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation?

      (x) By that name by which we commonly call princes messengers, he here calls the spirits.

Heb 2:1

2:1 Therefore {1} we ought to give the more earnest heed to the things which {a} we have heard, lest at any time we {b} should let [them] slip.

      (1) Now pausing to show to what end and purpose all these things were spoken, that is, to understand by the excellency of Christ above all creatures, that his doctrine, majesty and priesthood, is most perfect, he uses an exhortation taken from a comparison.
      (a) He makes himself a hearer.
      (b) They are said to let the word run out, who do not hold it securely and remember the word when they have heard it.

Heb 2:2

2:2 For if the {c} word spoken by angels was stedfast, and every transgression and disobedience received a just recompence of reward;

      (c) The Law which appointed punishment for the offenders: and which Paul says was given by angels, Gal 3:19 and by Stephen also in, Ac 7:53 .

Heb 2:3

2:3 How shall we escape, if we neglect so great salvation; {2} which at the first began to be spoken by the Lord, and was confirmed unto us by {d} them that heard [him];

      (2) If the neglect and disobedience of the word spoken by angels was not left unpunished, much less will it be tolerated if we neglect the gospel which the Lord of angels preached, and was confirmed by the voice of the apostles, and with so many signs and wonders from heaven, and especially with great and mighty working of the Holy Spirit.
      (d) By the apostles.

Heb 2:4

2:4 God also bearing [them] witness, both with {e} signs and wonders, and with divers miracles, and gifts of the Holy Ghost, according to his own will?

      (e) This is the true purpose of miracles. Now they are called signs, because they appear as one thing, and represent another: and they are called wonders, because they represent some strange and unaccustomed thing: and powers because they give us a glimpse of God's mighty power.

Heb 2:5

2:5 {3} For unto the angels hath he not put in subjection the {f} world to come, whereof we speak.

      (3) If it was an atrocious matter to condemn the angels who are but servants, it is much more atrocious to condemn that most mighty King of the restored world.
      (f) The world to come, of which Christ is Father, Isa 9:6 or the Church, which as a new world, was to be gathered together by the gospel.

Heb 2:6

2:6 {4} But one in a certain place testified, saying, {g} What is man, that thou art mindful of him? or the {h} son of man, that thou visitest him?

      (4) He shows that the use of this kingly dignity exists in this, that men might not only in Christ recognise the dignity which they have lost, but also might be through him advanced above all things, which dignity of men David describes most excellently.
      (g) What is there in man that you should have such a great regard for him, and do him that honour?
      (h) He refers to all the citizens of the heavenly kingdom as they are considered to be, before God gives them the freedom of that city in Christ, man, and sons of man.

Heb 2:7

2:7 Thou {i} madest him a little lower than the angels; thou crownedst him with {k} glory and honour, and didst set him over the works of thy hands:

      (i) This is the first honour of the citizens of the world to come, that they are beside the angels.
      (k) For they will be greatly honoured when they partake of the kingdom. He speaks of the thing that will be, as though it were already, because it is so certain.

Heb 2:8

2:8 Thou hast put all things in subjection under his feet. For in that he put all in subjection under him, he left nothing [that is] not put under him. {5} But now we see not yet all things put under him.

      (5) An objection: But where is this great rule and dominion?

Heb 2:9

2:9 {6} But we {l} see Jesus, who was made a little {m} lower than the angels {7} for the {n} suffering of death, crowned with glory and honour; that he by the grace of God should {o} taste death for {8} every man.

      (6) The answer: this is already fulfilled in Jesus Christ our head, who was temporarily for our sakes inferior to the angels, being made man: but now is advanced into most high glory.
      (l) By his virtue and power which appears revealed in the Church.
      (m) Who abased himself for a time, and took the position of a servant.
      (7) He shows the cause of this subjection, that is, to taste death for our sakes, that in so doing the part of a redeemer, he might not only be our Prophet and King, but also our High Priest.
      (n) That he might die.
      (o) Feel death.
      (8) In this exists the force of the argument: for we could not eventually be glorified with him, unless he was abased for us, even for all the elect. By this event the apostle comes to the other part of the declaration of Christ's person, in which he proved him to be God and also man.

Heb 2:10

2:10 {9} For it became {p} him, for whom [are] all things, and by whom [are] all things, {10} in bringing many sons unto glory, {11} to make the {q} captain of their salvation perfect through sufferings.

      (9) He proves moreover by other arguments why it suited the Son of God who is true God (as he proved a little before) to become man nonetheless, subject to all miseries, with the exception of sin.
      (p) God.
      (10) First of all because the Father, to whose glory all these things are to be referred, purposed to bring many sons to glory. How could he have men for his sons, unless his only begotten son had become a brother to men?
      (11) Secondly the Father determined to bring those sons to glory, that is, out of that shame in which they existed before. Therefore the son should not have been seen plainly to be made man, unless he had been made like other men, that he might come to glory in the same way, he would bring others: indeed rather, it suited him who was prince of the salvation of others, to be consecrated above others through those afflictions, Prophet, King, and Priest, which are the offices of that government, for the salvation of others.
      (q) The Chieftain who as he is chiefest in dignity, so he is first begotten from the dead, among many brethren.

Heb 2:11

2:11 {12} For both he that {r} sanctifieth and they who are sanctified [are] all of {s} one: for which cause he is not ashamed to call them brethren,

      (12) The basis for both of the former arguments, for we could not be sons through him, neither could he be consecrated through afflictions, unless he had been made man like us. But because this sonship depends not only on nature, for no man is accounted the son of God, unless he is also a son of a man, he is also Christ's brother, (which is by sanctification, that is, by becoming one with Christ, who sanctifies us through faith) therefore the apostle makes mention of the sanctifier, that is, of Christ, and of them that are sanctified, that is, of all the elect, who Christ condescends to call brethren.
      (r) He uses the time to show us that we are still going on, and increasing in this sanctification: and by sanctification he means our separation from the rest of the world, our cleansing from sin, and our dedication wholly to God, all which Christ alone works in us.
      (s) One, of the same nature of man.

Heb 2:12

2:12 {13} Saying, I will declare thy name unto my brethren, in the midst of the church will I sing praise unto thee.

      (13) That which he taught before about the incarnation of Christ, he applies to the prophetic office.

Heb 2:13

2:13 {14} And again, I will put my {t} trust in him. And again, {u} Behold I and the children which God hath given me.

      (14) He applies the same to the kingly power of Christ, in delivering his own from the power of the devil and death.
      (t) I will commit myself to him, and to his defence.
      (u) This Isaiah speaks of himself and his disciples but signifying by this all ministers, as also his disciples signify the whole Church. Therefore seeing Christ is the head of the prophets and ministers, these words are more rightly confirmed by him, than by Isaiah.

Heb 2:14

2:14 Forasmuch then as the children are {x} partakers of flesh and blood, he also himself likewise took part of the same; that through death he might destroy him that had the {y} power of death, that is, the {z} devil;

      (x) Are made of flesh and blood, which is a frail and delicate nature.
      (y) The devil is said to have the power of death, because he is the author of sin: and from sin comes death, and because of this he daily urges us to sin.
      (z) He speaks of him as of a prince, placing over all his angels.

Heb 2:15

2:15 And deliver them who through fear of {a} death were all their lifetime subject to bondage.

      (a) By (death) you must understand here, that death which is joined with the wrath of God, as it must be if it is without Christ, and there can be nothing devised that is more miserable.

Heb 2:16

2:16 {15} For verily he took not on [him the {b} nature of] angels; but he took on [him] the {c} seed of Abraham.

      (15) He explains those words of flesh and blood, showing that Christ is true man, and not by changing his divine nature, but by taking on man's nature. He names Abraham, regarding the promises made to Abraham in this behalf.
      (b) The nature of angels.
      (c) The very nature of man.

Heb 2:17

2:17 {16} Wherefore in {d} all things it behoved him to be made like unto [his] brethren, that he might be a {e} merciful and {f} faithful high priest in things [pertaining] to God, to make reconciliation for the sins of the people.

      (16) He applies the same to the priesthood, for which he would not have been suited, unless he had become man, and like us in all things, sin being the exception.
      (d) Not only concerning nature, but qualities too.
      (e) That he might be truly touched with the feeling of our miseries.
      (f) Doing his office sincerely.

Heb 2:18

2:18 For in that he himself hath suffered being {g} tempted, he is able to succour them that are tempted.

      (g) Was tried and urged to wickedness by the devil.

Heb 3:1

3:1 Wherefore, {1} holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling, consider the {a} Apostle and High Priest of our {b} profession, Christ Jesus;

      (1) Having laid the foundation that is to say, declared and proved both the natures of one Christ, he gives him three offices, that is, the office of a Prophet, King and Priest, and concerning the office of teaching, and governing, compares him with Moses and Joshua from Heb 3:1-4:14 , and with Aaron concerning the priesthood. He proposes that which he intends to speak of, with a grave exhortation, that all our faith may be directed towards Christ, as the only everlasting teacher, governor, and High Priest.
      (a) The ambassador or messenger, as in Ro 15:8 he is called the minister of circumcision.
      (b) Of the doctrine of the gospel which we profess.

Heb 3:2

3:2 {2} Who was faithful to him that {c} appointed him, {3} as also Moses [was faithful] in all his house.

      (2) He confirms his exhortation with two reasons, first of all because Christ Jesus was appointed as such by God: secondly, because he thoroughly executed the offices that his Father commanded him.
      (c) Apostle and High Priest.
      (3) Now he comes to the comparison with Moses, and he makes them like one another other in this, that they were both appointed rulers over God's house, and executed faithfully their office: but he later shows that there is great dissimilarity in the same comparison.

Heb 3:3

3:3 {4} For this [man] was counted worthy of more glory than Moses, inasmuch as he who hath builded the house hath more honour than the house.

      (4) The first comparison: The builder of the house is better than the house itself, therefore Christ is better than Moses. The reason for the conclusion is this: because the builder of the house is God, which cannot be attributed to Moses; and therefore Moses was not the builder, but a part of the house: but Christ as Lord and God, made the house.

Heb 3:5

3:5 And {5} Moses verily [was] faithful in all his house, as a servant, for a testimony of those things which were to be spoken after;

      (5) Another comparison: Moses was a faithful servant in this house, that is, in the Church, serving the Lord that was to come, but Christ rules and governs his house as Lord.

Heb 3:6

3:6 But Christ as a son over his own house; {6} whose {d} house are we, if we hold fast the {e} confidence and the rejoicing of the hope firm unto the end.

      (6) He applies the former doctrine to his purpose, exhorting all men by the words of David to hear the Son speak, and to give full credit to his words, seeing that otherwise they cannot enter into that eternal rest.
      (d) That is, Christ's.
      (e) He calls confidence the excellent effect of faith (by which we cry Abba, that is, Father), and to confidence he adds hope.

Heb 3:7

3:7 Wherefore (as the Holy Ghost saith, To day if ye {f} will hear his voice,

      (f) So that God was to speak once again after Moses.

Heb 3:8

3:8 Harden not your hearts, as in the {g} provocation, in the day of temptation in the wilderness:

      (g) In the day that they troubled the Lord, or struggled with him.

Heb 3:10

3:10 Wherefore I was grieved with that generation, and said, They do alway {h} err in [their] heart; and they have not known my ways.

      (h) They are brutish and angry.

Heb 3:12

3:12 {7} Take heed, brethren, lest there be in any of you an evil heart of unbelief, in departing from the living God.

      (7) Now consider in the words of David, he shows first by this word "today" that we must not ignore the opportunity while we have it: for that word is not to be limited to David's time, but it encompasses all the time in which God calls us.

Heb 3:13

3:13 But exhort one another daily, {i} while it is called To day; lest any of you be hardened through the deceitfulness of sin.

      (i) While today lasts, that is to say, so long as the gospel is offered to us.

Heb 3:14

3:14 {8} For we are made partakers of Christ, if we hold the {k} beginning of our confidence stedfast unto the end;

      (8) Now he considers these words, "If you hear his voice" showing that they are spoken and meant of the hearing of faith, opposite which he places hardening through unbelief.
      (k) That beginning of trust and confidence: in the speech of the Hebrews, he calls "beginning" that which is chiefest.

Heb 3:15

3:15 {l} While it is said, To day if ye will hear his voice, harden not your hearts, as in the provocation.

      (l) So long as this voice sounds out.

Heb 4:2

4:2 {1} For unto us was the gospel preached, as well as unto them: but the word preached did not profit them, not being {a} mixed with faith in them that heard [it].

      (1) By these words "His voice" he shows that David meant the preaching of Christ, who was then also preached, for Moses and the prophets honoured no one else.
      (a) He compares the preaching of the gospel to drink, which being drunk, that is to say, heard, profits nothing, unless it is mixed with faith.

Heb 4:3

4:3 {2} For we which have believed do enter into rest, as he said, As I have sworn in my wrath, if they shall enter into my rest: although the works were finished from the foundation of the world.

      (2) Lest any man should object, that those words spoke refer to the land of Canaan and doctrine of Moses, and therefore cannot applied to Christ and to eternal life, the apostle shows that there are two types of rest spoken of in the scriptures: one being the seventh day, in which God is said to have rested from all his works, the other is said to be the rest into which Joshua led the people. This rest is not the last rest to which we are called, proven through two reasons. David long after, speaking to the people which were then placed in the land of Canaan, uses these words "Today" and threatens them still that they will not enter into the rest of God if they refuse the voice of God that sounded in their ears. We must say that he meant another time than that of Moses, and another rest than the land of Canaan. That rest is the everlasting rest, in which we begin to live to God, after the race of this life ceases. God rested the seventh day from his works, that is to say, from making the world. Moreover the apostle signifies that the way to this rest, which Moses and the land of Canaan, and all the order of the Law foreshadowed, is revealed in the Gospel only.

Heb 4:8

4:8 For if {b} Jesus had given them rest, then would he not afterward have spoken of another day.

      (b) He speaks of Joshua the son of Nun: and as the land of Canaan was a figure of our true rest, so was Joshua a figure of Christ.

Heb 4:10

4:10 {c} For he that is entered into his rest, he also hath ceased from his own works, as God [did] from his.

      (c) As God rested the seventh day, so must we rest from our works, that is, from those things that proceed from our corrupt nature.

Heb 4:11

4:11 {3} Let us labour therefore to enter into that rest, lest {d} any man fall after the same example of unbelief.

      (3) He returns to an exhortation.
      (d) Lest any man become a similar example of infidelity.

Heb 4:12

4:12 {4} For the {e} word of God [is] {f} quick, and powerful, and sharper than any twoedged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of {g} soul and {h} spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and [is] a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart.

      (4) An amplification taken from the nature of the word of God, so powerful that it enters even to the deepest and most inward and secret parts of the heart, fatally wounding the stubborn, and openly reviving the believers.
      (e) The doctrine of God which is preached both in the law and in the gospel.
      (f) He calls the word of God living, because of the effect it has on those to whom it is preached.
      (g) He calls the seat of emotions "soul".
      (h) By "spirit" he means the mind.

Heb 4:13

4:13 Neither is there any creature that is not manifest in {i} his sight: but all things [are] naked and opened unto the eyes of him with whom we have to do.

      (i) In God's sight.

Heb 4:14

4:14 {5} Seeing then that we have a great high priest, that is passed into the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us {k} hold fast [our] profession.

      (5) Now he compares Christ's priesthood with Aaron's, and declares even in the very beginning the marvellous excellency of this priesthood, calling him the Son of God, and placing him in the seat of God in heaven, plainly and openly contrasting him with Aaron's priests, and the transitory tabernacle. He expands on these comparisons in later passages.
      (k) And let it not go out of our hands.

Heb 4:15

4:15 {6} For we have not an high priest which cannot be touched with the feeling of our infirmities; but was in all points tempted like as [we are, yet] without sin.

      (6) Lest he appear by the great glory of our High Priest, to prevent us from going to him, he adds after, that he is nonetheless our brother indeed, (as he proved before) and that he counts all our miseries as his own, to call us boldly to him.

Heb 5:1

5:1 For {1} every high priest taken from among men is ordained for men in things [pertaining] to God, {2} that he may offer both {a} gifts and {b} sacrifices for sins:

      (1) The first part of the first comparison of Christ's high priesthood with Aaron's: Other high priests are taken from among men, and are called after the order of men.
      (2) The first part of the second comparison: Others though weak, are made high priests, to the end that feeling the same infirmity in themselves which is in all the rest of the people, they should in their own and the peoples name offer gifts and sacrifices, which are witnesses of common faith and repentance.
      (a) Offering of things without life.
      (b) Beasts which were killed, but especially in the sacrifices for sins and offences.

Heb 5:2

5:2 Who {c} can have compassion on the ignorant, and {d} on them that are out of the way; for that he himself also is {e} compassed with infirmity.

      (c) Fit and meet.
      (d) On them that are sinful: for in the Hebrew tongue, under ignorance and error is every sin meant, even that sin that is voluntary.
      (e) He carries with him a nature subject to the same inconveniences and vices.

Heb 5:4

5:4 {3} And no man taketh this honour unto himself, but he that is called of God, as [was] Aaron.

      (3) The third comparison which is complete: The others are called by God and so was Christ, but in another order than Aaron. For Christ is called the Son, begotten by God and a Priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek.

Heb 5:6

5:6 As he saith also in another [place], Thou [art] a priest for ever after the {f} order of Melchisedec.

      (f) After the likeness or manner as it is later declared.

Heb 5:7

5:7 {4} Who in the days of his flesh, when he had offered up prayers and supplications with strong crying and tears unto him that was able to {h} save him from death, and was heard in that he feared;

      (4) The other part of the second comparison: Christ being exceedingly afflicted and exceedingly merciful did not pray because of his sins, for he had none, but for his fear, and obtained his request, and offered himself for all who are his.
      (h) To deliver him from death.

Heb 5:8

5:8 Though he were a Son, yet {i} learned he obedience by the things which he suffered;

      (i) He learned in deed what it is to have a Father, whom a man must obey.

Heb 5:9

5:9 {5} And being made {k} perfect, he became the author of eternal salvation unto all them that obey him;

      (5) The other part of the first comparison: Christ was consecrated by God the Father as the author of our salvation, and an High Priest for ever, and therefore he is a man, though nonetheless he is far above all men.
      (k) See Heb 2:10 .

Heb 5:11

5:11 {6} Of whom we have many things to say, and hard to be uttered, seeing ye are dull of hearing.

      (6) A digression until he comes to the beginning of the seventh chapter; Heb 5:11-6:20 : in which he partly holds the Hebrews in the diligent consideration of those things which he has said, and partly prepares them for the understanding of those things of which he will speak.

Heb 5:12

5:12 {7} For when for the time ye ought to be teachers, ye have need that one teach you again which [be] the first principles of the oracles of God; and are become such as have need of milk, and not of strong meat.

      (7) An example of an apostolic exhortation.

Heb 5:13

5:13 For every one that useth milk [is] unskilful in the {l} word of righteousness: for he is a babe.

      (l) In the word that teaches righteousness.

Heb 5:14

5:14 But strong meat belongeth to them that are of full age, [even] those who by reason of use have their {m} senses exercised to discern both good and evil.

      (m) All their power by which they understand and judge.

Heb 6:1

6:1 Therefore leaving the {a} principles of the doctrine of Christ, let us go on unto perfection; {1} not laying again the foundation of repentance from dead works, and of faith toward God,

      (a) The first principle of Christian religion, which we call the catechism.
      (1) Certain principles of a catechism, which comprehend the sum of the doctrine of the gospel, were given in few words and briefly to the poor and unlearned, that is, the profession of repentance and faith in God. The articles of this doctrine were required from those who were not yet members of the Church on the days appointed for their baptism. Of those articles, two are by name recited: the resurrection of the dead, and eternal judgment. (Ed.)

Heb 6:4

6:4 {2} For [it is] {b} impossible for those who were once enlightened, and have {c} tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost,

      (2) He adds a vehemency to his exhortation, and a sharp threatening of the certain destruction that will come to them who fall away from God and his religion.
      (b) He speaks of a general backsliding and those who fall away from the faith completely, not of sins committed through the weakness of a man against the first and the second table of the law.
      (c) We must note the force of this word, for it is one thing to believe as Lydia did, whose heart God opened in Ac 16:13 and another thing to have some taste.

Heb 6:6

6:6 If they shall fall away, to renew them again unto repentance; seeing they {d} crucify to themselves the Son of God afresh, and put [him] to an open shame.

      (d) As men that hate Christ, and as though they crucified him again, making a mockery of him to all the world, to their own destruction, as Julian the Apostate or backslider did.

Heb 6:7

6:7 {3} For the earth which drinketh in the rain that cometh oft upon it, and bringeth forth herbs meet for them by whom it is dressed, receiveth blessing from God:

      (3) He lays out the former threatening with a comparison.

Heb 6:9

6:9 {4} But, beloved, we are persuaded better things of you, and things that accompany salvation, though we thus speak.

      (4) He moderates and calms all that sharpness, expecting better things of those to whom he writes.

Heb 6:10

6:10 {5} For God [is] not unrighteous to forget your work and labour of love, which ye have shewed toward his name, in that ye have ministered to the saints, and do minister.

      (5) He praises them for their charity, by this encouraging them to go forward, and to hold out to the end.

Heb 6:12

6:12 {6} That ye be not slothful, but followers of them who through faith and patience inherit the promises.

      (6) He shows in these verses that they need to go forward constantly, for their own good: that is, of charity, and patience; and lest any man should object and say that these things are impossible to do, he asks them to consider the examples of their ancestors and to follow them.

Heb 6:13

6:13 {7} For when God made promise to Abraham, because he could swear by no greater, he sware by himself,

      (7) Another encouragement, to push them onward because the hope of the inheritance is certain, if we continue to the end, for God has not only promised it, but also promised it with an oath.

Heb 6:14

6:14 Saying, Surely {e} blessing I will bless thee, and multiplying I will multiply thee.

      (e) I will heap many benefits on you.

Heb 6:17

6:17 Wherein God, willing more {f} abundantly to shew unto the heirs of promise the immutability of his counsel, confirmed [it] by an oath:

      (f) More than was needed, were it not for the wickedness of men who do not believe God, even though he swears.

Heb 6:19

6:19 {8} Which [hope] we have as an anchor of the soul, both sure and stedfast, and which entereth into that within the veil;

      (8) He compares hope to an anchor because in the same way that an anchor when cast into the bottom of the sea secures the whole ship, so hope also enters even into the very secret places of heaven. He makes mention of the sanctuary, alluding to the old tabernacle and by this returns to the comparison of the priesthood of Christ with the Levitical priesthood.

Heb 6:20

6:20 {9} Whither the forerunner is for us entered, [even] Jesus, made an high priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec.

      (9) He repeats David's words, in which all those comparisons that he mentioned before are signified, as he declares in all the next chapter.

Heb 7:1

7:1 For this {1} Melchisedec, king of Salem, priest of the most high God, who met Abraham returning from the slaughter of the kings, and {a} blessed him;

      (1) Declaring those words, "According to the order of Melchizedek" upon which the comparison of the priesthood of Christ with the Levitical priesthood rests: first, Melchizedek himself is considered to be the type of Christ and these are the points of that comparison. Melchizedek was a king and a priest, as is Christ alone. He was a king of peace and righteousness as is Christ alone.
      (a) With a solemn and priestly blessing.

Heb 7:3

7:3 {2} Without father, without mother, without descent, having neither beginning of days, nor end of life; but made like unto the Son of God; abideth a priest continually.

      (2) Another type: Melchizedek is set before us to be considered as one without beginning and without ending, for neither his father, mother, ancestors, or his death are written of. Such a one is indeed the Son of God, that is, an everlasting Priest: as he is God, begotten without mother, and man, conceived without father.

Heb 7:4

7:4 {3} Now consider how great this man [was], unto whom even the patriarch Abraham gave the tenth of the spoils.

      (3) Another figure: Melchizedek in his priesthood was above Abraham for he took tithes from him, and blessed him as a priest. Such a one indeed is Christ, on whom depends even Abraham's sanctification and all the believers, and whom all men should worship and reverence as the author of all.

Heb 7:5

7:5 And verily they that are of the sons of Levi, who receive the office of the priesthood, have a commandment to take tithes of the people according to the law, that is, of their brethren, though they {b} come out of the loins of Abraham:

      (b) Were begotten by Abraham.

Heb 7:7

7:7 And {c} without all contradiction the less is blessed of the better.

      (c) He speaks of the public blessing which the priests used.

Heb 7:9

7:9 {4} And as I may so say, Levi also, who receiveth tithes, payed tithes in Abraham.

      (4) A twofold amplification: The first, that Melchizedek took the tithes as one immortal (that is, in respect that he is the figure of Christ, for his death is not mentioned, and David sets him forth as an everlasting Priest) but the Levitical priests, took tithes as mortal men, for they succeed one another: the second, that Levi himself, though yet in Abraham, was tithed by Melchizedek. Therefore the priesthood of Melchizedek (that is, Christ's, who is pronounced to be an everlasting Priest according to this order) is more excellent than the Levitical priesthood.

Heb 7:11

7:11 {5} If therefore {d} perfection were by the Levitical priesthood, (for under it the people received the law,) what further need [was there] that another priest should rise after the order of Melchisedec, and not be called after the order of Aaron?

      (5) The third treatise of this Epistle, in which after he has proved Christ to be a King, Prophet and a Priest, he now handles distinctly the condition and excellency of all these offices, showing that all these were shadows, but in Christ they are true and perfect. He begins with the priesthood that the former treatise ended with, that by this means all the parts of the debate may better hold together. First of all he proves that the Levitical priesthood was imperfect because another priest is promised later according to an other order, that is, of another rule and fashion.
      (d) If the priesthood of Levi could have made any man perfect.

Heb 7:12

7:12 {6} For the priesthood being changed, there is made of necessity a change also of the {e} law.

      (6) He shows how by the institution of the new priesthood, not only the imperfection of the priesthood of Levi was declared, but also that it was changed for this: for these two cannot stand together, because the first appointment of the tribe of Levi shut out the tribe of Judah and made it inferior to Levi: and this latter passage places the priesthood in the tribe of Judah.
      (e) Of the institution of Aaron.

Heb 7:13

7:13 For he of whom these things are spoken pertaineth to another tribe, of which no man {f} gave attendance at the altar.

      (f) Had anything to do with the altar.

Heb 7:15

7:15 {7} And it is yet far more evident: for that after the similitude of Melchisedec there ariseth another priest,

      (7) Lest any man object, the priesthood was indeed translated from Levi to Judah. Nonetheless the same still remains, he both considers and explains those words of David "for ever, according to the order of Melchizedek" by which also a different institution of priesthood is understood.

Heb 7:16

7:16 {8} Who is made, not after the {g} law of a carnal commandment, but after the power of an endless life.

      (8) He proves the diversity and excellency of the institution of Melchizedek's priesthood, by this that the priesthood of the law rested on an outward and bodily anointing: but the sacrifice of Melchizedek is set out to be everlasting and more spiritual.
      (g) Not after the ordination, which commands frail ad temporary things, as was done in Aaron's consecration, and all of that whole priesthood.

Heb 7:18

7:18 {9} For there is verily a disannulling of the {h} commandment going before for the weakness and unprofitableness thereof.

      (9) Again, that no man object that the last priesthood was added to make a perfect one by joining them both together, he proves that the first was made void by the later as unprofitable, by the nature of them both. For how could those material and transitory things sanctify us, either by themselves, or by being joined with another?
      (h) The ceremonial law.

Heb 7:20

7:20 {10} And inasmuch as not without an oath [he was made priest]:

      (10) Another argument, by which he proves that the priesthood of Christ is better than the priesthood of Levi, because his was established with an oath, but theirs was not so.

Heb 7:23

7:23 {11} And they truly were many priests, because they were not suffered to continue by reason of death:

      (11) Another argument for the same purpose. The Levitical priests (as mortal men) could not be everlasting, but Christ, as he is everlasting, so has he also an everlasting priesthood, making most effectual intercession for them who come to God by him.

Heb 7:24

7:24 But this [man], because he continueth ever, hath an {i} unchangeable priesthood.

      (i) Which cannot pass away.

Heb 7:25

7:25 Wherefore he is {k} able also to save them to the uttermost that come unto God by him, seeing he ever liveth to make intercession for them.

      (k) He is fit and sufficient.

Heb 7:26

7:26 {12} For such an high priest became us, [who is] holy, harmless, undefiled, separate from sinners, and made higher than the heavens;

      (12) Another argument: There are required in an high priest innocency and perfect pureness, which may separate him from sinners, for whom he offers. The Levitical high priests are not found to be such, for they offer first for their own sins: but only Christ is such a one, and therefore the only true High Priest.

Heb 7:27

7:27 Who needeth not daily, as those high priests, to offer up sacrifice, first for his own sins, and then for the people's: {13} for {l} this he did {m} once, when he offered up himself.

      (13) Another argument, which nonetheless he handles afterward: The Levitical priests offered sacrifice after sacrifice, first for themselves, and then for the people. Christ offered not for himself, but for others, not sacrifices, but himself, not repeatedly, but once. This should not seem strange, he says, for they are weak, but this man is consecrated as an everlasting Priest, and that by an oath.
      (l) That sacrifice which he offered.
      (m) It was done so that it need not be repeated or offered again any more.

Heb 7:28

7:28 For the law maketh men high priests which have infirmity; but the {n} word of the oath, {14} which {o} was since the law, [maketh] the Son, who is consecrated for evermore.

      (n) The commandment of God which was bound with an oath.
      (14) Another argument taken by the time: Former things are taken away by the later.
      (o) Exhibited.

Heb 8:1

8:1 Now {1} of the things which we have spoken [this is] the sum: We have such an high priest, who is set on the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens;

      (1) He briefly repeats that to which all these things are to be referred, that is, that we have another High Priest than those Levitical high priests, even such a one as sits at the right hand of the Most High God in heaven.

Heb 8:2

8:2 {2} A minister of the {a} sanctuary, {3} and of the {b} true tabernacle, which the Lord pitched, and not man.

      (2) They of Levi were high priests in an earthly sanctuary, but Christ is in the heavenly.
      (a) Of heaven.
      (3) They of Levi exercised their priesthood in a frail tabernacle, but Christ bears about with him another tabernacle, that is, his body, which God himself made everlasting, as shall later be declared in Heb 9:11 .
      (b) Of his body.

Heb 8:3

8:3 {4} For every high priest is ordained to offer gifts and sacrifices: wherefore [it is] of necessity that this man have somewhat also to offer.

      (4) He brings a reason why it must be that Christ should have a body (which he calls a tabernacle which the Lord built, and not man) that is, that he might have that to offer: for otherwise he could not be an High Priest. The body is both the tabernacle and the sacrifice.

Heb 8:4

8:4 {5} For if he were on earth, he should not be a priest, seeing that there are priests that offer gifts according to the law:

      (5) He gives a reason why he said that our High Priest is in the heavenly sanctuary, and not in the earthly: because, says he, if he were now on the earth, he could not minister in the earthly sanctuary, seeing there are still Levitical priests who are appointed for him, that is to say, to be patterns of that perfect example. To what purpose should the patterns serve, when the true and original example is present?

Heb 8:6

8:6 {6} But now hath he obtained a more excellent ministry, by how much also he is the mediator of a better covenant, which was established upon better promises.

      (6) He enters into the comparison of the old and transitory Testament or covenant, being but for a time, of which the Levitical priests were mediators, with the new, the everlasting Mediator of which is Christ, to show that this is not only better than that in all respects, but also that that was made void by this.

Heb 8:7

8:7 {7} For if that first [covenant] had been faultless, then should no place have been sought for the second.

      (7) He proves by the testimony of Jeremiah that there is a second Testament or covenant, and therefore that the first was not perfect.

Heb 8:8

8:8 For finding fault with them, he saith, Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, when I will make a new covenant with the {c} house of Israel and with the house of Judah:

      (c) He calls it a house, as it were one family of the whole kingdom: for while the kingdom of David was divided into two sections, the Prophet would have us understand that through the new Testament they shall be joined together again in one.

Heb 8:13

8:13 {8} In that he saith, A new [covenant], he hath made the first old. Now that which decayeth and waxeth old [is] ready to vanish away.

      (8) The conclusion: Therefore by the later and the new, the first and old is taken away, for it could not be called new, if it did not differ from the old. Again, that same is at length taken away, which is subject to corruption, and therefore imperfect.

Heb 9:1

9:1 Then verily {1} the first [covenant] had also ordinances of divine service, and a {a} worldly sanctuary.

      (1) A division of the first tabernacle which he calls worldly, that is to say, transitory, and earthly, into two parts, that is, into the holy places, and the Holiest of all.
      (a) An earthy and a fleeting.

Heb 9:3

9:3 And after {b} the second veil, the tabernacle which is called the {c} Holiest of all;

      (b) He calls it the second veil, not because there were two veils, but because it was behind the sanctuary or the first tabernacle.
      (c) The holiest sanctuary.

Heb 9:5

9:5 And over it the cherubims of glory shadowing the {d} mercyseat; of which we cannot now speak particularly.

      (d) The Hebrews call the cover of the ark of the covenant the mercy seat, which both the Greeks and we do also.

Heb 9:6

9:6 {2} Now when these things were thus ordained, the priests went always into the first tabernacle, accomplishing the service [of God].

      (2) Now he comes to the sacrifices which he divides into those daily sacrifices and that yearly and solemn sacrifice with which the high priest only but once every year entering into the Holiest of all with blood, offered for himself and the people.

Heb 9:7

9:7 But into the second [went] the high priest alone once every year, not without blood, which he offered for himself, and [for] the {e} errors of the people:

      (e) For the sins, see Heb 5:2 .

Heb 9:8

9:8 {3} The Holy Ghost this signifying, that the way into the holiest of all was not yet made manifest, while as the first tabernacle was yet standing:

      (3) Of that yearly rite and the ceremony, he gathers that the way into heaven was not opened by such sacrifices, which was shadowed by the Holiest of all. For why did only the high priest enter in, excluding all others, to offer sacrifices there both for himself and for others, and after, shut the Holiest of all again?

Heb 9:9

9:9 {4} Which [was] a figure {f} for the time then present, in which were offered both gifts and sacrifices, that could not make him that did the service perfect, as pertaining to the conscience;

      (4) An objection: If the way to heaven was not opened by those sacrifices (that is to say, if the worshippers were not purged by them) why then were those ceremonies used? That is, that men might be called back to that spiritual example, that is to say, to Christ who would correct all those things at his coming.
      (f) For that time that that figure had to last.

Heb 9:10

9:10 {5} [Which stood] only in meats and drinks, and divers washings, and carnal ordinances, {g} imposed [on them] until the time of reformation.

      (5) Another reason why they could not clear the conscience of the worshipper is because they were outward and carnal or material things.
      (g) For they were as you would say, a burden, from which Christ delivered us.

Heb 9:11

9:11 {6} But Christ being come an high priest of good things to come, {7} by a {h} greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands, that is to say, not of this building;

      (6) Now he enters into the declaration of the types, and first of all comparing the Levitical high priest with Christ, (that is to say, the figure with the thing itself) he attributes to Christ the administration of good things to come, that is, everlasting, which those carnal things had respect to.
      (7) Another comparison of the first corrupt tabernacle with the latter, (that is to say, with the human nature of Christ) which is the true incorruptible temple of God, into which the Son of God entered, as the Levitical high priests into the other which was frail and transitory.
      (h) By a more excellent and better.

Heb 9:12

9:12 {8} Neither by the blood of {i} goats and calves, but by his own blood he entered in once into the holy place, having obtained eternal redemption [for us].

      (8) Another comparison of the blood of the sacrifices with Christ, the Levitical high priests entering by their holy places into the sanctuary, offered corruptible blood for one year only: but Christ entering into that holy body of his, entered by it into heaven itself, offering his own most pure blood for an everlasting redemption: for Christ is both the High Priest, Tabernacle, Sacrifices and Offerings themselves, indeed all those both truly and for ever.
      (i) For in this yearly sacrifice of reconciliation, there were two kinds of sacrifices, the one a goat, the other a heifer, or calf.

Heb 9:13

9:13 {9} For if the blood of bulls and of goats, and the ashes of an heifer sprinkling the unclean, sanctifieth to the {k} purifying of the flesh:

      (9) If the outward sprinkling of blood and ashes of beasts was a true and effectual sign of purifying and cleansing, how much more shall the thing itself and the truth being present which in times past was shadowed by those external sacraments do it? That is to say, his blood, which is man's blood and also the blood of the Son of God, and therefore has an everlasting power of purifying and cleansing.
      (k) He considers the signs separately, being separate from the thing itself.

Heb 9:14

9:14 How much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge your conscience from {l} dead works to serve the living God?

      (l) From sins which proceed from death, and bring forth nothing but death.

Heb 9:15

9:15 {10} And for this cause he is the mediator of the new testament, that by means of death, for the redemption of the transgressions [that were] under the first testament, they which are called might receive the promise of eternal inheritance.

      (10) The conclusion of the former argument: therefore seeing the blood of beasts did not purge sins, the new Testament which was promised before, to which those outward things had respect, is now indeed established by the power by which all transgressions might be taken away, and heaven indeed opened to us. It follows that Christ shed his blood also for the fathers, for he was foreshadowed by these old ceremonies, otherwise, unless they served to represent him, they were not at all profitable. Therefore this Testament is called the latter, not concerning the power of it, (that is to say, remission of sins) but in respect of that time in which the thing itself was finished, that is to say, in which Christ was exhibited to the world, and fulfilled all things necessary for our salvation.

Heb 9:16

9:16 {11} For where a testament [is], there must also of necessity be the death of the testator.

      (11) A reason why the testament must be established by the death of the Mediator, because this testament has the condition of a testament or gift, which is made effective by death, and therefore that it might be effective, it must be that he that made the Testament, should die.

Heb 9:18

9:18 {12} Whereupon neither the first [testament] was dedicated without blood.

      (12) There must be a proportion between those things which purify and those which are purified: Under the law all those figures were earthly, the tabernacle, the book, the vessels, the sacrifices, although they were the signs of heavenly things. Therefore it was required that all those should be purified with some matter and ceremony of the same nature, that is, with the blood of beasts, with water, wool, hyssop. But under Christ all things are heavenly, a heavenly tabernacle, heavenly sacrifice, heavenly people, heavenly doctrine, and heaven itself is set open before us for an eternal home. Therefore all these things are sanctified in a similar way, that is, with the everlasting offering of the quickening blood of Christ.

Heb 9:19

9:19 For when Moses had spoken every precept to all the people {m} according to the law, he took the blood of calves and of goats, with water, and scarlet wool, and hyssop, and {n} sprinkled both the book, and all the people,

      (m) As the Lord had commanded.
      (n) He used to sprinkle.

Heb 9:23

9:23 [It was] therefore necessary that the {o} patterns of things in the heavens should be purified with these; but the heavenly things themselves with better sacrifices than these.

      (o) The counterparts of heavenly things were earthly, and therefore they were to be set forth with earthly things, as with the blood of beasts, wool and hyssop. But under Christ all things are heavenly, and therefore they could not be sanctified with the offering of his living blood.

Heb 9:24

9:24 {13} For Christ is not entered into the holy places made with hands, [which are] the figures of the true; but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us:

      (13) Another twofold comparison: the Levitical high priest entered into the sanctuary, which was made indeed by the commandment of God, but yet with men's hands, that it might be a pattern of another more excellent, that is, of the heavenly place, but Christ entered into heaven itself. Again he appeared before the ark, but Christ before God the Father himself.

Heb 9:25

9:25 {14} Nor yet that he should offer himself often, as the high priest entereth into the holy place every year with blood of others;

      (14) Another double comparison: the Levitical high priest offered other blood, but Christ offered his own: he every year once repeated his offering: Christ offering himself but once, abolished sin altogether, both of the former ages and of the ages to come.

Heb 9:26

9:26 {15} For then must he often have suffered since the foundation of the world: but now once in the {p} end of the world hath he appeared to put away {q} sin by the sacrifice of himself.

      (15) An argument to prove that Christ's offering should not be repeated: seeing that sins were to be purged from the beginning of the world, and it is proved that sins cannot be purged, but by the blood of Christ: he would have needed to have died repeatedly, since the beginning of the world. But a man can die only once: therefore Christ's sacrifice which was once done in the later days, neither could nor can be repeated. Seeing that it is so, surely the power of it extends both to sins that were before, and to sins that are after his coming.
      (p) In the later days.
      (q) That whole root of sin.

Heb 9:27

9:27 And as it is appointed unto men {r} once to die, but after this the judgment:

      (r) He speaks of the natural state and condition of man: For though Lazarus and certain others died twice, that was no usual thing, but extraordinary: and as for them that shall be changed, their changing is a kind of death. See Geneva "1Co 15:51"

Heb 9:28

9:28 So Christ was once offered to bear the sins of {s} many; {16} and unto them that look for him shall he appear the second time without sin unto salvation.

      (s) Thus the general promise is restrained to the elect only: and we have to seek the testimony of our election, not in the secret counsel of God, but in the effects that our faith works, and so we must climb up from the lowest step to the highest, there to find such comfort as is most certain, and shall never be moved.
      (16) Shortly by the way he sets Christ as Judge, partly to terrify those who are not trusting in the only sacrifice of Christ once made, and partly to keep the faithful in their duty, so that they will not go back.

Heb 10:1

10:1 For {1} the law having a shadow of good things to {a} come, [and] not the very image of the things, can never with those sacrifices which they offered year by year continually make the comers thereunto perfect.

      (1) He prevents a private objection. Why then were those sacrifices offered? The apostle answers, first concerning the yearly sacrifice which was the solemnest of all, in which (he says) there was made every year a remembrance again of all former sins. Therefore that sacrifice had no power to sanctify: for to what purpose should those sins which are purged be repeated again, and why should new sins come to be repeated every year, if those sacrifices abolished sin?
      (a) Of things which are everlasting, which were promised to the fathers, and exhibited in Christ.

Heb 10:5

10:5 {2} Wherefore when he {b} cometh into the world, he saith, Sacrifice and offering thou wouldest not, but a {c} body hast thou prepared me:

      (2) A conclusion following those things that went before, and encompassing also the other sacrifices. Seeing that the sacrifices of the law could not do it, therefore Christ speaking of himself as of our High Priest manifested in the flesh, witnesses plainly that God rests not in the sacrifices, but in the obedience of his Son our High Priest, in whose obedience he offered up himself once to his Father for us.
      (b) The Son of God is said to come into the world, when he was made man.
      (c) It is word for word in the Hebrew text, "You have pierced my ears through" that is, "you have made me obedient and willing to hear".

Heb 10:9

10:9 Then said he, Lo, I come to do thy will, O God. He taketh away the {d} first, that he may establish the second.

      (d) That is, the sacrifices, to establish the second, that is, the will of God.

Heb 10:11

10:11 {3} And every priest standeth {e} daily ministering and offering oftentimes the same sacrifices, which can never take away sins:

      (3) A conclusion, with the other part of the comparison: The Levitical high priest repeats the same sacrifices daily in his sanctuary: upon which it follows that neither those sacrifices, nor those offerings, nor those high priests could take away sins. But Christ having offered one sacrifice once for the sins of all men, and having sanctified his own for ever, sits at the right hand of the Father, having all power in his hands.
      (e) At the altar.

Heb 10:13

10:13 {4} From henceforth expecting till his enemies be made his footstool.

      (4) He prevents a private objection, that is, that yet nonetheless we are subject to sin and death, to which the apostle answers, that the full effect of Christ's power has not yet shown itself, but shall eventually appear when he will at once put to flight all his enemies, with whom we still struggle.

Heb 10:15

10:15 {5} [Whereof] the Holy Ghost also is a witness to us: for after that he had said before,

      (5) Although there remains in us relics of sin, yet the work of our sanctification which is to be perfected, hangs on the same sacrifice which never shall be repeated: and that the apostle proves by referring again to the testimony of Jeremiah, thus: Sin is taken away by the new testament, seeing the Lord says that it shall come to pass, that according to the form of it, he will no more remember our sins: Therefore we need now no purging sacrifice to take away that which is already taken away, but we must rather take pains, that we may now through faith be partakers of that sacrifice.

Heb 10:17

10:17 And their sins and iniquities will I remember {f} no more.

      (f) Why then, where is the fire of purgatory, and that popish distinction of the fault, and the punishment?

Heb 10:18

10:18 Now where remission of these [is, there is] no more offering for {g} sin.

      (g) He said well, for sin: for there remains another offering, that is, of thanksgiving.

Heb 10:19

10:19 {6} Having therefore, brethren, boldness to enter into the holiest by the blood of Jesus,

      (6) The sum of the former treatise: We are not shut out from the holy place, as the fathers were, but we have an entrance into the true holy place (that is, into heaven) seeing that we are purged with the blood, not of beasts, but of Jesus. Neither as in times past, does the High Priest shut us out by setting the veil against us, but through the veil, which is his flesh, he has brought us into heaven itself, so that we have now truly an High Priest who is over the house of God.

Heb 10:20

10:20 By a new and living way, which he hath consecrated for us, through the veil, that is to say, his {h} flesh;

      (h) So Christ's flesh shows us the Godhead as if it were under a veil, For otherwise we could not stand the brightness of it.

Heb 10:22

10:22 {7} Let us draw near with a {i} true heart in full assurance of faith, having our {k} hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience, and our bodies washed with {l} pure water.

      (7) A most grave exhortation, in which he shows how the sacrifice of Christ may be applied to us: that is, by faith which also he describes by the consequence, that is, by sanctification of the Spirit, which causes us to hope in God, and to procure by all means possible one another's salvation, through the love that is in us one towards another.
      (i) With no double and counterfeit heart, but with such a heart as is truly and indeed given to God.
      (k) This is it which the Lord says, Be ye holy, for I am holy.
      (l) With the grace of the Holy Spirit.

Heb 10:25

10:25 Not forsaking the assembling of ourselves together, as the manner of some [is]; but exhorting [one another]: {8} and so much the more, as ye see the day approaching.

      (8) Having mentioned the last coming of Christ, he stirs up the godly to the meditation of a holy life, and cites the faithless fallers from God to the fearful judgment seat of the Judge, because they wickedly rejected him in whom only salvation consists.

Heb 10:26

10:26 For if we sin {m} wilfully after that we have received the knowledge of the truth, there remaineth no more sacrifice for sins,

      (m) Without any cause or occasion, or show of occasion.

Heb 10:27

10:27 But a certain fearful looking for of judgment and fiery indignation, which shall devour the {n} adversaries.

      (n) For it is another matter to sin through the frailty of man's nature, and another thing to proclaim war on God as on an enemy.

Heb 10:28

10:28 {9} He that despised Moses' law died without mercy under two or three witnesses:

      (9) If the breach of the law of Moses was punished by death, how much more worthy of death is it to fall away from Christ?

Heb 10:30

10:30 {10} For we know him that hath said, Vengeance [belongeth] unto me, I will recompense, saith the Lord. And again, The Lord shall {o} judge his people.

      (10) The reason of all these things is, because God is a revenger of those who despise him: otherwise he could not rightly govern his Church. Now there is nothing more horrible then the wrath of the living God.
      (o) Rule or govern.

Heb 10:32

10:32 {11} But call to remembrance the former days, in which, after ye were illuminated, ye endured a great fight of afflictions;

      (11) As he terrified the fallers away from God, so does he now comfort them that are constant and stand firm, setting before them the success of their former fights, so stirring them up to a sure hope of a full and ready victory.

Heb 10:33

10:33 Partly, whilst ye were made a {p} gazingstock both by reproaches and afflictions; and partly, whilst ye became {q} companions of them that were so used.

      (p) You were brought forth to be shamed.
      (q) In taking their miseries, to be your miseries.

Heb 10:34

10:34 For ye had compassion of me in my bonds, and took joyfully the spoiling of your goods, knowing in yourselves that ye have in heaven a better and an enduring {r} substance.

      (r) Goods and riches.

Heb 10:37

10:37 For yet a {s} little while, and he that shall come will come, and will not tarry.

      (s) He will come within this very little while.

Heb 10:38

10:38 {12} Now the just shall live by faith: but if [any man] draw back, my soul shall have no pleasure in him.

      (12) He commends the excellency of a sure faith by the effect, because it is the only way to life, which sentence he sets forth and amplifies by contrast.

Heb 11:1

11:1 Now {1} faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen.

      (1) An excellent description of faith by the effects, because it represents things which are but yet in hope, and sets as it were before our eyes things that are invisible.

Heb 11:2

11:2 {2} For by it the {a} elders obtained a good report.

      (2) He shows that the fathers ought to be accounted of by this virtue.
      (a) That is, those fathers from whom we came: and whose authority and example ought to move us very much.

Heb 11:3

11:3 {3} Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that things which are {b} seen were not made of things which do appear.

      (3) He shows the property of faith, by setting before us most cautious examples of those who from the beginning of the world excelled in the Church.
      (b) So that the world which we see, was not made from any matter that appeared or was before, but from nothing.

Heb 11:4

11:4 {4} By faith Abel offered unto God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain, by which he obtained witness that he was righteous, God testifying of his gifts: and by it he being dead yet speaketh.

      (4) Abel.

Heb 11:5

11:5 {5} By faith Enoch was translated that he should not {c} see death; and was not found, because God had translated him: for before his translation he had this testimony, that he pleased God.

      (5) Enoch.
      (c) That he should not die.

Heb 11:6

11:6 But without faith [it is] impossible to please [him]: for he that cometh to God must believe that he is, and [that] he is a {d} rewarder of them that diligently seek him.

      (d) This reward is not referred to our merits, but to the free promise, as Paul teaches in Abraham the father of all the faithful, Ro 4:4 .

Heb 11:7

11:7 {6} By faith Noah, being warned of God of things not seen as yet, moved with fear, prepared an ark to the saving of his house; by the which he condemned the world, and became heir of the righteousness which is by faith.

      (6) Noah.

Heb 11:8

11:8 {7} By faith Abraham, when he was called to go out into a place which he should after receive for an inheritance, obeyed; and he went out, not knowing whither he went.

      (7) Abraham and Sarah.

Heb 11:10

11:10 For he looked for a city which hath {e} foundations, whose builder and maker [is] God.

      (e) This foundation is contrasted with their tabernacle.

Heb 11:12

11:12 Therefore sprang there even of one, and him as good as {f} dead, [so many] as the stars of the sky in multitude, and as the sand which is by the sea shore innumerable.

      (f) As unlikely to bear children, as if he had been dead.

Heb 11:13

11:13 These all died in {g} faith, not having received the {h} promises, but having seen them afar off, and were persuaded of [them], and {i} embraced [them], and confessed that they were strangers and pilgrims on the earth.

      (g) In faith, which they had while they lived, and followed, them even to their grave.
      (h) This is the figure metonymy, for the things promised.
      (i) For the patriarchs were given to profess their religion by building an altar and calling on the name of the Lord when they received the promises.

Heb 11:17

11:17 By faith Abraham, when he was {k} tried, offered up Isaac: and he that had received the {l} promises offered up his only begotten [son],

      (k) Tried by the Lord.
      (l) Although the promises of life were made in that only begotten son Isaac, yet he appointed him to die; and so against hope he believed in hope.

Heb 11:19

11:19 Accounting that God [was] able to raise [him] up, even from the dead; from {m} whence also he received him in {n} a figure.

      (m) From which death.
      (n) For there was not the true and very death of Isaac, but as it were the death, by means of which he seemed also to have risen again.

Heb 11:20

11:20 {8} By faith Isaac blessed Jacob and Esau concerning things to come.

      (8) Isaac.

Heb 11:21

11:21 {9} By faith Jacob, when he was a dying, blessed both the sons of Joseph; and worshipped, [leaning] upon the top of his staff.

      (9) Jacob.

Heb 11:22

11:22 {10} By faith Joseph, when he died, made mention of the departing of the children of Israel; and gave commandment concerning his bones.

      (10) Joseph.

Heb 11:23

11:23 {11} By faith Moses, when he was born, was hid three months of his parents, because they saw [he was] a proper child; and they were not {o} afraid of the king's commandment.

      (11) Moses.

Heb 11:25

11:25 Choosing rather to suffer affliction with the people of God, than to enjoy the {p} pleasures of sin for a season;

      (p) Such pleasures as he could not enjoy, unless he provoked God's wrath against him.

Heb 11:29

11:29 {12} By faith they passed through the Red sea as by dry [land]: which the Egyptians assaying to do were drowned.

      (12) The Red Sea.

Heb 11:30

11:30 {13} By faith the walls of Jericho fell down, after they were compassed about seven days.

      (13) Jericho.

Heb 11:31

11:31 {14} By faith the {q} harlot Rahab perished not with them that believed not, when she had received the {r} spies with peace.

      (14) Rahab.
      (q) A notable example of God's goodness.
      (r) Courteously and friendly, so that not only did she not hurt them, but also kept them safe.

Heb 11:32

11:32 {15} And what shall I more say? for the time would fail me to tell of Gedeon, and [of] Barak, and [of] Samson, and [of] Jephthae; [of] David also, and Samuel, and [of] the prophets:

      (15) Gideon, Barak and other judges and prophets.

Heb 11:33

11:33 Who through faith subdued kingdoms, wrought righteousness, obtained {s} promises, stopped the mouths of lions,

      (s) The fruit of the promises.

Heb 11:35

11:35 {t} Women received their dead raised to life again: and others were {u} tortured, not accepting deliverance; that they might obtain a better resurrection:

      (t) He seems to mean the story of that woman of Sarepta, whose son Elijah raised again from the dead, and the Shunammite, whose son Elisha restored to his mother.
      (u) He means that perfection which Antiochus wrought.

Heb 11:37

11:37 They were stoned, they were sawn asunder, were tempted, were slain with the sword: they wandered about in {x} sheepskins and goatskins; being destitute, afflicted, tormented;

      (x) In vile and rough clothing, so were the saints brought to extreme poverty, and constrained to live like beasts in the wilderness.

Heb 11:39

11:39 {16} And these all, having obtained a good report through faith, received {y} not the promise:

      (16) An amplification taken from the circumstance of the time: their faith is so much the more to be marvelled at, by how much the promises of things to come were more dark, yet at length were indeed exhibited to us, so that their faith and ours is as one, as is also their consecration and ours.
      (y) But saw Christ afar off.

Heb 11:40

11:40 God having provided some better thing for us, that they {z} without us should not be made perfect.

      (z) For their salvation depended on Christ, who was exhibited in our days.

Heb 12:1

12:1 Wherefore seeing we also are compassed about with so great a cloud of witnesses, {1} let us lay aside every weight, and the sin which {a} doth so easily beset [us], and let us run with patience the race that is set before us,

      (1) An applying of the former examples, by which we ought to be stirred up to run the whole race, casting away all hindrances and impediments.
      (a) For sin besieges us on all sides, so that we cannot escape.

Heb 12:2

12:2 {2} {b} Looking unto Jesus the author and finisher of [our] faith; who for the {c} joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and is set down at the right hand of the throne of God.

      (2) He sets before us, as the mark of this race, Jesus himself our captain, who willingly overcame all the roughness of the same way.
      (b) As it were upon the mark of our faith.
      (c) While he had every type of blessedness in his hand and power, yet suffered willingly the shame of the cross.

Heb 12:3

12:3 {3} For consider him that endured such contradiction of sinners against himself, lest ye be wearied and faint in your minds.

      (3) An amplification, taken from the circumstance of the person and the things themselves, which he compares between themselves: for how great is Jesus in comparison of us, and how far more grievous things did he suffer than we?

Heb 12:4

12:4 {4} Ye have not yet resisted unto blood, striving against sin.

      (4) He takes an argument from the profit which comes to us by God's chastisements, unless we are at fault. First of all because sin, or that rebellious wickedness of our flesh, is by this means tamed.

Heb 12:5

12:5 {5} And ye have forgotten the exhortation which speaketh unto you as unto children, My son, despise not thou the chastening of the Lord, nor faint when thou art rebuked of him:

      (5) Secondly, because they are testimonies of his fatherly good will towards us, in that they show themselves to be illegitimate, if they cannot abide to be chastened by God.

Heb 12:9

12:9 {6} Furthermore we have had fathers of our flesh which corrected [us], and we gave [them] reverence: shall we not much rather be in subjection unto the Father of spirits, and live?

      (6) Thirdly, if all men yield this right to fathers, to whom next after God we owe this life, that they may rightfully correct their children, shall we not be much more subject to our Father, who is the author of spiritual and everlasting life?

Heb 12:10

12:10 {7} For they verily for a few days chastened [us] after their own pleasure; but he for [our] profit, that [we] might be partakers of his holiness.

      (7) An amplification of the same argument: Those fathers have corrected us after their fancy, for some frail and temporary good: but God chastens and instructs us for our singular good to make us partakers of his holiness: which although our senses do not presently perceive it, yet the end of the matter proves it.

Heb 12:12

12:12 {8} Wherefore lift up the hands which {d} hang down, and the feeble knees;

      (8) The conclusion: we must go forward courageously and keep always a right course and (as far forth as we may) without any staggering or stumbling.
      (d) The description of a man that is out of heart and completely discouraged.

Heb 12:13

12:13 And make {e} straight paths for your feet, lest that which is lame be turned out of the way; but let it rather be healed.

      (e) Keep a right course, and so, that you show examples of good life for others to follow.

Heb 12:14

12:14 {9} Follow peace with all [men], and holiness, without which no man shall see the Lord:

      (9) We must live in peace and holiness with all men.

Heb 12:15

12:15 {10} Looking diligently lest any man fail of the grace of God; lest any {f} root of bitterness springing up trouble [you], and thereby many be defiled;

      (10) We must study to edify one another both in doctrine and example of life.
      (f) That no heresy, or backsliding be an offence.

Heb 12:16

12:16 {11} Lest there [be] any fornicator, or profane person, as Esau, who for one morsel of meat sold his birthright.

      (11) We must shun immorality, and a profane mind, that is, such a mind as does not give God his due honour, which wickedness, how severely God will at length punish, the horrible example of Esau teaches us.

Heb 12:17

12:17 For ye know how that afterward, when he would have inherited the blessing, he was rejected: for he found no {g} place of repentance, though he sought it carefully with tears.

      (g) There was no room left for his repentance: and it appears by the effects, what his repentance really was, for when he left his father's presence, he threatened to kill his brother.

Heb 12:18

12:18 {12} For ye are not come unto the mount that might be {h} touched, and that burned with fire, nor unto blackness, and darkness, and tempest,

      (12) Now he applies the same exhortation to the prophetic and kingly office of Christ compared with Moses, after this sort. If the majesty of the law was so great, how great do you think the glory of Christ and the gospel is? This comparison he declares also particularly.
      (h) Which might be touched with hands, which was of a gross and earthly matter.

Heb 12:21

12:21 And so terrible was the {i} sight, [that] Moses said, I exceedingly fear and quake:)

      (i) The shape and form which he saw, which was no counterfeit and forged shape, but a true one.

Heb 12:23

12:23 To the general assembly and church of the firstborn, which are written in heaven, and to God the Judge of all, and to the spirits of just men made {k} perfect,

      (k) So he calls them that are taken up to heaven, although one part of them sleeps in the earth.

Heb 12:25

12:25 {13} See that ye refuse not him that speaketh. For if they escaped not who refused him that spake on earth, much more [shall not] we [escape], if we turn away from him that [speaketh] from heaven:

      (13) The applying of the former comparison: If it were not lawful to condemn his word which was spoken on the earth, how much less his voice which is from heaven?

Heb 12:26

12:26 {14} Whose voice then shook the earth: but now he hath promised, saying, {l} Yet once more I shake not the earth only, but also heaven.

      (14) He compares the steadfast majesty of the gospel, with which the whole world was shaken, and even the very frame of heaven was astonished, with the small and vanishing sound of the governance by the law.
      (l) It appears evidently in this that the prophet speaks of the calling of the Gentiles, that these words must refer to the kingdom of Christ.

Heb 12:28

12:28 {15} Wherefore we receiving a kingdom which cannot be moved, let us have grace, whereby we may serve God acceptably with {m} reverence and godly {n} fear:

      (15) A general exhortation to live reverently and religiously under the most happy subjection of so mighty a King, who as he blesses his most mightily, so does he most severely revenge the rebellious. This is the sum of a Christian life, respecting the first table of the law.
      (m) By reverence is meant that honest modesty which keeps them in their duties.
      (n) Religious and godly fear.

Heb 13:1

13:1 Let {1} brotherly love continue.

      (1) He comes to the second table of the law, the sum of which is charity, especially toward strangers and such as are afflicted.

Heb 13:3

13:3 Remember them that are in bonds, as bound with them; [and] them which suffer adversity, as {a} being yourselves also in the body.

      (a) Be so touched, as if their misery were yours.

Heb 13:4

13:4 {2} Marriage [is] honourable in all, and the bed undefiled: but whoremongers and adulterers God will judge.

      (2) He commends chaste matrimony in all sorts of men, and threatens utter destruction from God against whoremongers and adulterers.

Heb 13:5

13:5 {3} [Let your] conversation [be] without covetousness; [and be] content with such things as ye have: for {b} he hath said, I will never leave thee, nor forsake thee.

      (3) Covetousness is condemned, against which is set a contented mind with that which the Lord has given.
      (b) Even the Lord himself.

Heb 13:6

13:6 So that we may boldly say, The Lord [is] my helper, and I will not fear what {c} man shall do unto me.

      (c) He contrasts man with God.

Heb 13:7

13:7 {4} Remember them which have the rule over you, who have spoken unto you the word of God: whose faith follow, considering the end of [their] conversation.

      (4) We have to set before us the examples of valiant captains, whom we ought diligently to follow.

Heb 13:8

13:8 {5} Jesus Christ the same yesterday, and to day, and for ever.

      (5) He repeats the sum of the doctrine, that is, the only ground of all precepts of conduct, and that is this: That we ought to quiet and content ourselves in Christ only: for there has never been any man saved without the knowledge of him, neither is there today, nor shall there be ever.

Heb 13:9

13:9 Be not carried about with divers and strange doctrines. {6} For [it is] a good thing that the heart be established with grace; not with {d} meats, which have not profited them that have been {e} occupied therein.

      (6) He speaks to those who mixed an external worship and especially the difference of meats with the gospel which he clearly condemns as repugnant to the benefit of Christ.
      (d) By this one form which concerns the difference of clean and unclean meat, we have to understand all the ceremonial worship.
      (e) Who observed the difference of them superstitiously.

Heb 13:10

13:10 {7} We have an {f} altar, whereof they have no right to eat which {g} serve the tabernacle.

      (7) He refutes their error by an apt and fit comparison. They who in times past served the Tabernacle, did not eat of the sacrifices whose blood was brought for sin into the holy place by the high priest. Moreover these sacrifices represented Christ our offering. Therefore they cannot be partakers of him if they serve the tabernacle, that is, stand in the service of the law: but let us not be ashamed to follow him out of Jerusalem, from which he was cast out and suffered for in this also Christ, who is the truth, answers that type in that he suffered outside the gate.
      (f) By the altar, he means the offerings.
      (g) Of which they cannot be partakers, who stubbornly retain the rites of the law.

Heb 13:13

13:13 {8} Let us go forth therefore unto him without the camp, bearing his reproach.

      (8) He goes on further in this comparison, and shows that this also signified to us, that the godly followers of Christ must go out of the world bearing his cross.

Heb 13:15

13:15 {9} By him therefore let us offer the sacrifice of praise to God continually, that is, the fruit of [our] lips giving thanks to his name.

      (9) Now that those physical sacrifices are taken away, he teaches us that the true sacrifices of confession remain, which consist partly in giving thanks, and partly in liberality, with which sacrifices indeed God is now delighted.

Heb 13:17

13:17 {10} Obey them that have the rule over you, and submit yourselves: for they watch for your souls, as they that must give account, that they may do it with joy, and not with grief: for that [is] unprofitable for you.

      (10) We must obey the warnings and admonitions of our ministers and elders, who watch for the salvation of the souls that are committed to them.

Heb 13:18

13:18 {11} Pray for us: for we trust we have a good conscience, in all things willing to live honestly.

      (11) The last part of this epistle, in which he commends his ministry to the Hebrews, and wishes them steadfastness and increase of graces from the Lord: and excuses himself in that he has used but few words to comfort them having spent the epistle in disputing: and salutes certain brethren in a familiar and friendly manner.

Heb 13:21

13:21 Make you {h} perfect in every good work to do his will, {i} working in you that which is wellpleasing in his sight, through Jesus Christ; to whom [be] glory for ever and ever. Amen.

      (h) Make you fit or suitable.
      (i) From this comes that saying of the fathers, that God crowns his work in us.

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