1 Samuel
2 Samuel
1 Kings
2 Kings
1 Chronicles
2 Chronicles

Song of Songs



1 Corinthians
2 Corinthians
1 Thessalonians
2 Thessalonians
1 Timothy
2 Timothy

1 Peter
2 Peter
1 John
2 John
3 John

Revelation 1-11
Revelation 12-22

Notes on First Corinthians
From the Original 1599 Geneva Bible Notes

1Co 1:1

1:1 Paul, {1} called [to be] an {2} apostle of Jesus Christ through the will of God, and {3} Sosthenes [our] brother,

      (1) The inscription of the epistle, in which he mainly tries to procure the good will of the Corinthians towards him, yet nonetheless in such a way that he always lets them know that he is the servant of God and not of men.
      (2) If he is an apostle, then he must be heard, even though he sometimes sharply reprehends them, seeing he has not his own cause in hand, but is a messenger that brings the commandments of Christ.
      (3) He has Sosthenes with himself, that this doctrine might be confirmed by two witnesses.

1Co 1:2

1:2 {4} Unto the church of God which is at Corinth, to them that are {5} sanctified in {a} Christ Jesus, {b} called [to be] saints, with all that in every place {c} call upon the name of Jesus Christ our Lord, both theirs and ours:

      (4) It is a church of God, even though it has great faults in it, as it obeys those who admonish them.
      (5) A true definition of the universal church, which is:
      (a) The Father sanctifies us, that is to say, separates us from the wicked in giving us to his Son, that he may be in us, and we in him.
      (b) Whom God by his gracious goodness and absolute love has separated for himself: or whom God has called to holiness: the first of these two expositions, shows from where our sanctification comes: and the second shows to what end it strives for.
      (c) He is correctly said to call on God who cries to the Lord when he is in danger, and craves help from his hands, and by the figure of speech synecdoche, it is taken for all the service of God: and therefore to call upon Christ's name, is to acknowledge and take him for very God.

1Co 1:3

1:3 {6} Grace [be] unto you, and peace, from God our Father, and [from] the Lord Jesus Christ.

      (6) The foundation and the life of the Church is Christ Jesus given from the Father.

1Co 1:4

1:4 {7} I thank my God always on your behalf, for the grace of God which is given you by Jesus Christ;

      (7) Going about to condemn many vices, he begins with a true commendation of their virtues, lest he might seem after to descend to chiding, being moved with malice or envy: yet in such a way that he refers all to God as the author of them, and that in Christ, that the Corinthians might be more ashamed to profane and abuse the holy gifts of God.

1Co 1:5

1:5 That in every thing ye are enriched by him, {8} in {d} all utterance, and [in] all knowledge;

      (8) He refers to that by name which they abused the most.
      (d) Seeing that while we live here we know but in part, and prophesy in part, this word "all" must be limited by the present state of the faithful: and by "utterance" he does not mean a vain kind of babbling, but the gift of holy eloquence, which the Corinthians abused.

1Co 1:6

1:6 {9} Even as the testimony of Christ was {e} confirmed in you:

      (9) He shows that the true use of these gifts consists in this, that the mighty power of Christ might be set forth in them, that hereafter it might evidently appear how wickedly they abused them for glory and ambition.
      (e) By those excellent gifts of the Holy Spirit.

1Co 1:7

1:7 So that ye come behind in no gift; {10} waiting for the {f} coming of our Lord Jesus Christ:

      (10) He says along the way that there is no reason why they should be so pleased in those gifts which they had received, seeing that those were nothing in comparison of those which are to be looked for.
      (f) He speaks of the last coming of Christ.

1Co 1:8

1:8 {11} Who shall also confirm you unto the end, [that ye may be] {g} blameless in the day of our Lord Jesus Christ.

      (11) He testifies that he hopes that things go well with them from now on, that they may more patiently abide his reprehension afterward. And yet together in addition shows, that the beginning as well as the accomplishing of our salvation is only the work of God.
      (g) He calls them blameless, not whom man never found fault with, but with whom no man can justly find fault, that is to say, those who are in Christ Jesus, in whom there is no condemnation. See Lu 1:6 .

1Co 1:9

1:9 God [is] {h} faithful, by whom ye were called unto the fellowship of his Son Jesus Christ our Lord.

      (h) True and constant, who not only calls us, but also gives to us the gift of perseverance.

1Co 1:10

1:10 {12} Now I beseech you, brethren, by the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that {13} ye all speak the same thing, and [that] there be no divisions among you; but [that] ye be {i} perfectly joined together in the same mind and in the same judgment.

      (12) Having made an end of the preface, he comes to the matter itself, beginning with a most grave testimony, as though they should hear Christ himself speaking, and not Paul.
      (13) The first part of this epistle, in which his purpose is found, to call back the Corinthians to brotherly harmony, and to take away all occasion of discord. So then this first part concerns the taking away of divisions. Now a division occurs when men who otherwise agree and consent together in doctrine, yet separate themselves from one another.
      (i) Knit together, as a body that consists of all its parts, fitly knit together.

1Co 1:11

1:11 {14} For it hath been declared unto me of you, my brethren, by them [which are of the house] of Chloe, that there are contentions among you.

      (14) He begins his reprehension and chiding by taking away an objection, because he understood from good witnesses that there were many factions among them. And in addition he declares the cause of dissentions, because some depended on one teacher, some on another, and some were so addicted to themselves that they neglected all teachers and learned men, calling themselves the disciples of Christ alone, completely ignoring their teachers.

1Co 1:12

1:12 Now {k} this I say, that every one of you saith, I am of Paul; and I of Apollos; and I of Cephas; and I of Christ.

      (k) The matter I would say to you is this.

1Co 1:13

1:13 {15} Is Christ divided? was {16} Paul crucified for you? or were ye {17} baptized in the name of Paul?

      (15) The first reason why divisions ought to be avoided: because Christ seems by that means to be divide and torn in pieces, who cannot be the head of two different and disagreeing bodies, being himself one.
      (16) Another reason: because they cannot without great injury to God so depend on men as on Christ: which thing those no doubt do who allow whatever some man speaks, and do it for their own sakes: as these men allowed one and the very same Gospel being uttered by one man, and did loathe it being uttered by another man. So that these factions were called by the names of their teachers. Now Paul sets aside his own name, not simply to grieve no man, but also to show that he does not plead his own cause.
      (17) The third reason taken from the form and end of baptism, in which we make a promise to Christ, calling also on the name of the Father, and the Holy Spirit. Therefore although a man does not fall from the doctrine of Christ, yet if he depends upon certain teachers, and despises others, he forsakes Christ: for if he holds Christ as his only master, he would hear him, no matter who Christ taught by.

1Co 1:14

1:14 {18} I thank God that I baptized none of you, but Crispus and Gaius;

      (18) He protests that he speaks so much the more boldly of these things, because through God's providence, he is void of all suspicion of gathering disciples to himself, and taking them from others. By which we may understand, that not the scholars only, but the teachers also are here reprehended, who gathered flocks separately and for themselves.

1Co 1:17

1:17 {19} For Christ sent me not to baptize, but to preach the gospel: {20} not with {l} wisdom of words, lest the {21} cross of Christ should be made of none effect.

      (19) The taking away of an objection: that he gave not himself to baptize many amongst them: not for the contempt of baptism, but because he was mainly occupied in delivering the doctrine, and committed those that received his doctrine to others to be baptized. And so he declared sufficiently how far he was from all ambition: whereas on the other hand they, whom he reprehends, as though they gathered disciples to themselves and not to Christ, bragged most ambitiously of numbers, which they had baptized.
      (20) Now he turns himself to the teachers themselves, who pleased themselves in brave and glory-seeking eloquence, to the end that they might draw more disciples after them. He openly confesses that he was not similar to them, opposing gravely, as it became an apostle, his example against their perverse judgments: so that this is another place in this epistle with regard to the observing of a godly simplicity both in words and sentences in teaching the Gospel.
      (l) With eloquence: which Paul casts off from himself not only as unnecessary, but also as completely contrary to the office of his apostleship: and yet Paul had this kind of eloquence, but it was heavenly, not of man, and void of fancy words.
      (21) The reason why he did not use the pomp of words and fancy speech: because it was God's will to bring the world to his obedience by that way, by which the most foolish among men might understand that this work was done by God himself, without the skill of man. Therefore as salvation is set forth to us in the Gospel by the cross of Christ, which nothing is more contemptible than, and more far from life, so God would have the manner of the preaching of the cross, most different from those means with which men do use to draw and entice others, either to hear or believe: therefore it pleased him by a certain kind of most wise folly, to triumph over the most foolish wisdom of the world, as he had said before by Isaiah that he would. And by this we may gather that both these teachers who were puffed up with ambitious eloquence, and also their hearers, strayed far away from the goal and mark of their calling.

1Co 1:18

1:18 For the {m} preaching of the cross is to them that perish foolishness; but unto us which are saved it is the {n} power of God.

      (m) The preaching of Christ crucified, or the type of speech which we use.
      (n) It is that in which he declares his marvellous power in saving his elect, which would not so evidently appear if it depended upon any help of man, for if it did man might attribute that to himself which is to be attributed only to the cross of Christ.

1Co 1:19

1:19 {22} For it is written, I will destroy the wisdom of the wise, and will bring to nothing the understanding of the prudent.

      (22) The apostle proves that this should not seem strange, seeing that it was foretold so long before, and declares further that God often punishes the pride of the world in such a way, which so pleases itself in its own wisdom: and therefore that it is vain, indeed a thing of no value, and such as God rejects as unprofitable, which they so carefully laboured for, and considered to be so important.

1Co 1:20

1:20 Where [is] the wise? where [is] the {o} scribe? where [is] the {p} disputer of this world? hath not God made foolish the wisdom of this world?

      (o) Where are you, O you learned fellow, and you that spend your days in turning your books?
      (p) You that spend all your time in seeking out the secret things of this world, and in expounding all hard questions: and thus he triumphs against all the men of this world, for there was not one of them that could so much as dream of this secret and hidden mystery.

1Co 1:21

1:21 {23} For after that in the {q} wisdom of God the {r} world by wisdom knew not God, {24} it pleased God by the {s} foolishness of preaching to save them that believe.

      (23) He shows that the pride of men was worthily punished by God, because they could not behold God, as they properly should have, in the most clear mirror of the wisdom of the world, and this wisdom is the workmanship of the world.
      (q) By the world he means all men who are not born again, but remain as they were, when they were first born.
      (r) In the workmanship of this world, which has the marvellous wisdom of God engraved on it, so that every man may behold it.
      (24) The goodness of God is wonderful, for while he goes about to punish the pride of this world, he is very provident and careful for the salvation of it, and teaches men to become fools, so that they may be wise to God.
      (s) So he calls the preaching of the Gospel, as the enemies supposed it to be: but in the mean time he taunts those very sharply who had rather charge God with folly than acknowledge their own, and crave pardon for it.

1Co 1:22

1:22 {25} For the Jews require a sign, and the Greeks seek after wisdom:

      (25) A declaration of that which he said: that the preaching of the Gospel is foolish. It is foolish, he says, to those whom God has not endued with new light, that is to say, to all men being considered in themselves: for the Jews require miracles, and the Greeks arguments, which they may comprehend by their intellect and wisdom: and therefore they do not believe the Gospel, and also mock it. Nonetheless, in this foolish preaching there is the great power and wisdom of God, but such that only those who are called perceive: God showing most plainly, that even then when mad men think him most foolish, he is far wiser than they are, and that he surmounts all their might and power, when he uses most vile and abject things, as it has appeared in the fruit of the preaching of the Gospel.

1Co 1:26

1:26 {26} For ye see your {t} calling, brethren, how that not many wise men {u} after the flesh, not many mighty, not many noble, [are called]:

      (26) A confirmation taken from those things which came to pass at Corinth, where the church especially consisted of the lowly and common people, insomuch that the philosophers of Greece were driven to shame when they saw that they could do nothing with their wisdom and eloquence in comparison with the apostles, whom nonetheless they called idiots and unlearned. And in this he beats down their pride: for God did not prefer them before those noble and wise men so that they should be proud, but that they might be constrained, whether they wished to or not, to rejoice in the Lord, by whose mercy, although they were the most abject of all, they had obtained in Christ both this wisdom as well as all things necessary to salvation.
      (t) What way the Lord has taken in calling you.
      (u) After that type of wisdom which men consider to be important, as though there were none else: but because they are carnal, they do not know spiritual wisdom.

1Co 1:28

1:28 And base things of the world, and things which are despised, hath God chosen, [yea], and things which {x} are not, to bring to {y} nought things that are:

      (x) Which in man's judgment are almost nothing.
      (y) To show that they are vain and unprofitable, and worth nothing. See Geneva "Ro 3:31"

1Co 1:29

1:29 That no {z} flesh should glory in his presence.

      (z) "Flesh" is often, as we see, taken for the whole man: and he uses this word "flesh" very well, to contrast the weak and miserable condition of man with the majesty of God.

1Co 1:30

1:30 But {a} of him are ye in Christ Jesus, {27} who of God is made unto us wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption:

      (a) Whom he cast down before, now he lifts up, indeed, higher than all men: yet in such a way that he shows them that all their worthiness is outside of themselves, that is, it stands in Christ, and that of God.
      (27) He teaches that especially and above all things, the Gospel ought not to be condemned, seeing that it contains the principal things that are to be desired, that is, true wisdom, the true way to obtain righteousness, the true way to live honestly and godly, and the true deliverance from all miseries and calamities.

1Co 1:31

1:31 That, according as it is written, {b} He that glorieth, let him glory in the Lord.

      (b) Let him yield all to God and give him thanks: and so by this place is man's free will beaten down, which the papists so dream about.

1Co 2:1

2:1 And {1} I, brethren, when I came to you, came not with excellency of speech or of wisdom, declaring unto you the {a} testimony of God.

      (1) He returns to 1Co 1:17 , that is to say, to his own example: confessing that he did not use among them either excellency of words or enticing speech of man's wisdom, but with great simplicity of speech both knew and preached Jesus Christ crucified, humbled and abject, with regard to the flesh.
      (a) The Gospel.

1Co 2:2

2:2 For I {b} determined not to know any thing among you, save Jesus Christ, and him crucified.

      (b) I did not profess any knowledge but the knowledge of Christ and him crucified.

1Co 2:3

2:3 And I was with you in {c} weakness, and in fear, and in much trembling.

      (c) He contrasts weakness with excellency of words, and therefore joins with it fear and trembling, which are companions of true modesty, not such fear and trembling as terrify the conscience, but such as are contrary to vanity and pride.

1Co 2:4

2:4 And my speech and my preaching [was] not with enticing words of man's wisdom, {2} but in {d} demonstration of the Spirit and of power:

      (2) He turns now to the commendation of his ministry, which he had granted to his adversaries: for his strength and power, which they knew well enough, was so much the more excellent because it had no worldly help behind it.
      (d) By "demonstration" he means such a proof as is made by reasons both certain and necessary.

1Co 2:5

2:5 {3} That your faith should not stand in the wisdom of men, but in the power of God.

      (3) And he tells the Corinthians that he did it for their great profit, because they might by this know manifestly that the Gospel was from heaven. Therefore he privately rebukes them, because in vainly seeking to be noticed, they willingly deprived themselves of the greatest help of their faith.

1Co 2:6

2:6 {4} Howbeit we speak wisdom among them that are {e} perfect: yet not the wisdom of this world, nor of the {f} princes of this world, that come to nought:

      (4) Another argument taken from the nature of the thing, that is, of the Gospel, which is true wisdom, but known only to those who are desirous of perfection: and it is unsavoury to those who otherwise excel in the world, but yet vainly and frailly.
      (e) They are called perfect here, not who had already gotten perfection, but those who are striving for it, as in Php 3:15 : so that perfect is contrasted with weak.
      (f) Those that are wiser, richer, or mightier than other men are.

1Co 2:7

2:7 {5} But we speak the wisdom of God in a {g} mystery, [even] the hidden [wisdom], {6} which God ordained before the world unto our glory:

      (5) He shows the reason why this wisdom cannot be perceived by those excellent worldly intellects: that is, because it is indeed so deep that they cannot attain to it.
      (g) Which men could not so much as dream of.
      (6) He takes away an objection: if it is so hard, when and how is it known? God, he says, determined with himself from the beginning, that which his purpose was to bring forth at this time out of his secrets, for the salvation of men.

1Co 2:8

2:8 {7} Which none of the princes of this world knew: for had they known [it], they would not have crucified the {h} Lord of glory.

      (7) He takes away another objection: why then, how comes it to pass that this wisdom was so rejected by men of the highest authority, that they crucified Christ himself? Paul answers: because they did not know Christ such as he was.
      (h) That mighty God, full of true majesty and glory: now this place has in it a most evident proof of the divinity of Christ, and of the joining of the two natures in one in him, which has this in it, that which is proper to the manhood alone is confirmed of the Godhead joined with the manhood. This type of speech is called, by the old fathers, a making common of things belonging to someone with another to whom they do not belong.

1Co 2:9

2:9 {8} But as it is written, Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the {i} heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for them that love him.

      (8) Another objection: but how could it be that those intelligent men could not perceive this wisdom? Paul answers: because we preach those things which surpass all man's understanding.
      (i) Man cannot so much as think of them, much less conceive them with his senses.

1Co 2:10

2:10 {9} But God hath revealed [them] unto us by his Spirit: for the Spirit {k} searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God.

      (9) A question: if it surpasses the capacity of men, how can it be understood by any man, or how can you declare and preach it? By a special enlightening of God's Spirit, with which whoever is inspired, he can enter even into the very secrets of God.
      (k) There is nothing so secret and hidden in God, but the Spirit of God penetrates it.

1Co 2:11

2:11 {10} For what man knoweth the things of a man, save the {l} spirit of man which is in him? even so the things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God.

      (10) He sets it forth in comparison, which he spoke by the inspiration of the Sprit. As the power of man's intellect searches out things pertaining to man, so does our mind by the power of the Holy Spirit understand heavenly things.
      (l) The mind of man which is endued with the ability to understand and judge.

1Co 2:12

2:12 Now we have received, not the {m} spirit of the world, but the spirit which is of God; {11} that we might {n} know the things that are freely given to us of God.

      (m) The Spirit which we have received does not teach us things of this world, but lifts us up to God, and this verse teaches us the opposite of what the papists teach: what faith is, from where it comes, and from what power it originates.
      (11) That which he spoke generally, he confines now to those things which God has opened to us of our salvation in Christ: so that no man should separate the Spirit from the preaching of the word and Christ: or should think that those fanciful men are governed by the Spirit of God, who wandering besides the word, thrust upon us their vain imaginations for the secrets of God.
      (n) This word "know" is taken here in its proper sense for true knowledge, which the Spirit of God works in us.

1Co 2:13

2:13 {12} Which things also we speak, not in the words which man's wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth; {o} comparing spiritual things with spiritual.

      (12) Now he returns to his purpose, and concludes the argument which he began in verse six 1Co 2:6 , and it is this: the words must be applied to the matter, and the matter must be set forth with words which are proper and appropriate for it: now this wisdom is spiritual and not from man, and therefore it must be delivered by a spiritual type of teaching, and not by enticing words of man's eloquence, so that the simple, and yet wonderful majesty of the Holy Spirit may appear in it.
      (o) Applying the words to the matter, that is, that as we teach spiritual things, so must our type of teaching be spiritual.

1Co 2:14

2:14 {13} But the {p} natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God: for they are foolishness unto him: neither can he know [them], because they are {q} spiritually discerned.

      (13) Again he anticipates an offence or stumbling block: how does it come to pass that so few allow these things? This is not to be marvelled at, the apostle says, seeing that men in their natural powers (as they call them) are not endued with that faculty by which spiritual things are discerned
      (which faculty comes another way) and therefore they consider spiritual wisdom as folly: and it is as if he should say, "It is no marvel that blind men cannot judge of colours, seeing that they lack the light of their eyes, and therefore light is to them as darkness."
      (p) The man that has no further light of understanding, than that which he brought with him, even from his mother's womb, as Jude defines it; Jude 19 .
      (q) By the power of the Holy Spirit.

1Co 2:15

2:15 {14} But he that is spiritual {r} judgeth all things, yet {15} he himself is judged of {s} no man.

      (14) He amplifies the matter by opposites.
      (r) Understands and discerns.
      (15) The wisdom of the flesh, Paul says, determines nothing certainly, no not in its own affairs, much less can it discern strange, that is, spiritual things. But the Spirit of God, with which spiritual men are endued, can by no means be deceived, and therefore be reproved by any man.
      (s) Of no man: for when the prophets are judged of the prophets, it is the Spirit that judges, and not the man.

1Co 2:16

2:16 {16} For who hath known the mind of the Lord, that he may {t} instruct him? But we have {u} the mind of Christ.

      (16) A reason from the former saying: for he is called spiritual, who has learned that by the power of the Spirit, which Christ has taught us. Now if that which we have learned from that Master could be reproved by any man, he must be wiser than God: whereupon it follows that they are not only foolish, but also wicked, who think that they can devise something that is either more perfect, or that they can teach the wisdom of God a better way than those knew or taught who were undoubtedly endued with God's Spirit.
      (t) Lay his head to his, and teach him what he should do.
      (u) We are endued with the Spirit of Christ, who opens to us those secrets which by all other means are unsearchable, and also any truth at all.

1Co 3:1

3:1 And {1} I, brethren, could not speak unto you as unto spiritual, but as unto {a} carnal, [even] as unto babes in Christ.

      (1) Having declared the worthiness of heavenly wisdom, and of the Gospel, and having generally condemned the blindness of man's mind, now at length he applies it particularly to the Corinthians, calling them carnal, that is, those in whom the flesh still prevails against the Spirit. And he brings a twofold testimony of it: first, because he had proved them to be such, in so much that he dealt with them as he would with ignorant men, and those who are almost babes in the doctrine of godliness, and second, because they showed indeed by these dissensions, which sprang up by reason of the ignorance of the power of the Spirit, and heavenly wisdom, that they had profited very little or nothing.
      (a) He calls them carnal, who are as yet ignorant, and therefore to express it better, he calls them "babes".

1Co 3:2

3:2 I have fed you with milk, and not with {b} meat: for hitherto ye were not {c} able [to bear it], neither yet now are ye able.

      (b) Substantial meat, or strong meat.
      (c) To be fed by me with substantial meat: therefore as the Corinthians grew up in age, so the apostle nourished them by teaching, first with milk, then with strong meat. The difference was only in the manner of teaching.

1Co 3:3

3:3 For ye are yet carnal: for whereas [there is] among you envying, and strife, and divisions, are ye not carnal, and walk as {d} men?

      (d) Using the tools of man's intellect and judgment.

1Co 3:5

3:5 {2} Who then is Paul, and who [is] Apollos, but ministers by whom ye believed, even as the Lord gave to every man?

      (2) After he has sufficiently reprehended ambitious teachers, and those who foolishly esteemed them, now he shows how the true ministers are to be esteemed, that we do not attribute to them more or less than we ought to do. Therefore he teaches us that they are those by whom we are brought to faith and salvation, but yet as the ministers of God, and such as do nothing of themselves, but God so working by them as it pleases him to furnish them with his gifts. Therefore we do not have to regard or consider what minister it is that speaks, but what is spoken: and we must depend only upon him who speaks by his servants.

1Co 3:6

3:6 {3} I have planted, Apollos watered; but God gave the increase.

      (3) He beautifies the former sentence, with two similarities: first comparing the company of the faithful to a field which God makes fruitful, when it is sown and watered through the labour of his servants. Second, be comparing it to a house, which indeed the Lord builds, but by the hands of his workmen, some of whom he uses in laying the foundation, others in building it up. Now, both these similarities are for this purpose, to show that all things are wholly accomplished only by God's authority and might, so that we must only have an eye to him. Moreover, although God uses some in the better part of the work, we must not therefore condemn others, in respect of them, and much less may we divide or set them apart (as these factious men did) seeing that all of them labour in God's business. They work in such a way, that they serve to finish the very same work, although by a different manner of working, in so much that they all need one another's help.

1Co 3:9

3:9 For we are {e} labourers together with God: ye are God's husbandry, [ye are] God's building.

      (e) Serving under him: now they who serve under another do nothing by their own strength, but as it is given them of grace, which grace makes them fit for that service. See 1Co 15:10, 2Co 3:6 . All the increase that comes by their labour proceeds from God in such a way that no part of the praise of it may be given to the servant.

1Co 3:10

3:10 According to the grace of God which is given unto me, as a wise masterbuilder, I have laid the foundation, and another buildeth thereon. {4} But let every man take heed how he buildeth thereupon.

      (4) Now he speaks to the teachers themselves, who succeeded him in the church of Corinth, and in this regard to all that were after or will be pastors of congregations, seeing that they succeed into the labour of the apostles, who were planters and chief builders. Therefore he warns them first that they do not persuade themselves that they may build after their own fantasy, that is, that they may propound and set forth anything in the Church, either in matter, or in type of teaching, different from the apostles who were the chief builders.

1Co 3:11

3:11 {5} For other foundation can no man lay than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ.

      (5) Moreover, he shows what this foundation is, that is, Christ Jesus, from whom they may not turn away in the least amount in the building up of this building.

1Co 3:12

3:12 {6} Now if any man build upon this foundation gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, stubble;

      (6) Thirdly he shows that they must take heed that the upper part of the building is answerable to the foundation. That is that admonitions, exhortations, and whatever pertains to the edifying of the flock, is answerable to the doctrine of Christ, in the matter as well as in form. This doctrine is compared to gold, silver, and precious stones: of which material Isaiah also and John in the Revelation build the heavenly city. And to these are the opposites, wood, hay, stubble, that is to say, curious and vain questions or decrees: and to be short, all the type of teaching which serves to vain show. For false doctrines, of which he does not speak here, are not correctly said to be built upon this foundation, unless perhaps in show only.

1Co 3:13

3:13 {7} Every man's work shall be made manifest: for the day shall declare it, because it shall be revealed by fire; and the fire shall try every man's work of what sort it is.

      (7) He testifies, as indeed it truly is, that all are not good builders, not even all of those who stand upon this one and only foundation. However, this work of evil builders, he says, stands for a season, yet it will not always deceive, because the light of the truth appearing at length, as day, will dissolve this darkness, and show what it is. And as that stuff is tried by the fire, whether it is good or not, so will God in his time, by the touch of his Spirit and word, try all buildings, and so will it come to pass, that those which are found pure and sound, will still continue so, to the praise of the workmen. But they that are otherwise will be consumed and vanish away, and so will the workman be frustrated of the hope of his labour, who pleased himself in a thing of nothing.

1Co 3:15

3:15 If any man's work shall be burned, he shall suffer loss: but {8} he himself shall be saved; yet so as by fire.

      (8) He does not take away the hope of salvation from the unskilful and foolish builders, who hold fast the foundation, of which sort were those rhetoricians, rather than the pastors of Corinth. However, he adds an exception, that they must nonetheless suffer this trial of their work, and also abide the loss of their vain labours.

1Co 3:16

3:16 {9} Know ye not that ye are the temple of God, and [that] the Spirit of God dwelleth in you?

      (9) Continuing still in the metaphor of building, he teaches us that this ambition is not only vain, but also sacrilegious: for he says that the Church is as it were the Temple of God, which God has as it were consecrated to himself by his Spirit. Then turning himself to these ambitious men, he shows that they profane the Temple of God, because those vain arts in which they please themselves so much are, as he teaches, many pollutions of the holy doctrine of God, and the purity of the Church. This wickedness will not go unpunished.

1Co 3:17

3:17 If any man {f} defile the temple of God, him shall God destroy; for the temple of God is holy, which [temple] ye are.

      (f) Defiles it and makes it unclean, being holy: and surely they do defile it, by Paul's judgment, who by fleshly eloquence defile the purity of the Gospel.

1Co 3:18

3:18 {10} Let no man deceive himself. If any man among you seemeth to be wise in this world, let him become a fool, that he may be wise.

      (10) He concludes by the opposite, that they profess pure wisdom in the Church of God, who refuse and cast away all those vanities of men. Further, if they are mocked by the world, it is sufficient for them that they are wise according to the wisdom of God, and as he will have them to be wise.

1Co 3:19

3:19 For the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God. For it is written, He {g} taketh the wise in their own craftiness.

      (g) Be they ever so crafty, yet the Lord will take them when he will discover their treachery.

1Co 3:21

3:21 {11} Therefore let no man {h} glory in men. For all things are {i} yours;

      (11) He returns to the proposition of the second verse, first warning the hearers, that from now on they do not esteem as lords those whom God has appointed to be ministers and not lords of their salvation. This is done by those that depend upon men, and not upon God that speaks by them.
      (h) Please himself.
      (i) Helps, appointed for your benefit.

1Co 3:22

3:22 Whether Paul, or Apollos, or Cephas, or the {12} world, or life, or death, or things present, or things to come; all are yours;

      (12) He passes from the persons to the things themselves, that his argument may be more forcible. Indeed, he ascends from Christ to the Father, to show that we rest ourselves not in Christ himself, in that he is man, but because he carries us up even to the Father, as Christ witnesses of himself everywhere that he was sent by his Father, that by this band we may be all united with God himself.

1Co 4:1

4:1 Let {1} a {a} man so account of us, as of the ministers of Christ, and stewards of the mysteries of God.

      (1) He concludes the duty of the hearers towards their ministers: that they do not esteem them as lords. Yet nonetheless they are to give ear to them, as to those that are sent from Christ. Sent I say to this end and purpose, that they may receive as it were at their hands the treasure of salvation which is drawn out of the secrets of God.
      (a) Every man.

1Co 4:2

4:2 {2} Moreover it is required in stewards, that a man be found faithful.

      (2) Last of all, he warns the ministers that they also do not behave themselves as lords, but as faithful servants, because they must render an account of their stewardship to God.

1Co 4:3

4:3 {3} But with me it is a very small thing that I should be judged of you, {4} or of man's {b} judgment: yea, {5} I judge not mine own self.

      (3) In reprehending others, he sets himself for an example, and anticipates an objection. Using the gravity of an apostle, he shows that he does not care for the contrary judgments that those have of him, in that they esteemed him as a vile person, because he did not set forth himself as they did. And he brings good reasons why he was not moved with the judgments which they had of him.
      (4) First, because that which men judge in these cases of their own brains is not to be considered any more than when the unlearned judge of wisdom.
      (b) Literally, "day", after the manner of Cilician speech.
      (5) Secondly, he says, how can you judge how much or how little I am to be made responsible for, seeing that I myself who know myself better than you do, and who dare profess that I have walked in my calling with a good conscience, dare not yet nonetheless claim anything to myself. Nonetheless, I know that I am not blameless: much less therefore should I flatter myself as you do.

1Co 4:4

4:4 For I know nothing by myself; yet am I not hereby justified: but he that judgeth me is the {c} Lord.

      (c) I submit myself to the Lord's judgment.

1Co 4:5

4:5 {6} Therefore judge nothing before the time, until the Lord come, who both will bring to light the hidden things of darkness, and will make manifest the counsels of the hearts: and then shall every man have {d} praise of God.

      (6) A third reason proceeding from a conclusion, as it were, out of the former reasons. It is God's office to esteem every man according to his value, because he knows the secrets of the heart, which men for the most part are ignorant of. Therefore this judgment does not pertain to you.
      (d) One could not be praised above the rest, without the others being blamed: and he mentions praise rather than lack of praise, because the beginning of this dispute was this, that they gave more to some men than was appropriate.

1Co 4:6

4:6 {7} And these things, brethren, I have in a figure transferred to myself and [to] Apollos for your sakes; that ye might learn {e} in us not to think [of men] above that which is written, that no one of you be puffed up for one against another.

      (7) Having rejected their judgment, he sets forth himself again as a singular example of modesty, as one who concealed in this epistle those factious teacher's names, did not hesitate to put down his own name and Apollos' in their place, and took upon him as it were their shame. And this shows how far was he from preferring himself to any.
      (e) By our example, who choose rather to take other men's faults upon us, than to find fault with any by name.

1Co 4:7

4:7 {8} For who maketh thee to differ [from another]? and what hast thou that thou didst not receive? now if thou didst receive [it], why dost thou glory, as if {f} thou hadst not received [it]?

      (8) He shows a good way to bridle pride. First, if you consider how it is wrong for you to exclude yourself from the number of others, seeing you are a man yourself. Second, if you consider that even though you have something more than other men have, yet you only have it by God's bountifulness. And what wise man is he that will brag of another's goodness, and that against God?
      (f) There is nothing then in us by nature that is worthy of commendation: but all that we have, we have it of grace, which the Pelegians and semi-Pelegians will not confess.

1Co 4:8

4:8 {9} Now ye are full, now ye are rich, ye have reigned as kings without us: and I would to God ye did reign, that we also might reign with you.

      (9) He descends to a most grave mockery, to cause those glory-seeking men to blush, even though they did not want to.

1Co 4:9

4:9 For I think that God hath set forth us the apostles last, as it were appointed to death: for we are made a {g} spectacle unto the world, and to angels, and to men.

      (g) He that thinks that Paul and the pope are alike, who lyingly boasts that he is his successor, let him compare the delicacies of the popish court with Paul's state as we see it here.

1Co 4:13

4:13 Being defamed, we intreat: we are made as the {h} filth of the world, [and are] the offscouring of all things unto this day.

      (h) Such as is gathered together by sweeping.

1Co 4:14

4:14 {10} I write not these things to shame you, but as my beloved sons I warn [you].

      (10) Moderating the sharpness of his mockery, he puts them in mind to remember of whom they were begotten in Christ, and that they should not doubt to follow him for an example. Even though he seems vile according to the outward show in respect of others, yet he is mighty by the efficacy of God's Spirit, as had been shown among themselves.

1Co 4:17

4:17 For this cause have I sent unto you Timotheus, who is my beloved son, and faithful in the Lord, who shall bring you into remembrance of my {i} ways which be in Christ, as I teach every where in every church.

      (i) What way and rule I follow everywhere in teaching the churches.

1Co 4:18

4:18 {11} Now some are puffed up, as though I would not come to you.

      (11) Last of all he descends also to apostolic threatenings, but yet chiding them as a father, lest by their disorder he was forced to come to punish some among them.

1Co 4:19

4:19 But I will come to you shortly, if the Lord will, and will know, not the {k} speech of them which are puffed up, but the power.

      (k) By words, he means their fancy and elaborate type of eloquence, which he contrasts with the power of the Holy Spirit.

1Co 4:21

4:21 {12} What will ye? shall I come unto you with a rod, or in love, and [in] the {l} spirit of meekness?

      (12) A passing over to another part of this epistle, in which he reprehends most sharply a very odious offence, showing the use of ecclesiastical correction.
      (l) Acting meekly towards you.

1Co 5:1

5:1 It is {1} reported commonly [that there is] fornication among you, and such fornication as is not so much as named among the Gentiles, that one should have his father's wife.

      (1) They are greatly to be reprehended who by allowing wickedness, set forth the Church of God to be mocked and scorned by infidels.

1Co 5:2

5:2 {2} And ye are puffed up, and have not rather mourned, that he that hath done this deed might be taken away from among you.

      (2) There are none more proud than they that least know themselves.

1Co 5:3

5:3 {3} For I verily, as absent in body, but present in {a} spirit, have judged already, as though I were present, [concerning] him that hath so done this deed,

      (3) Excommunication ought not to be committed to one man's power, but must be done by the authority of the whole congregation, after the matter is diligently examined.
      (a) In mind, thought, and will.

1Co 5:4

5:4 In the {b} name of our Lord Jesus Christ, when ye are gathered together, and my spirit, {4} with the power of our Lord Jesus Christ,

      (b) Calling upon Christ's name.
      (4) There is no doubt that the judgment is ratified in heaven, in which Christ himself sits as Judge.

1Co 5:5

5:5 {5} To {c} deliver such an one unto Satan for the {6} destruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus.

      (5) The one who is excommunicated is delivered to the power of Satan, in that he is cast out of the house of God.
      (c) What it is to be delivered to Satan the Lord himself declares when he says, "Let him be unto thee as a heathen and publican"; Mt 18:17 . That is to say, to be disfranchised and put out of the right and privileges of the city of Christ, which is the Church, outside of which Satan is lord and master.
      (6) The goal of excommunication is not to cast away the excommunicate that he should utterly perish, but that he may be saved, that is, that by this means his flesh may be tamed, that he may learn to live to the Spirit.

1Co 5:6

5:6 {7} Your glorying {d} [is] not good. Know ye not that a little leaven leaveneth the whole lump?

      (7) Another goal of excommunication is that others are not infected, and therefore it must of necessity be retained in the Church, so that one is not infected by the other.
      (d) Is nothing and not grounded upon good reason, as though you were excellent, and yet there is such wickedness found among you.

1Co 5:7

5:7 {8} Purge out therefore the old leaven, that ye may be a new {e} lump, as ye are unleavened. For even Christ our {f} passover is sacrificed for us:

      (8) By alluding to the ceremony of the passover, he exhorts them to cast out that unclean person from among them. In times past, he says, it was not lawful for those who celebrated the passover to eat unleavened bread, insomuch that he was held as unclean and unworthy to eat the passover, whoever had but tasted of leaven. Now our whole life must be as it were the feast of unleavened bread, in which all they that are partakers of that immaculate lamb which is slain, must cast out both of themselves, and also out of their houses and congregations, all impurity.
      (e) By lump he means the whole body of the Church, every member of which must be unleavened bread, that is, be renewed in spirit, by plucking away the old corruption.
      (f) The Lamb of our passover.

1Co 5:8

5:8 Therefore let us keep the {g} feast, not with old leaven, neither with the leaven of malice and wickedness; but with the unleavened [bread] of sincerity and truth.

      (g) Let us lead our whole life as it were a continual feast, honestly and uprightly.

1Co 5:9

5:9 {9} I wrote unto you in an epistle not to company with fornicators:

      (9) Now he speaks more generally: and that which he spoke before of the incestuous person he shows that it pertains to others, who are known to be wicked and those who through their wicked life are a slander to the Church, who ought also by lawful order be cast out of the community of the Church. And making mention of eating meals, either he means that feast of love at which the supper of the Lord was received, or else their common usage and manner of life. And this is to be properly understood, lest any man should think that either matrimony was broken by excommunication, or such duties hindered and cut off by it, as we owe one to another: children to their parents, subjects to their rulers, servants to their masters, and neighbour to neighbour, to win one another to God.

1Co 5:10

5:10 Yet not {h} altogether with the fornicators of this world, or with the covetous, or extortioners, or with idolaters; for then must ye needs go out of the world.

      (h) If you should utterly abstain from such men's company, you should go out of the world. Therefore I speak of those who are in the very bosom of the Church, who must be brought back into order by discipline, and not of those who are outside of the Church, with whom we must labour by all means possible, to bring them to Christ.

1Co 5:12

5:12 {10} For what have I to do to judge them also that are without? do not ye judge them that are within?

      (10) Those who are false brethren ought to be cast out of the congregation. As for those who are outside of it, they must be left to the judgment of God.

1Co 6:1

6:1 Dare {1} {a} any of you, having a matter against another, go to law {b} before the unjust, {2} and not before the saints?

      (1) The third question is of civil judgments. Whether it is lawful for one of the faithful to draw another of the faithful before the judgment seat of an infidel? He answers that is not lawful because it is an offence for the faithful to do this, for it is not evil in itself that a matter be brought before the judgment seat, even of an infidel.
      (a) As if he said, "Have you become so impudent, that you are not ashamed to make the Gospel a laughing stock to profane men?"
      (b) Before the unjust.
      (2) He adds that he does not forbid that one neighbour may go to law with another, if need so require, but yet under holy judges.

1Co 6:2

6:2 {3} Do ye not know that the saints shall judge the world? and if the world shall be judged by you, are ye unworthy to judge the smallest matters?

      (3) He gathers by a comparison that the faithful cannot seek to be judged by infidels, without great injury done to the saints, seeing that God himself will make the saints judges of the world, and of the devils, with his Son Christ. Much more ought they to judge these light and final causes which may be by equity, and good conscience determined.

1Co 6:4

6:4 {4} If then ye have {c} judgments of things pertaining to this life, set them to judge who are {d} least esteemed in the church.

      (4) The conclusion, in which he prescribes a remedy for this wrong: that is, if they end their private affairs between themselves by chosen arbiters out of the Church: for which matter and purpose, the least of you, he says, is sufficient. Therefore he does not condemn judgment seats, but shows what is expedient for the circumstance of the time, and that without any diminishing of the right of the magistrate. For he does not speak of judgments, which are practised between the faithful and the infidels, neither of public judgments, but of controversies which may be ended by private arbiters.
      (c) Courts and places of judgments.
      (d) Even the most abject among you.

1Co 6:5

6:5 {5} I speak to your shame. Is it so, that there is not a wise man among you? no, not one that shall be able to judge between his brethren?

      (5) He applies the general proposition to a particular, always calling them back to this, to take away from them the false opinion of their own excellency from where all these evils sprang.

1Co 6:7

6:7 {6} Now therefore there is utterly a {e} fault among you, because ye go to law one with another. {7} Why do ye not rather take wrong? why do ye not rather [suffer yourselves to] be defrauded?

      (6) Now he goes further also, and even though by granting them private arbiters out of the congregation of the faithful, he does not simply condemn, but rather establishes private judgments, so that they are exercise without offence. Yet he shows that if they were such as they ought to be, and as it were to be wished, they should not need to use that remedy either.
      (e) A weakness of mind which is said to be in those that allow themselves to be overcome by their lusts, and it is a fault that differs greatly from temperance and moderation: so that he nips those who could not endure an injury done to them.
      (7) This pertains chiefly to the other part of the reprehension, that is, that they went to law even under infidels, whereas they should rather have suffered any loss, than to have given that offence. But yet this is generally true, that we ought rather to depart from our right, than try the uttermost of the law hastily, and upon an affection to revenge an injury. But the Corinthians cared for neither, and therefore he says that they must repent, unless they will be shut out of the inheritance of God.

1Co 6:9

6:9 Know ye not that the unrighteous shall not inherit the kingdom of God? {8} Be not deceived: neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with mankind,

      (8) Now he prepares himself to pass over to the fourth treatise of this epistle, which concerns other matters, concerning this matter first, how men may well use a woman or not. And this question has three parts: fornication, matrimony, and a single life. As for fornication, he utterly condemns it. And marriage he commands to some, as a good and necessary remedy for them: to others he leaves is free. And others he dissuades from it, not as unlawful, but as inconvenient, and that not without exception. As for singleness of life (under which also I comprehend virginity) he enjoins it to no man: yet he persuades men to it, but not for itself, but for another respect, neither to all men, nor without exception. And being about to speak against fornication, he begins with a general reprehension of those vices, with which that rich and riotous city most abounded: warning and teaching them earnestly, that repentance is inseparable joined with forgiveness of sins, and sanctification with justification.

1Co 6:11

6:11 And such were some of you: but ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified in the {f} name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God.

      (f) In Jesus.

1Co 6:12

6:12 {9} {g} All things are lawful unto me, but all things are not expedient: all things are lawful for me, but I will not be brought under the {h} power of any.

      (9) Secondly, he shows that the Corinthians offend in small matters. First, because they abused them. Next, because they used indifferent things, without any discretion, seeing the use of them ought to be brought to the rule of charity. And that he does not use them correctly, who immoderately abuses them, and so becomes a slave to them.
      (g) Whatever: but this general word must be restrained to things that are indifferent.
      (h) He is in subjection to things that are indifferent, whoever he is that thinks he may not be without them. And this is a flattering type of slavery under a pretence of liberty, which seizes upon such men.

1Co 6:13

6:13 {10} Meats for the belly, and the belly for meats: but God shall destroy both it and them. Now the body [is] not for fornication, but for the Lord; and the Lord for the body.

      (10) Secondly, because they counted many things as indifferent which were of themselves unlawful, as fornication, which they numbered among mere natural and lawful desires, as well as food and drink. Therefore the apostle shows that they are utterly unlike: for foods, he says, were made for the necessary use of man's life which is not perpetual: for both foods, and all this manner of nourishing, are quickly abolished. But we must not so think of the uncleanness of fornication, for which the body is not made, but on the other hand is ordained to purity, as appears by this, that is consecrated to Christ, even as Christ also is given us by his Father to enliven our bodies with that power with which he also rose again.

1Co 6:15

6:15 {11} Know ye not that your bodies are the members of Christ? shall I then take the members of Christ, and make [them] the members of an harlot? God forbid.

      (11) A declaration of the former argument by opposites, and the application of it.

1Co 6:16

6:16 {12} What? know ye not that he which is joined to an harlot is one body? for {i} two, saith he, shall be one flesh.

      (12) A proof of the same argument: a harlot and Christ are completely contrary, so are the flesh and the Spirit. Therefore he that is one with a harlot (which is done by sexual intercourse with their bodies) cannot be one with Christ, which unity is pure and spiritual.
      (i) Moses does not speak these words about fornication, but about marriage: but seeing that fornication is the corruption of marriage, and both of them are a carnal and fleshly copulation, we cannot say that the apostle abuses his testimony. Again, Moses does not have this word "two", but it is very well expressed both here and in Mt 19:5 , because he speaks only of man and wife: whereupon the opinion of those that vouch it to be lawful to have many wives is overthrown: for he that companies with many, is broken as it were into many parts.

1Co 6:18

6:18 {13} Flee fornication. Every sin that a man doeth is without the body; but he that committeth fornication sinneth against his own body.

      (13) Another argument why fornication is to be avoided, because it defiles the body with a peculiar type of filthiness.

1Co 6:19

6:19 {14} What? know ye not that your body is the temple of the Holy Ghost [which is] in you, which ye have of God, and {15} ye are not your own?

      (14) The third argument: because a fornicator is sacrilegious, because our bodies are consecrated to God.
      (15) The fourth argument: because we are not our own men, to give ourselves to any other, much less to Satan and the flesh, seeing that God himself has bought us, and that with a great price, to the end that both in body and soul, we should serve to his glory.

1Co 7:1

7:1 Now {1} concerning the things {a} whereof ye wrote unto me: [It is] {b} good for a man not to touch a woman.

      (1) He teaches concerning marriage that although a single life has its advantages, which he will declare afterwards, yet that marriage is necessary for the avoiding of fornication. But so that neither one man may have many wives, nor any wife many husbands.
      (a) Concerning those matters about which you wrote to me.
      (b) Commodious, and (as we say) expedient. For marriage brings many griefs with it, and that by reason of the corruption of our first estate.

1Co 7:3

7:3 {2} Let the husband render unto the wife {c} due benevolence: and likewise also the wife unto the husband.

      (2) Secondly, he shows that the parties married must with singular affection entirely love one another.
      (c) The word "due" contains all types of benevolence, though he speaks more of one sort than of the other, in that which follows.

1Co 7:4

7:4 {3} The wife hath not power of her own body, but the husband: and likewise also the husband hath not power of his own body, but the wife.

      (3) Thirdly, he warns them, that they are in each other's power, with regard to the body, so that they may not defraud one another.

1Co 7:5

7:5 Defraud ye not one the other, {4} except [it be] with consent for a time, that ye may {d} give yourselves to fasting and prayer; and come together again, that Satan tempt you not for your incontinency.

      (4) He adds an exception: unless the one abstain from the other by mutual consent, that they may the better give themselves to prayer, in which nonetheless he warns them to consider what is expedient, lest by this long breaking off as it were from marriage, they are stirred up to incontinency.
      (d) Do nothing else.

1Co 7:6

7:6 {5} But I speak this by permission, [and] not of commandment.

      (5) Fifthly he teaches that marriage is not necessary for all men, but for those who do not have the gift of continency, and this gift is by a special grace of God.

1Co 7:7

7:7 For I {e} would that all men were even as I myself. But every man hath his proper gift of God, one after this manner, and another after that.

      (e) I wish.

1Co 7:8

7:8 {6} I say therefore to the {f} unmarried and widows, It is good for them if they abide even as I.

      (6) Sixthly, he gives the very same admonition touching the second marriage, that is, that a single life is to be allowed, but for those who have the gift of continency. Otherwise they ought to marry again, so that their conscience may be at peace.
      (f) This whole passage is completely against those who condemn second marriages.

1Co 7:9

7:9 But if they cannot contain, let them marry: for it is better to marry than to {g} burn.

      (g) So to burn with lust, that either the will yields to the temptation, or else we cannot call upon God with a peaceful conscience.

1Co 7:10

7:10 {7} And unto the married I command, [yet] not I, but the Lord, Let not the wife depart from [her] husband:

      (7) Seventhly, he forbids contentions and the granting of divorces (for he speaks not here of the fault of whoredom, which was then death even by the law of the Romans also) by which he affirms that the band of marriage is not dissolved, and that from Christ's mouth.

1Co 7:12

7:12 {8} But to the rest speak I, not the Lord: If any brother hath a wife that believeth not, and she be pleased to dwell with him, let him not put her away.

      (8) Eighthly, he affirms that those marriages which are already contracted between a faithful and an unfaithful or infidel, are firm: so that the faithful may not forsake the unfaithful.

1Co 7:14

7:14 {9} For the unbelieving husband is {h} sanctified by the {i} wife, and the unbelieving wife is sanctified by the {k} husband: else were your children unclean; but now are they {l} holy.

      (9) He answers an objection: but the faithful is defiled by the company of the unfaithful. The apostle denies that, and proves that the faithful man with good conscience may use the vessel of his unfaithful wife, by this, that their children which are born of them are considered holy or legitimate (that is, contained within the promise): for it is said to all the faithful, "I will be your God, and the God of your seed."
      (h) The godliness of the wife is of more force to cause their marriage to be considered holy, than the infidelity of the husband is to profane the marriage.
      (i) The infidel is not sanctified or made holy in his own person, but in respect of his wife, he is sanctified to her.
      (k) To the faithful husband.
      (l) The children are holy in the same sense that their parents are; that is they are sanctified, or lawfully espoused together, so the children born of them were in a civil and legal sense holy, that is, legitimate. (Ed.)

1Co 7:15

7:15 {10} But if the unbelieving depart, let him depart. A brother or a sister is not under bondage in {m} such [cases]: {11} but God hath called us to peace.

      (10) He answers a question: what if the unfaithful forsake the faithful? Then the faithful is free, he says, because he is forsaken by the unfaithful.
      (m) When any such thing happens.
      (11) Lest any man upon pretence of this liberty should give an occasion to the unfaithful to depart, he shows that marriage contracted with an infidel ought to be kept peaceably, that if it is possible the infidel may be won to the faith.

1Co 7:17

7:17 {12} But as God hath distributed to every man, as the Lord hath {n} called every one, so let him walk. And so ordain I in all churches.

      (12) Taking occasion by that which he said of the bondage and liberty of matrimony, he digresses to a general doctrine concerning the outward state and condition of man's life, as circumcision and uncircumcision, servitude and liberty. And he warns every man generally to live with a contented mind in the Lord, whatever state or condition he is in, because those outward things, as to be circumcised or uncircumcised, to be bond or free, are not of the substance (as they call it) of the kingdom of heaven.
      (n) Has bound him to a certain type of life.

1Co 7:18

7:18 {13} Is any man called being circumcised? let him not {o} become uncircumcised. Is any called in uncircumcision? let him not be circumcised.

      (13) Nonetheless he shows us that in these examples all are not of the same type: because circumcision is not simply of itself to be desired, but such as are bound may desire to be free. Therefore herein only they are equal that the kingdom of God consists not in them, and therefore these are no hindrance to obey God.
      (o) He is said to become uncircumcised, who by the help of a surgeon, recovers an upper skin. And this is done by drawing the skin with an instrument, to make it to cover the head. Celsus in book 7, chapter 25.

1Co 7:21

7:21 Art thou called [being] a servant? {p} care not for it: but if thou mayest be made free, use [it] rather.

      (p) As though this calling were too unworthy a calling for Christ.

1Co 7:22

7:22 For he that is called in the {q} Lord, [being] a servant, is the Lord's freeman: likewise also he that is called, [being] free, is Christ's servant.

      (q) He that is in the state of a servant, and is called to be a Christian.

1Co 7:23

7:23 {14} Ye are bought with a price; be not ye the servants of men.

      (14) He shows the reason of the unlikeness, because he that desired to be circumcised makes himself subject to man's tradition and not to God. And this may be much more understood of superstitions, which some do foolishly consider to as things indifferent.

1Co 7:24

7:24 {15} Brethren, let every man, wherein he is called, therein abide with {r} God.

      (15) A repetition of the general doctrine.
      (r) So purely and from the heart, that your doings may be approved before God.

1Co 7:25

7:25 {16} Now concerning virgins I have no commandment of the Lord: yet I give my {s} judgment, as {t} one that hath obtained mercy of the Lord to be faithful.

      (16) He commands virginity to no man, yet he persuades and praised it for another reason, that is, both for the necessity of the present time, because the faithful could scarce abide in any place, and use the commodities of this present life because of persecution. And therefore those who were not troubled with families, might be the readier, and also for the cares of this life, which marriage necessarily draws with it, so that they cannot but have their minds distracted: and this has place in women especially.
      (s) The circumstances considered, this I counsel you.
      (t) It is I that speak this which I am minded to speak: and the truth is I am a man, but yet of worthy credit, for I have obtained from the Lord to be such a one.

1Co 7:26

7:26 I suppose therefore that {u} this is good for the {x} present distress, [I say], that [it is] good for a man so to be.

      (u) To remain a virgin.
      (x) For the necessity which the saints are daily subject to, who are continually tossed up and down, so that their estate may seem most unfit for marriage, were it not that the weakness of the flesh forced them to it.

1Co 7:28

7:28 But and if thou marry, thou hast not sinned; and if a virgin marry, she hath not sinned. Nevertheless such shall have trouble in the {y} flesh: but I {z} spare you.

      (y) By the "flesh" he understands whatever things belong to this present life, for marriage brings with it many problems. So that he leans more to a single life, not because it is a service more agreeable to God than marriage is, but for those problems which (if it were possible) he would wish all men to be avoid, so that they might give themselves to God alone.
      (z) I would your weakness were provided for.

1Co 7:29

7:29 But this I say, brethren, the time [is] {a} short: it remaineth, that both they that have wives be as though they had none;

      (a) For we are now in the latter end of the world.

1Co 7:30

7:30 And they that {b} weep, as though they wept not; and they that rejoice, as though they rejoiced not; and they that buy, as though they possessed not;

      (b) By "weeping" the Hebrews understand all adversity, and by "joy", all prosperity.

1Co 7:31

7:31 And they that use this {c} world, as not abusing [it]: for the {d} fashion of this world passeth away.

      (c) Those things which God gives us here.
      (d) The guise, and shape, and fashion: by which he shows us that there is nothing in this world that continues.

1Co 7:33

7:33 But he that is married {e} careth for the things that are of the world, how he may please [his] wife.

      (e) Those that are married have their minds drawn here and there, and therefore if any man has the gift of continency, it is more advantageous for him to live alone. But those who are married may care for the things of the Lord also. Clement, Strom. 3.

1Co 7:34

7:34 There is difference [also] between a wife and a virgin. The unmarried woman careth for the things of the Lord, that she may be holy both in body and in {f} spirit: but she that is married careth for the things of the world, how she may please [her] husband.

      (f) Mind.

1Co 7:35

7:35 And this I speak for your own {g} profit; not that I may cast a snare upon you, but for that which is comely, and that ye may attend upon the Lord without distraction.

      (g) He means that he will force no man either to marry or not to marry, but to show them plainly what type of life is most advantageous.

1Co 7:36

7:36 {17} But if any man think that he behaveth himself uncomely toward his virgin, if she pass the flower of [her] age, and need so require, let him do what he will, he {h} sinneth not: let them marry.

      (17) Now he turns himself to the parents, in whose power and authority their children are, warning them that according to the former doctrine they consider what is proper and convenient for their children. That they neither deprive them of the necessary remedy against incontinency, nor force them to marry, if neither their will does lead them, nor any necessity urges them. And again he praises virginity, but of itself, and not in all.
      (h) He does well: for so he expounds it in 1Co 7:38 .

1Co 7:37

7:37 Nevertheless he that standeth stedfast in his {i} heart, having no {k} necessity, but hath power over his own will, and hath so decreed in his heart that he will keep his virgin, doeth well.

      (i) Resolved himself.
      (k) That the weakness of his daughter does not force him, or any other matter, that that he may safely still keep her a virgin.

1Co 7:38

7:38 So then he that giveth [her] in marriage doeth well; but he that giveth [her] not in marriage doeth {l} better.

      (l) Provides better for his children, and that not in just any way, but by reason of such conditions as are mentioned before.

1Co 7:39

7:39 {18} The wife is bound by the {m} law as long as her husband liveth; but if her husband be dead, she is at liberty to be married to whom she will; only in the {n} Lord.

      (18) That which he spoke of a widower, he speaks now of a widow, that is, that she may marry again, but that she does it in the fear of God. And yet he does not hide the fact that if she still remains a widow, she will be free of many cares.
      (m) By the law of marriage.
      (n) Religiously, and in the fear of God.

1Co 8:1

8:1 Now {1} as touching things offered unto idols, we know that we {a} all have knowledge. Knowledge {b} puffeth up, but charity {c} edifieth.

      (1) He begins to entreat of another type of indifferent things, that is, things offered to idols, or the use of flesh so offered and sacrificed. And first of all he removes all those things which the Corinthians pretended in using things offered to idols without any respect. First of all they affirmed that this difference of foods was for the unskilful men, but as for them, they knew well enough the benefit of Christ, which causes all these things to be clean to those that are clean. Be it so, Paul says: even if we are all sufficiently instructed in the knowledge of Christ, I say nonetheless that we must not simply rest in this knowledge. The reason is, that unless our knowledge is tempered with charity, it does not only not avail, but also does much hurt, because it is the mistress of pride. Nay, it does not so much as deserve the name of godly knowledge, if it is separate from the love of God, and therefore from the love of our neighbour.
      (a) This general word is to be abridged as 1Co 8:7 appears, for there is a type of taunt in it, as we may perceive by 1Co 8:2 .
      (b) Gives occasion of vanity and pride, because it is void of charity.
      (c) Instructs our neighbour.

1Co 8:4

8:4 {2} As concerning therefore the eating of those things that are offered in sacrifice unto {d} idols, we know that an idol [is] {e} nothing in the world, and that [there is] none other God but one.

      (2) The application of that answer to things offered to idols: I grant, he says, that an idol is indeed a vain imagination, and that there is but one God and Lord, and therefore that food cannot be made either holy or profane by the idol. But it does not follow therefore, that a man may, without regard of what they are, use those foods as any other.
      (d) The word "idol" in this place is taken for an image which is made to represent some godhead, so that worship might be given to it: whereupon came the word "idolatry", that is to say, "image service".
      (e) Is a vain dream.

1Co 8:6

8:6 But to us [there is but] one God, the Father, {f} of whom [are] all things, and we {g} in him; and {h} one Lord Jesus Christ, {i} by whom [are] all things, and we by him.

      (f) When the Father is distinguished from the Son, he is named the beginning of all things.
      (g) We have our being in him.
      (h) But as the Father is called Lord, so is the Son therefore God: therefore this word "one" does not regard the persons, but the natures.
      (i) This word "by" does not signify the instrumental cause, but the efficient: for the Father and the Son work together, which is not so to be taken that we make two causes, seeing they have both but one nature, though they are distinct persons.

1Co 8:7

8:7 {3} Howbeit [there is] not in every man that knowledge: for {4} some with {k} conscience of the idol unto this hour eat [it] as a thing offered unto an idol; and their conscience being weak is defiled.

      (3) The reason why that does not follow, is this: because there are many men who do not know that which you know. Now the judgment of outward things depend not only upon your conscience, but upon the conscience of those that behold you, and therefore your actions must be applied not only to your knowledge, but also to the ignorance of your brethren.
      (4) An applying of the reason: there are many who cannot eat of things offered to idols, except with a wavering conscience, because they think them to be unclean. Therefore if by your example they wish to do that which inwardly they think displeases God, their conscience is defiled with this eating, and you have been the occasion of this mischief.
      (k) By conscience of the idol, he means the secret judgment that they had within themselves, by which they thought all things unclean that were offered to idols, and therefore they could not use them with good conscience. For conscience has this power, that if it is good, it makes indifferent things good, and if it is evil, it makes them evil.

1Co 8:8

8:8 {5} But meat commendeth us not to God: for neither, if we eat, are we the better; neither, if we eat not, are we the worse.

      (5) An anticipation of an objection: why then will we therefore be deprived of our liberty? Nay, says the apostle, you will lose no part of Christianity although you abstain for your brethren's sake, as also if you receive the food, for it makes you in no way the more holy, for our commendation before God consists not in foods. But to use our liberty with offence of our brethren is an abuse of liberty, the true use of which is completely contrary, that is, to use it in such a way that we have consideration of our weak brethren.

1Co 8:10

8:10 {6} For if any man see thee which hast knowledge sit at meat in the idol's temple, shall not the conscience of him which is weak be emboldened to eat those things which are offered to idols;

      (6) Another plain explication of the same reason, propounding the example of the sitting down at the table in the idol's temple. This thing the Corinthians did wrongly consider among things indifferent, because it is simply forbidden for the circumstance of the place, even though the offence had ceased, as it will be declared in its place.

1Co 8:11

8:11 {7} And through thy knowledge shall the weak brother perish, for whom Christ died?

      (7) An amplification of the argument taken both of comparison and opposites: "You wretched man", he says, "pleasing yourself with your knowledge which indeed is not knowledge, for if you had true knowledge, you would not sit down to eat food in an idol's temple. Will you destroy your brother, hardening his weak conscience by this example to do evil, for whose salvation Christ himself has died?"

1Co 8:12

8:12 {8} But when ye sin so against the brethren, and wound their weak conscience, ye sin against Christ.

      (8) Another amplification: such offending of our weak brethren, results in the offending of Christ, and therefore do not let these men think that they have to deal only with their brethren.

1Co 8:13

8:13 {9} Wherefore, if meat make my brother to offend, I will eat no flesh while the world standeth, lest I make my brother to offend.

      (9) The conclusion, which Paul conceives in his own person, that he might not seem to exact that of others which he will not be first subject to himself. I had rather (he says) abstain forever from all types of flesh, then give occasion of sin to any of my brethren. And on a smaller scale, in any certain place or time, I would refuse to eat flesh offered to idols, for my brother's sake.

1Co 9:1

9:1 Am {1} I not an apostle? am I not free? {2} have I not seen Jesus Christ our Lord? are not ye {a} my work in the Lord?

      (1) Before he proceeds any further in his purposed matter of things offered to idols, he would show the cause of all this evil, and also take it away. That is, that the Corinthians thought that they did not have to depart from the least amount of their liberty for any man's pleasure. Therefore he propounds himself for an example, and that in a matter almost necessary. And yet he speaks of both, but first of his own person. If (he says) you allege for yourselves that you are free, and therefore will use your liberty, am I not also free, seeing I am an apostle?
      (2) He proves his apostleship by the effects, in that he was appointed by Christ himself, and the authority of his function was sufficiently confirmed to him among them by their conversion. And all these things he sets before their eyes, to make them ashamed because they would not in the least way that might be, debase themselves for the sake of the weak, whereas the apostle himself did all the he could to win them to God, when they were utterly reprobate and without God.
      (a) By the Lord.

1Co 9:2

9:2 If I be not an apostle unto others, yet doubtless I am to you: for the {b} seal of mine apostleship are ye in the Lord.

      (b) As a seal by which it sufficiently appears that God is the author of my apostleship.

1Co 9:3

9:3 {3} Mine answer to them that do {c} examine me is this,

      (3) He adds this by the way, as if he should say, "So far it is off, that you may doubt of my apostleship, that I use it to refute those who call it into controversy, by opposing those things which the Lord has done by me among you."
      (c) Which like judges examine me and my doings.

1Co 9:4

9:4 {4} Have we not power to {d} eat and to drink?

      (4) "Now concerning the matter itself", he says, "seeing that I am free, and truly an apostle, why may not I (I say not, eat of all things offered to idols) be maintained by my labours, indeed and keep my wife also, as the rest of the apostles lawfully do, as by name, John and James, the Lord's cousins, and Peter himself?"
      (d) Upon the expense of the Church?

1Co 9:5

9:5 Have we not power to lead about a {e} sister, a wife, as well as other apostles, and [as] the brethren of the Lord, and Cephas?

      (e) One that is a Christian and a true believer.

1Co 9:6

9:6 Or I only and Barnabas, have not we power to {f} forbear working?

      (f) Not live by the works of our hands.

1Co 9:7

9:7 {5} Who {g} goeth a warfare any time at his own charges? who planteth a vineyard, and eateth not of the fruit thereof? or who feedeth a flock, and eateth not of the milk of the flock?

      (5) That he may not seem to burden the apostles, he shows that it is just that they do, by an argument of comparison, seeing that soldiers live by their wages, and husbandmen by the fruits of their labours, and shepherds by that which comes of their flocks.
      (g) Goes to warfare?

1Co 9:8

9:8 {6} Say I these things {h} as a man? or saith not the law the same also?

      (6) Secondly, he brings forth the authority of God's institution by an argument of comparison.
      (h) Have I not better ground than the common custom of men?

1Co 9:9

9:9 For it is written in the law of Moses, Thou shalt not muzzle the mouth of the ox that treadeth out the corn. Doth God take care for {i} oxen?

      (i) Was it God's proper intention to provide for oxen, when he made this law? For there is not the smallest thing in the world, but that God has a concern for.

1Co 9:11

9:11 {7} If we have sown unto you spiritual things, [is it] a great thing if we shall reap your carnal things?

      (7) An assumption of the arguments with an amplification, for neither in so doing do we require a reward appropriate for our work.

1Co 9:12

9:12 {8} If others be partakers of [this] {k} power over you, [are] not we rather? Nevertheless we have not used this power; but suffer all things, lest we should hinder the gospel of Christ.

      (8) Another argument of great force: others are nourished among you, therefore it was lawful for me, indeed rather for me than any other. And yet I refused it, and had rather still suffer any inconvenience, than the Gospel of Christ should be hindered.
      (k) The word signifies right and interest, by which he shows us that the ministers of the word must by right and duty be supported by the Church.

1Co 9:13

9:13 {9} Do ye not know that they which minister about holy things live [of the {l} things] of the temple? and they which wait at the altar are {m} partakers with the altar?

      (9) Last of all he brings forth the express law concerning the nourishing of the Levites, which privilege nonetheless he will not use.
      (l) This is spoken by the figure of speech metonymy, for those things that are offered in the temple.
      (m) Are partakers with the altar in dividing the sacrifice.

1Co 9:14

9:14 Even so hath the Lord ordained that they which preach the gospel should live {n} of the gospel.

      (n) Because they preach the Gospel. It follows by this place, that Paul received no living, neither would have any other man receive, by a commodity of masses, or any other such superstitious nonsense.

1Co 9:15

9:15 But I have used none of these things: {10} neither have I written these things, that it should be so done unto me: for [it were] better for me to die, than that any man should make my glorying void.

      (10) He takes away occasion of suspicion by the way, that it might not be thought that he wrote this as though he was demanding his wages that were not payed him. On the contrary, he says, I had rather die, than not to continue in this purpose to preach the Gospel freely. For I am bound to preach the Gospel, seeing that the Lord has given and commanded me this office: but unless I do it willingly and for the love of God, nothing that I do is to be considered worthwhile. If I had rather that the Gospel should be evil spoken of, than that I should not require my wages, then would it appear that I took these pains not so much for the Gospel's sake, as for my gains and advantages. But I say, this would not be to use, but rather to abuse my right and liberty: therefore not only in this thing, but also in all others (as much as I could) I am made all things to all men, that I might win them to Christ, and might together with them be won to Christ.

1Co 9:18

9:18 What is my reward then? [Verily] that, when I preach the gospel, I may make the gospel of Christ {o} without charge, that I abuse not my power in the gospel.

      (o) By taking nothing from those to whom I preach it.

1Co 9:20

9:20 And unto the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might gain the Jews; to them that are under the {p} law, as under the law, that I might gain them that are under the law;

      (p) The word "law" in this place must be limited to the ceremonial Law.

1Co 9:22

9:22 To the weak became I as weak, that I might gain the weak: I am made all things to {q} all [men], that I might by all means save some.

      (q) In matters that are indifferent, which may be done or not done with a good conscience. It is as if he said, "I accommodated all customs and manners, that by all means I might save some."

1Co 9:23

9:23 And this I do for the gospel's sake, that I might be partaker thereof with {r} [you].

      (r) That both I and those to whom I preach the Gospel, may receive fruit by the Gospel.

1Co 9:24

9:24 {11} Know ye not that they which run in a race run all, but one receiveth the prize? So run, that ye may obtain.

      (11) He brings in another reason for this wrong, that is, that they were given to gluttony, for there were solemn banquets of sacrifices, and the loose living of the priests was always too much celebrated and kept. Therefore it was hard for those who were accustomed to loose living, especially when they pretended the liberty of the Gospel, to be restrained in these banquets. But on the other hand, the apostle calls them by a pleasant similitude, and also by his own example, to sobriety and mortification of the flesh, showing that they cannot be fit to run or wrestle (as then the games of Isthmies were) who pamper up their bodies. And therefore affirming that they can have no reward unless they take another course and manner of life.

1Co 9:25

9:25 And every man that striveth for the mastery is {s} temperate in all things. Now they [do it] to obtain a corruptible crown; but we an incorruptible.

      (s) Uses a most excellent and moderate diet.

1Co 9:27

9:27 But I keep under my {t} body, and bring [it] into subjection: lest that by any means, when I have preached to others, I myself should be {u} a castaway.

      (t) The old man which strives against the Spirit.
      (u) Or, "reproved". And this word "reproved" is not contrasted with the word "elect", but with the word "approved", when we see someone who is experienced not to be such a one as he ought to be.

1Co 10:1

10:1 Moreover, {1} brethren, I would not that ye should be ignorant, how that all our {a} fathers were under the cloud, and all passed through the sea;

      (1) He sets out that which he said, laying before them an example of the horrible judgment of God against those who had in effect the very same pledges of the same adoption and salvation that we have. And yet nonetheless when they gave themselves to idol's feasts, they perished in the wilderness, being horribly and manifoldly punished. Now, moreover and besides that these things are fitly spoken against those who frequented idol's feasts, the same also seems to be alleged to this end and purpose, because many men think that those things are not of such great weight that God will be angry with them if they use them. And so they frequent Christian assemblies and are baptized, and receive the communion, and confess Christ.
      (a) Paul says this in respect of the covenant, and not in respect of the persons, except generally.

1Co 10:2

10:2 {2} And were all {b} baptized unto {c} Moses in the cloud and in the sea;

      (2) In effect the ordinances of the old fathers were all one with ours, for they respected Christ alone, who offered himself to them in different forms.
      (b) All of them were baptized with the outward sign, but not indeed, because of which God cannot be blamed, but they themselves.
      (c) Moses being their guide.

1Co 10:3

10:3 And did all eat the {d} same spiritual {e} meat;

      (d) The same that we do.
      (e) Manna, which was a spiritual meat to the believers, who in faith lay hold upon Christ, who is the true meat.

1Co 10:4

10:4 And did all drink the same spiritual drink: for they drank of that spiritual Rock that {f} followed them: and that Rock was {g} Christ.

      (f) Of the River and running Rock, who followed the people.
      (g) Did signify Christ as an ordinance, so that together with the sign, there was the thing signified, and the truth itself. For God does not offer a bare sign, but the thing signified by the sign together with it, which is to be received with faith.

1Co 10:6

10:6 {3} Now these things were our {h} examples, to the intent we should not lust after evil things, as they also lusted.

      (3) An amplifying of the example against those who are carried away with their lusts beyond the bounds which God has measured out. For this is the beginning of all evil, as of idolatry (which has gluttony as a companion), fornication, rebelling against Christ, murmuring, and such like. And these things God punished most sharply in that old people, to the end that we who succeed them, and have a more full declaration of the will of God, might by that means take better heed.
      (h) Some read "figures": which signified our ordinances. For circumcision was to the Jews a seal of righteousness, to us a symbol of baptism, and so in the other ordinances.

1Co 10:9

10:9 Neither let us tempt {i} Christ, as some of them also tempted, and were destroyed of serpents.

      (i) To tempt Christ is to provoke him to a combat as it were, which those men do who abuse the knowledge that he has given them, and make it to serve for a cloak for their lusts and wickedness.

1Co 10:11

10:11 Now all these things happened unto them for ensamples: and they are written for our admonition, upon whom the {k} ends of the world are come.

      (k) This our age is called the end, for it is the culmination of all the ages.

1Co 10:12

10:12 {4} Wherefore let him that thinketh he standeth take heed lest he fall.

      (4) In conclusion he descends to the Corinthians themselves, warning them that they do not please themselves, but rather that they prevent the wiles of Satan. Yet he uses an declaration and comforts them, that he may not seem to make them altogether similar to those wicked idolaters and condemners of Christ, who perished in the wilderness.

1Co 10:13

10:13 There hath no temptation taken you but such as is common to {l} man: but God [is] faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above that ye are able; but will with the temptation also {m} make a way to escape, that ye may be able to bear [it].

      (l) Which comes from weakness.
      (m) He that would have you tempted for your profit's sake, will make a way for you to escape out of the temptation.

1Co 10:15

10:15 {5} I speak as to wise men; judge ye what I say.

      (5) Now returning to those idol's feasts, that he may not seem to delay at all: first he promises that he will use no other reasons, than such as they knew very well themselves. He gives the following line of reasoning. The holy banquets of the Christians are pledges, first of all, of the community that they have with Christ, and next, one with another. The Israelites also do ratify in the sacrifices, their mutual union in the very same religion. Therefore so do the idolaters also join themselves with their idols, or demons rather (for idols are nothing) in those solemn banquets, whereupon it follows, that that table is a table of demons, and therefore you must avoid it. For you cannot be partakers of the Lord and of idols together, much less may such banquets be considered as indifferent things. Will you then strive with God? And if you do, do you think that you will get the upper hand?

1Co 10:16

10:16 The cup of {n} blessing which we bless, is it not the {o} communion of the blood of Christ? The bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ?

      (n) Of thanksgiving: whereupon, that holy banquet was called "eucharist", which is Greek for thanksgiving.
      (o) A most effectual pledge and note of your joining together with Christ, and ingrafting to him.

1Co 10:18

10:18 Behold Israel after the {p} flesh: are not they which eat of the sacrifices {q} partakers of the altar?

      (p) That is, those who yet observe their ceremonies.
      (q) Are consenting and guilty, both of that worship and sacrifice.

1Co 10:20

10:20 But I [say], that the things which the Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to devils, and not to God: and I would not that ye should have {r} fellowship with devils.

      (r) Have anything to do with the demons, or enter into that society which is begun in the demon's name.

1Co 10:21

10:21 Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord, and the {s} cup of devils: ye cannot be partakers of the Lord's table, and of the table of devils.

      (s) The heathen and profane people were accustomed to finish up and make an end of their feasts which they kept to the honour of their gods, in offering meat offerings and drink offerings to them, with banquets and feastings.

1Co 10:23

10:23 {6} {t} All things are lawful for me, but all things are not expedient: all things are lawful for me, but all things edify not.

      (6) Coming to another type of things offered to idols, he repeats that general rule, that in the use of indifferent things we ought to have consideration not of ourselves only, but of our neighbours. And therefore there are many things which of themselves are lawful, which may be evil when done by us, because of offence to our neighbour.
      (t) See before in 1Co 6:13 .

1Co 10:25

10:25 {7} Whatsoever is sold in the {u} shambles, [that] eat, asking no question for conscience sake:

      (7) An applying of the rule to the present matter: whatever is sold in the market, you may indifferently buy it as if it were from the Lord's hand, and eat it either at home with the faithful, or being called home to the unfaithful, that is, in a private banquet. But yet with this exception, unless any man is present who is weak, whose conscience may be offended by setting meats offered to idols before them: for then you ought to have a consideration of their weakness.
      (u) The flesh that was sacrificed used to be sold in the markets, and the price returned to the priests.

1Co 10:26

10:26 For the earth [is] the Lord's, and the {x} fulness thereof.

      (x) All those things of which it is full.

1Co 10:29

10:29 Conscience, I say, not thine own, but of the other: {8} for why is my liberty judged of another [man's] conscience?

      (8) A reason: for we must take heed that our liberty is not spoken of as evil, and that the benefit of God which we ought to use with thanksgiving is not changed into impiety. And this is through our fault, if we choose rather to offend the conscience of the weak, than to yield a little of our liberty in a matter of no importance, and so give occasion to the weak to judge in such sort of us, and of Christian liberty. And the apostle takes these things upon his own person, that the Corinthians may have so much the less occasion to oppose anything against him.

1Co 10:30

10:30 For if I by {y} grace be a partaker, why am I evil spoken of for that for which I give thanks?

      (y) If I may through God's grace eat this meat or that meat, why should I through my fault cause that benefit of God to turn to my blame?

1Co 10:31

10:31 {9} Whether therefore ye eat, or drink, or whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God.

      (9) The conclusion: we must order ourselves in such a way that we seek not ourselves, but God's glory, and so the salvation of as many as we may. In which the apostle does not thrust himself to the Corinthians (even his own flock) as an example, except so that he calls them back to Christ, to whom he himself has regard.

1Co 11:2

11:2 {1} Now I praise you, brethren, that ye remember me in all things, and keep the ordinances, as I delivered [them] to you.

      (1) The fifth treatise of this epistle concerning the right ordering of public assemblies, containing three points, that is of the comely apparel of men and women, of the order of the Lord's supper, and of the right use of spiritual gifts. But going about to reprehend certain things, he begins nonetheless with a general praise of them, calling those particular laws of comeliness and honesty, which belong to the ecclesiastical policy, traditions: which afterward they called cannons.

1Co 11:3

11:3 {2} But I would have you know, that the head of every man is Christ; and the head of the woman [is] the man; and the {a} head of Christ [is] God.

      (2) He sets down God, in Christ our mediator, as the end and mark not only of doctrine, but also of ecclesiastical comeliness. Then applying it to the question proposed, touching the comely apparel both of men and women in public assemblies, he declares that the woman is one degree beneath the man by the ordinance of God, and that the man is so subject to Christ, that the glory of God ought to appear in him for the preeminence of the sex.
      (a) In that Christ is our mediator.

1Co 11:4

11:4 {3} Every {b} man praying or prophesying, having [his] head covered, dishonoureth his head.

      (3) By this he gathers that if men do either pray or preach in public assemblies having their heads covered (which was then a sign of subjection), they robbed themselves of their dignity, against God's ordinance.
      (b) It appears, that this was a political law serving only for the circumstance of the time that Paul lived in, by this reason, because in these our days for a man to speak bareheaded in an assembly is a sign of subjection.

1Co 11:5

11:5 {4} But every woman that prayeth or prophesieth with [her] head uncovered dishonoureth her head: {5} for that is even all one as if she were shaven.

      (4) And in like manner he concludes that women who show themselves in public and ecclesiastical assemblies without the sign and token of their subjection, that is to say, uncovered, shame themselves.
      (5) The first argument taken from the common sense of man, for so much as nature teaches women that it is dishonest for them to go abroad bareheaded, seeing that they have given to them thick and long hair which they do so diligently trim and deck, that they can in no way abide to have it shaved.

1Co 11:7

11:7 {6} For a man indeed ought not to cover [his] head, forasmuch as he is the image and glory of God: but the woman is the glory of the man.

      (6) The taking away of an objection: have not men also hair given to them? "I grant that", says the apostle, "but there is another matter in it. For man was made to this end and purpose, that the glory of God should appear in his rule and authority. But the woman was made so that by profession of her obedience, she might more honour her husband."

1Co 11:8

11:8 {7} For the man is not of the woman; but the woman of the man.

      (7) He proves the inequality of the woman by the fact that from the man is the substance of which woman was first made.

1Co 11:9

11:9 {8} Neither was the man created for the woman; but the woman for the man.

      (8) Secondly, by the fact that the woman was made for man, and not the man for the woman's sake.

1Co 11:10

11:10 {9} For this cause ought the woman to have {c} power on [her] head because of the {10} angels.

      (9) The conclusion: women must be covered, to show by this external sign their subjection.
      (c) A covering which is a token of subjection.
      (10) What this means, I do not yet understand.

1Co 11:11

11:11 {11} Nevertheless neither is the man without the woman, neither the woman without the man, {d} in the Lord.

      (11) A digression which the apostle uses, lest that which he spoke of the superiority of men, and the lower degree of women, in consideration of the policy of the Church, should be so taken as though there were no measure of this inequality. Therefore he teaches that men have in such sort the preeminence, that God made them not alone, but women also. And woman was so made of man, that men also are born by the means of women, and this ought to put them in mind to observe the degree of every sex in such sort, that the marriage relationship may be cherished.
      (d) By the Lord.

1Co 11:13

11:13 {12} Judge in yourselves: is it comely that a woman pray unto God uncovered?

      (12) He urges the argument taken from the common sense of nature.

1Co 11:15

11:15 But if a woman have long hair, it is a glory to her: for [her] hair is given her for a {e} covering.

      (e) To be a covering for her, and such a covering as should procure another.

1Co 11:16

11:16 {13} But if any man seem to be contentious, we have no such custom, neither the churches of God.

      (13) Against those who are stubbornly contentious we have to oppose this, that the churches of God are not contentious.

1Co 11:17

11:17 {14} Now in this that I declare [unto you] I praise [you] not, that ye come together not for the better, but for the worse.

      (14) He passes now to the next treatise concerning the right administration of the Lord's supper. And the apostle uses this harsher preface, that the Corinthians might understand that whereas they generally observed the apostle's commandments, yet they badly neglected them in a matter of greatest importance.

1Co 11:18

11:18 {15} For first of all, when ye come together in the church, I hear that there be divisions among you; and I partly believe it.

      (15) To celebrate the Lord's supper correctly, it is required that there is not only consent of doctrine, but also of affections, so that it is not profaned.

1Co 11:19

11:19 {16} For there must be also heresies among you, that they which are {f} approved may be made manifest among you.

      (16) Although schisms and heresies proceed from the devil, and are evil, yet they come not by chance, nor without cause, and they turn to the profit of the elect.
      (f) Whom experience has taught to be of sound religion and godliness.

1Co 11:20

11:20 When ye come together therefore into one place, [this] is {g} not to eat the Lord's supper.

      (g) This is a usual metaphor by which the apostle flatly denies that which many did not do well.

1Co 11:21

11:21 For in eating every one taketh {h} before [other] his own supper: and one is hungry, and another is drunken.

      (h) Eats his food and does not wait until others come.

1Co 11:22

11:22 {17} What? have ye not houses to eat and to drink in? or despise ye the church of God, and shame them that have not? What shall I say to you? shall I praise you in this? I praise [you] not.

      (17) The apostle thinks it good to take away the love feasts because of their abuse, although they had been practised a long time, and with commendation used in churches, and were appointed and instituted by the apostles.

1Co 11:23

11:23 {18} For I have received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you, That the Lord Jesus the [same] night in which he was betrayed took bread:

      (18) We must take a true form of keeping the Lord's supper, out of the institution of it, the parts of which are these: touching the pastors, to show forth the Lord's death by preaching his word, to bless the bread and the wine by calling upon the name of God, and together with prayers to declare the institution of it, and finally to deliver the bread broken to be eaten, and the cup received to be drunk with thanksgiving. And touching the flock, that every man examine himself, that is to say, to prove both his knowledge, and also faith, and repentance: to show forth the Lord's death, that is, in true faith to yield to his word and institution: and last of all, to take the bread from the minister's hand, and to eat it and to drink the wine, and give God thanks. This was Paul's and the apostles' manner of ministering.

1Co 11:24

11:24 And when he had given thanks, he brake [it], and said, Take, eat: this is my body, which is {i} broken for you: this do in remembrance of me.

      (i) This word "broken" denotes to us the manner of Christ's death, for although his legs were not broken, as the thieves legs were, yet his body was very severely tormented, and torn, and bruised.

1Co 11:27

11:27 {19} Wherefore whosoever shall eat this bread, and drink [this] cup of the Lord, {k} unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord.

      (19) Whoever condemns the holy ordinances, that is, uses them incorrectly, are guilty not of the bread and wine, but of the thing itself, that is, of Christ, and will be grievously punished for it.
      (k) Otherwise than how such mysteries should properly be handled.

1Co 11:28

11:28 {20} But let {l} a man examine himself, and so let him eat of [that] bread, and drink of [that] cup.

      (20) The examination of a man's self, is of necessity required in the supper, and therefore they ought not to be admitted to it who cannot examine themselves: such as children, furious and angry men, also such as either have no knowledge of Christ, or not sufficient, although they profess Christian religion: and others that cannot examine themselves.
      (l) This passage overthrows the idea of the faith of merit, or undeveloped faith, which the papists maintain.

1Co 11:29

11:29 For he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh damnation to himself, not {m} discerning the Lord's body.

      (m) He is said to discern the Lord's body that has consideration of the worthiness of it, and therefore comes to eat of this food with great reverence.

1Co 11:30

11:30 {21} For this cause many [are] weak and sickly among you, and many sleep.

      (21) The profaning of the body and blood of the Lord in his mysteries is harshly punished by him, and therefore such wrongs ought diligently to be prevented by each one judging and correcting himself.

1Co 11:31

11:31 For if we would {n} judge ourselves, we should not be judged.

      (n) Try and examine ourselves, by faith and repentance, separating ourselves from the wicked.

1Co 11:33

11:33 {22} Wherefore, my brethren, when ye come together to eat, tarry one for another.

      (22) The supper of the Lord is a common action of the whole church, and therefore there is no place for private suppers.

1Co 11:34

11:34 {23} And if any man hunger, let him eat at home; that ye come not together unto condemnation. {24} And the rest will I set in order when I come.

      (23) The supper of the Lord was instituted not to feed the belly, but to feed the soul with the communion of Christ, and therefore it ought to be separated from common banquets.
      (24) Such things as pertain to order, as place, time, form of prayers, and other such like, the apostle took order for in congregations according to the consideration of times, places, and persons.

1Co 12:1

12:1 Now {1} concerning spiritual [gifts], brethren, I would not have you {a} ignorant.

      (1) Now he enters into the third part of this treatise touching the right use of spiritual gifts, in which he gives the Corinthians plainly to understand that they abused them. For they that excelled bragged ambitiously of them, and so robbed God of the praise of his gifts: and having no consideration of their brethren, abused them to a vain display, and so robbed the church of the use of those gifts. On the other side the inferior sort envied the better, and went about to make a departure, so that all the body was as it were scatted and rent in pieces. So then, going about to remedy these abuses he wills them first to consider diligently that they have not these gifts of themselves, but from the free grace and liberality of God, to whose glory they ought to bestow them all.
      (a) Ignorant to what purpose these gifts are given to you.

1Co 12:2

12:2 {2} Ye know that ye were {b} Gentiles, carried away unto these dumb idols, even as ye were led.

      (2) He reproves the same by comparing their former state with that in which they were at this time, being endued with those excellent gifts.
      (b) As touching God's service and the covenant, mere strangers.

1Co 12:3

12:3 {3} Wherefore I give you to understand, that no man speaking by the Spirit of God calleth Jesus {c} accursed: and [that] no man can say that Jesus is the Lord, but by the Holy Ghost.

      (3) The conclusion: know you therefore that you cannot so much as move your lips to honour Christ at all, except by the grace of the Holy Spirit.
      (c) Does curse him, or by any means whatever diminish his glory.

1Co 12:4

12:4 {4} Now there are diversities of gifts, but the {d} same Spirit.

      (4) In the second place, he lays another foundation, that is, that these gifts are different, as the functions also are different and their offices different, but that one self same Spirit, Lord, and God is the giver of all these gifts, and that to one end, that is, for the profit of all.
      (d) The Spirit is plainly distinguished from the gifts.

1Co 12:6

12:6 And there are diversities of {e} operations, but it is the same God which worketh all in all.

      (e) So Paul calls that inward power which comes from the Holy Spirit, and makes men fit for wonderful things.

1Co 12:7

12:7 But the manifestation of the Spirit is {f} given to every man to {g} profit withal.

      (f) The Holy Spirit opens and shows himself freely in the giving of these gifts.
      (g) To the use and benefit of the church.

1Co 12:8

12:8 {5} For to one is given by the Spirit the word of {h} wisdom; to another the word of knowledge by the same Spirit;

      (5) He declares this manifold diversity, and reckons up the principal gifts, beating that into their heads which he said before, that is, that all these things proceeded from one and the very same Spirit.
      (h) Wisdom is a most excellent gift, and very needed, not only for those who teach, but also for those that exhort and comfort. And this thing is proper to the pastor's office, as the word of knowledge agrees to the teachers.

1Co 12:10

12:10 To another the {i} working of miracles; to another {k} prophecy; to another {l} discerning of spirits; to another [divers] kinds of tongues; to another the interpretation of tongues:

      (i) By "working" he means those great workings of God's mighty power, which pass and excel among his miracles, as the delivery of his people by the hand of Moses: that which he did by Elijah against the priests of Baal, in sending down fire from heaven to consume his sacrifice: and that which he did by Peter, in the matter of Ananias and Sapphira.
      (k) Foretelling of things to come.
      (l) By which false prophets are know from true, in which Peter surpassed Philip in exposing Simon Magus; Ac 8:20 .

1Co 12:11

12:11 But all these worketh that one and the selfsame Spirit, dividing to every man severally {6} as he will.

      (6) He adds moreover somewhat else, that is, that although these gifts are unequal, yet they are most wisely divided, because the will of the Spirit of God is the rule of this distribution.

1Co 12:12

12:12 {7} For as the body is one, and hath many members, and all the members of that one body, being many, are one body: {8} so also [is] {m} Christ.

      (7) He sets forth his former saying by a similitude taken from the body: this, he says, is manifestly seen in the body, whose members are different, but yet so joined together, that they make but one body.
      (8) The applying of the similitude. So must we also think, he says, of the mystical body of Christ: for all we who believe, whether we are Jews or Gentiles, are by one person by the same baptism, joined together with our head, that by that means, there may be framed one body compact of many members. And we have drunk one self same spirit, that is to say, a spiritual feeling, perseverance and motion common to us all out of one cup.
      (m) Christ joined together with his Church.

1Co 12:13

12:13 For by one Spirit are we all baptized into {n} one body, whether [we be] Jews or Gentiles, whether [we be] bond or free; and have been all made to {o} drink into one Spirit.

      (n) To become one body with Christ.
      (o) By one quickening drink of the Lord's blood, we are made partakers of his Spirit alone.

1Co 12:14

12:14 {9} For the body is not one member, but many.

      (9) He amplifies that which followed of the similitude, as if he should say, "The unity of the body is not prevented by this diversity of members, and furthermore it could not be a body if it did not consist of many members, and those being different."

1Co 12:15

12:15 {10} If the foot shall say, Because I am not the hand, I am not of the body; is it therefore not of the body?

      (10) Now he builds his doctrine upon the foundations which he has laid: and first of all he continues in his purposed similitude, and afterward he goes to the matter plainly and simply. And first of all he speaks unto those who would have separated themselves from those whom they envied, because they had not such excellent gifts as they. Now this is, he says, as if the foot should say it were not of the body, because it is not the hand, or the ear, because it is not the eye. Therefore all parts ought rather to defend the unity of the body, being coupled together to serve one another.

1Co 12:17

12:17 {11} If the whole body [were] an eye, where [were] the hearing? If the whole [were] hearing, where [were] the smelling?

      (11) Again speaking to them, he shows them that if that should come to pass which they desire, that is, that all should be equal one to another, there would follow a destruction of the whole body, indeed and of themselves. For it could not be a body unless it were made of many members knit together, and different from one another. And that no man might find fault with this division as unequal, he adds that God himself has joined all these together. Therefore all must remain joined together, that the body may remain in safety.

1Co 12:21

12:21 {12} And the eye cannot say unto the hand, I have no need of thee: nor again the head to the feet, I have no need of you.

      (12) Now on the other hand, he speaks to those who were endued with more excellent gifts, exhorting them not to despise the inferiors as unprofitable, and as though they served to no use. For God, he says, has in such sort tempered this inequality, that the more excellent and beautiful members can in no wise lack the more abject and such as we are ashamed of, and that they should have more care to see to them and to cover them: that by this means the necessity which is on both parts, might keep the whole body in peace and harmony. And that even though if each part is considered apart, they are of different degrees and conditions, yet because they are joined together, they have a community both in prosperity and affliction.

1Co 12:22

12:22 Nay, much more those members of the body, which seem to be {p} more feeble, are necessary:

      (p) Of the smallest and vilest offices, and therefore mentioned last among the rest.

1Co 12:23

12:23 And those [members] of the body, which we think to be less honourable, upon these we bestow more abundant {q} honour; and our uncomely [parts] have more abundant comeliness.

      (q) We more carefully cover them.

1Co 12:25

12:25 That there should be no schism in the body; but [that] the members should have the same {r} care one for another.

      (r) Should bestow their operations and offices to the profit and preservation of the whole body.

1Co 12:26

12:26 {13} And whether one member suffer, all the members suffer with it; or one member be honoured, all the members rejoice with it.

      (13) Now he applies this same doctrine to the Corinthians without any allegory, warning them that as there are different functions and different gifts, it is their duty not to offend one another, either by envy or ambition. Instead, in being joined together in love and charity with one another, every one of them should bestow to the profit of all that which he has received, according as his ministry requires.

1Co 12:27

12:27 Now ye are the body of Christ, and members in {s} particular.

      (s) For all churches, wherever they are dispersed through the whole world, are different members of one body.

1Co 12:28

12:28 And God hath set some in the church, first apostles, secondarily prophets, thirdly teachers, after that miracles, then gifts of healings, {t} helps, {u} governments, diversities of tongues.

      (t) The offices of deacons.
      (u) He sets forth the order of elders, who were the maintainers of the church's discipline.

1Co 12:31

12:31 {14} But covet earnestly the best gifts: and yet shew I unto you a more excellent way.

      (14) He teaches those who are ambitious and envious, a certain holy ambition and envy. That is, if they give themselves to the best gifts, and such as are most profitable to the church, and so if they contend to excel one another in love, which far surpasses all other gifts.

1Co 13:1

13:1 Though {1} I speak with the tongues of men and of {a} angels, and have not charity, I am become [as] sounding brass, or a {b} tinkling cymbal.

      (1) He reasons first of charity, the excellency of which he first shows by this, that without it, all other gifts are as nothing before God. And this he proves partly by an induction, and partly also by an argument taken of the end, for what reason those gifts are given. For, to what purpose are those gifts but to God's glory, and the profit of the Church as is before proved? So that those gifts, without charity, have no right use.
      (a) A very earnest amplifying of the matter, as if he said, "If there were any tongues of angels, and I had them, and did not use them to the benefit of my neighbour, it would be nothing else except a vain and prattling type of babbling."
      (b) That gives a rude and uncertain sound.

1Co 13:2

13:2 And though I have [the gift of] prophecy, and understand all mysteries, and all knowledge; and though I have all {c} faith, so that I could remove mountains, and have not charity, I am nothing.

      (c) By "faith" he means the gift of doing miracles, and not that faith which justifies, which cannot be void of charity as the other may.

1Co 13:4

13:4 {2} Charity {d} suffereth long, [and] is kind; charity envieth not; charity vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up,

      (2) He describes the force and nature of charity, partly by a comparison of opposites, and partly by the effects of charity itself. And by this the Corinthians may understand both how profitable it is in the church, and how necessary: and also how far they are from it, and therefore how vainly and without cause they are proud.
      (d) Literally, "defers wrath".

1Co 13:5

13:5 Doth {e} not behave itself unseemly, seeketh not her own, is not easily provoked, thinketh no evil;

      (e) It is not insolent, or reproachful.

1Co 13:6

13:6 Rejoiceth not in iniquity, but {f} rejoiceth in the truth;

      (f) Rejoices at righteousness in the righteous. For by "truth" the Hebrews mean "righteousness".

1Co 13:8

13:8 {3} Charity never faileth: but whether [there be] prophecies, they shall fail; whether [there be] tongues, they shall cease; whether [there be] {g} knowledge, it shall vanish away.

      (3) Again he commends the excellency of charity, in that it will never be abolished in the saints, whereas the other gifts which are necessary for the building up of the church, so long as we live here, will have no place in the world to come.
      (g) The getting of knowledge by prophesying.

1Co 13:9

13:9 {4} For we know in {h} part, and we prophesy in part.

      (4) The reason: because we are now in the state that we have need to learn daily, and therefore we have need of those helps, that is, of the gift of tongues, and knowledge, and also of those that teach by them. But to what purpose serve they then, when we have obtained and gotten the full knowledge of God, which serve now but for those who are imperfect and go by degrees to perfection?
      (h) We learn imperfectly.

1Co 13:11

13:11 {5} When I was a child, I spake as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child: but when I became a man, I put away childish things.

      (5) He sets forth that which he said by an excellent similitude, comparing this life to our infancy, or childhood, in which we mutter and stammer rather than speak, and think and understand childish things, and therefore have need of such things as may form and frame our tongue and mind. But when we become men, to what purpose should we desire that stammering, those childish toys, and such like things, by which we are formed in our childhood by little and little?

1Co 13:12

13:12 {6} For {i} now we see through a glass, darkly; but then face to face: now I know in part; but then shall I know even as also I am known.

      (6) The applying of the similitude of our childhood to this present life, in which we darkly behold heavenly things, according to the small measure of light which is given to us, through the understanding of tongues, and hearing the teachers and ministers of the Church. And our man's age and strength is compared to that heavenly and eternal life, in which when we behold God himself present, and are enlightened with his full and perfect light, to what purpose would we desire the voice of man, and those worldly things which are most imperfect? But yet then all the saints will be knit both with God, and between themselves with most fervent love. And therefore charity will not be abolished, but perfected, although it will not be shown forth and entertained by such manner of duties as belong only and especially to the infirmity of this life.
      (i) All this must be understood by comparison.

1Co 13:13

13:13 {7} And now abideth faith, hope, charity, these three; but the greatest of these [is] charity.

      (7) The conclusion: as if the apostle should say, "Such therefore will be our condition then: but now we have three things, and they remain sure if we are Christ's, without which, true religion cannot consist, that is, faith, hope, and charity. And among these, charity is the chiefest because it ceases not in the life to come as the rest do, but is perfected and accomplished. For seeing that faith and hope tend to things which are promised and are to come, when we have presently gotten them, to what purpose would we have faith and hope? But yet there at length we will truly and perfectly love both God and one another."

1Co 14:1

14:1 Follow {1} after charity, and desire spiritual [gifts], but rather that ye may {a} prophesy.

      (1) He infers now of what he spoke before: therefore seeing charity is the chiefest of all, before all things set it before you as chief and principal. And so esteem those things as most excellent which profit the greater part of men (such as prophecy, that is to say, the gift of teaching and applying the doctrine: which was condemned in respect of other gifts, although it is the chiefest and most necessary for the Church) and not those who for a show seem to be marvellous, as the gifts of tongues. This was when a man was suddenly endowed with the knowledge of many tongues, which made men greatly amazed and yet of itself was not greatly of any use, unless there was an interpreter.
      (a) What prophecy is he shows in the third verse.

1Co 14:2

14:2 {2} For he that speaketh in an [unknown] {b} tongue speaketh not unto men, but unto God: for no man understandeth [him]; howbeit in the {c} spirit he speaketh mysteries.

      (2) He reprehends their perverse judgment concerning the gift of tongues. For why was it given? The answer: so that the mysteries of God might be the better known to a greater number. By this it is evident that prophecy, which the gift of tongues ought to serve, is better than this: and therefore the Corinthians judged incorrectly, in that they made more account of the gift of tongues than of prophesying: because no doubt the gift of tongues was a thing more to be bragged of. And hereupon followed another abuse of the gift of tongues, in that the Corinthians used tongues in the congregation without an interpreter. And although this thing might be done to some profit of him that spoke them, yet he corrupted the right use of that gift because there came by it no profit to the hearers. And common assemblies were instituted and appointed not for any private man's commodity, but for the profit of the whole company.
      (b) A strange language, which no man can understand without an interpreter.
      (c) By that inspiration which he has received of the Spirit, which nonetheless he abuses, when he speaks mysteries which none of the company can understand.

1Co 14:3

14:3 But he that prophesieth speaketh unto men [to] {d} edification, and exhortation, and comfort.

      (d) Which may further men in the study of godliness.

1Co 14:4

14:4 He that speaketh in an [unknown] tongue edifieth himself; but he that prophesieth edifieth the {e} church.

      (e) The company.

1Co 14:7

14:7 {3} And even things without life giving sound, whether pipe or harp, except they give a distinction in the sounds, how shall it be known what is piped or harped?

      (3) He sets forth that which he said by a similitude, which he borrows and takes from instruments of music, which although they speak not perfectly, yet they are distinguished by their sounds, that they may be the better used.

1Co 14:9

14:9 So likewise ye, except ye utter by the tongue words {f} easy to be understood, how shall it be known what is spoken? for ye shall speak into the air.

      (f) That fitly utter the matter itself.

1Co 14:10

14:10 {4} There are, it may be, so many kinds of voices in the world, and none of them [is] without signification.

      (4) He proves that interpretation is necessarily to be joined with the gift of tongues, by the manifold variety of languages, insomuch that if one speak to another without an interpreter, it is as if he did not speak.

1Co 14:11

14:11 Therefore if I know not the meaning of the voice, I shall be unto him that speaketh a barbarian, and he that {g} speaketh [shall be] a barbarian unto me.

      (g) As the papists in all their sermons, and they that ambitiously pour out some Hebrew or Greek words in the pulpit before the unlearned people, by this to get themselves a name of vain learning.

1Co 14:12

14:12 {5} Even so ye, forasmuch as ye are zealous of spiritual [gifts], seek that ye may excel to the edifying of the church.

      (5) The conclusion: if they will excel in those spiritual gifts, as it is proper, they must seek the profit of the church. And therefore they must not use the gift of tongues, unless there is an interpreter to expound the strange and unknown tongue, whether it is himself that speaks, or another interpreter.

1Co 14:13

14:13 Wherefore let him that speaketh in an [unknown] tongue {h} pray that he may interpret.

      (h) Pray for the gift of interpretation.

1Co 14:14

14:14 {6} For {i} if I pray in an [unknown] tongue, my {k} spirit prayeth, but my understanding is {l} unfruitful.

      (6) A reason: because it is not sufficient for us to speak so in the congregation that we ourselves worship God in spirit
      (that is according to the gift which we have received), but we must also be understood of the company, lest that is unprofitable to others which we have spoken.
      (i) If I pray, when the church is assembled together, in a strange tongue.
      (k) The gift and inspiration which the spirit gives me does its part, but only to myself.
      (l) No fruit comes to the church by my prayers.

1Co 14:15

14:15 What is it then? I will pray with the spirit, and I will pray with the {m} understanding also: I will sing with the spirit, and I will sing with the understanding also.

      (m) So that I may be understood by others, and may instruct others.

1Co 14:16

14:16 {7} Else when thou shalt bless with the {n} spirit, how shall he that {o} occupieth the room of the unlearned say {p} Amen at thy giving of thanks, seeing he understandeth not what thou sayest?

      (7) Another reason: seeing that the whole congregation must agree with him that speaks, and also witness this agreement, how will they give their assent or agreement who know not what is spoken?
      (n) Alone, without any consideration of the hearers.
      (o) He that sits as a private man.
      (p) So then one uttered the prayers, and all the company answered "amen".

1Co 14:18

14:18 {8} I thank my God, I speak with tongues more than ye all:

      (8) He sets himself as an example, both that they may be ashamed of their foolish ambition, and also that he may avoid all suspicion of envy.

1Co 14:19

14:19 Yet in the church I had rather speak {q} five words with my understanding, that [by my voice] I might teach others also, than ten thousand words in an [unknown] tongue.

      (q) A very few words.

1Co 14:20

14:20 {9} Brethren, be not children in understanding: howbeit in malice be ye children, but in understanding be men.

      (9) Now he reproves those freely for their childish folly, who do not see how this gift of tongues which was given to the profit of the Church, is turned by their ambition into an instrument of cursing, seeing that this same cursing is also contained among the punishments with which God punished the stubbornness of his people, that he dispersed them amongst strangers whose language they did not understand.

1Co 14:21

14:21 In the {r} law it is written, With [men of] other tongues and other lips will I speak unto this people; and yet for all that will they not hear me, saith the Lord.

      (r) By the "law" he understands the entire scripture.

1Co 14:22

14:22 {10} Wherefore tongues are for a sign, not to them that believe, but to them that believe not: but prophesying [serveth] not for them that believe not, but for them which believe.

      (10) The conclusion: therefore the gift of tongues serves to punish the unfaithful and unbelievers, unless it is referred to prophecy (that is to say, to the interpretation of scripture) and that what is spoken is by the means of prophecy is understood by the hearers.

1Co 14:23

14:23 {11} If therefore the whole church be come together into one place, and all speak with tongues, and there come in [those that are] {s} unlearned, or unbelievers, will they not say that ye are mad?

      (11) Another argument: the gift of tongues without prophecy is not only unprofitable to the faithful, but also hurts very much, both the faithful as well as the unfaithful, who should be won in the public assemblies. For by this means it comes to pass that the faithful seem to others to be mad, much less can the unfaithful be instructed by it.
      (s) See Ac 4:13 .

1Co 14:26

14:26 {12} How is it then, brethren? when ye come together, every one of you hath a psalm, hath a doctrine, hath a tongue, hath a revelation, hath an interpretation. Let all things be done unto edifying.

      (12) The conclusion: the edifying of the congregation is a rule and measure of the right use of all spiritual gifts.

1Co 14:27

14:27 {13} If any man speak in an [unknown] tongue, [let it be] by two, or at the most [by] three, and [that] by course; and let one interpret.

      (13) The manner how to use the gift of tongues. It may be lawful for one or two, or at the most for three, to use the gift of tongues, one after another in an assembly, so that there is someone to expound their utterances. But if there are none to expound, let him that has the gift speak to himself alone.

1Co 14:29

14:29 {14} Let the prophets speak two or three, and let the other judge.

      (14) The manner of prophesying: let two or three propound, and let the others judge of that which is propounded, whether it is agreeable to the word of God or not. If in this examination the Lord indicates that nothing was wrong, let them give him leave to speak. Let every man be admitted to prophesy, severally and in his order, so far forth as it is required for the edifying of the church. Let them be content to be subject to each other's judgment.

1Co 14:32

14:32 And the {t} spirits of the prophets are subject to the prophets.

      (t) The doctrine which the prophets bring, who are inspired with God's Spirit.

1Co 14:34

14:34 {15} Let your women keep silence in the churches: for it is not permitted unto them to speak; but [they are commanded] to be under obedience, as also saith the law.

      (15) Women are commanded to be silent in public assemblies, and they are commanded to ask of their husbands at home.

1Co 14:36

14:36 {16} What? came the word of God out from you? or came it unto you only?

      (16) A general conclusion of the treatise of the right use of spiritual gifts in assemblies. And this is with a sharp reprehension, lest the Corinthians might seem to themselves to be the only ones who are wise.

1Co 14:37

14:37 If any man think himself to be a prophet, or {u} spiritual, let him acknowledge that the things that I write unto you are the commandments of the Lord.

      (u) Skilful in knowing and judging spiritual things.

1Co 14:38

14:38 {17} But if any man be ignorant, let him be ignorant.

      (17) The church ought not to care for those who are stubbornly ignorant, and will not abide to be taught, but to go forward nonetheless in those things which are right.

1Co 14:39

14:39 {18} Wherefore, brethren, covet to prophesy, and forbid not to speak with tongues.

      (18) Prophecy ought certainly to be retained and kept in congregations, and the gift of tongues is not to be forbidden, but all things must be done orderly.

1Co 15:1

15:1 Moreover, {1} brethren, I declare unto you the gospel which I preached unto you, which also ye have received, and wherein ye {a} stand;

      (1) The sixth treatise of this epistle, concerning the resurrection: and he uses a transition, or passing over from one matter to another, showing first that he brings no new thing, to the end that the Corinthians might understand that they had begun to swerve from the right course. And next that he does not go about to entreat of a trifling matter, but of another chief point of the Gospel, which if it is taken away, their faith will necessarily come to nothing. And so at the length he begins this treatise at Christ's resurrection, which is the ground and foundation of ours, and confirms it first by the testimony of the scriptures and by the witness of the apostles, and of more than five hundred brethren, and last of all by his own.
      (a) In the profession of which you still continue.

1Co 15:2

15:2 By which also ye are saved, if ye keep in memory what I preached unto you, {b} unless ye have believed in vain.

      (b) Which is very absurd, and cannot be, for they that believe must reap the fruit of faith.

1Co 15:5

15:5 And that he was seen of Cephas, then of the {c} twelve:

      (c) Of those twelve picked and chosen apostles, who were commonly called twelve, though Judas was put out of the number.

1Co 15:6

15:6 After that, he was seen of above five hundred brethren at {d} once; of whom the greater part remain unto this present, but some are fallen asleep.

      (d) Not at several different times, but together and at one instant.

1Co 15:8

15:8 {2} And last of all he was seen of me also, as of one born out of due time.

      (2) He maintains along the way the authority of his apostleship, which was required to be in good credit among the Corinthians, that this epistle might be of force and weight among them. In the mean time he compares himself, under divine inspiration, in such a way with certain others, that he makes himself inferior to them all.

1Co 15:12

15:12 {3} Now if Christ be preached that he rose from the dead, how say some among you that there is no resurrection of the dead?

      (3) The first argument to prove that there is a resurrection from the dead: Christ is risen again, therefore the dead will rise again.

1Co 15:13

15:13 {4} But if there be no resurrection of the dead, then is Christ not risen:

      (4) The second by an absurdity: if there is no resurrection of the dead, then Christ is not risen again.

1Co 15:14

15:14 {5} And if Christ be not risen, then [is] our preaching vain, and your faith [is] also vain.

      (5) The proof of that absurdity, by other absurdities: if Christ is not risen again, the preaching of the Gospel is in vain, and the credit that you gave to it is vain, and we are liars.

1Co 15:16

15:16 {6} For if the dead rise not, then is not Christ raised:

      (6) He repeats the same argument taken from an absurdity, purposing to show how faith is in vain if the resurrection of Christ is taken away.

1Co 15:17

15:17 And if Christ be not raised, your faith [is] vain; {7} ye are {e} yet in your sins.

      (7) First, seeing death is the punishment of sin, in vain should we believe that our sins were forgiven us, if they remain: but they do remain, if Christ did not rise from death.
      (e) They are yet in their sins who are not sanctified, nor have obtained remission of their sins.

1Co 15:18

15:18 {8} Then they also which are fallen asleep in Christ are perished.

      (8) Secondly, unless it is certain that Christ rose again, all those who died in Christ have perished. So then, what profit comes of faith?

1Co 15:19

15:19 {9} If in this life only we have hope in Christ, we are of all men most miserable.

      (9) The third argument which is also taken from an absurdity: for unless there is another life, in which those who trust and believe in Christ will be blessed, they are the most miserable of all creatures, because in this life they would be the most miserable.

1Co 15:20

15:20 {10} But now is Christ risen from the dead, {11} [and] become the {f} firstfruits of them that slept.

      (10) A conclusion of the former argument: therefore Christ is risen again.
      (11) He puts the last conclusion for the first proposition of the argument that follows. Christ is risen again: therefore will we the faithful (for of them he speaks) rise again. Then follows the first reason of this conclusion: for Christ is set forth to us to be considered of, not as a private man apart and by himself, but as the firstfruits: and he takes that which was known to all men, that is, that the whole heap is sanctified in the firstfruits.
      (f) He alludes to the firstfruits of grain, the offering of which sanctified the rest of the fruits.

1Co 15:21

15:21 {12} For since by man [came] death, by man [came] also the resurrection of the dead.

      (12) Another confirmation of the same conclusion: for Christ is to be considered as opposite to Adam, that as from one man Adam, sin came over all, so from one man Christ, life comes to all. That is to say, that all the faithful, who die because by nature they were born of Adam, so because in Christ they are made the children of God by grace, they are made alive and restored to life by him.

1Co 15:22

15:22 For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be {g} made alive.

      (g) Will rise by the power of Christ.

1Co 15:23

15:23 {13} But every man in his own order: Christ the firstfruits; afterward they that are Christ's at his coming.

      (13) He does two things together: for he shows that the resurrection is in such sort common to Christ with all his members, that nonetheless he far surpasses them, both in time (for he was the first that rose again from the dead) and also in honour, because from him and in him is all our life and glory. Then by this occasion he passes to the next argument.

1Co 15:24

15:24 {14} Then [cometh] the {h} end, when he shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the Father; when he shall have put down {i} all rule and all authority and power.

      (14) The fourth argument with which also he confirms the other, has a most sure ground, that is, because God must reign. And this is the manner of his reign, that the Father will be shown to be King in his Son who was made man, to whom all things are made subject (the promiser being the only exception) to the end that the Father may afterward triumph in his Son the conqueror. And he makes two parts of this reign and dominion of the Son in which the Father's glory consists: that is first, the overcoming of his enemies, in which some must be deprived of all power, as Satan and all the wicked, be they ever so proud and mighty, and others must be utterly abolished, as death. And second, a plain and full delivery of the godly from all enemies, that by this means God may fully set forth the body of the Church cleaving fast to their head Christ, his kingdom and glory, as a King among his subjects. Moreover he puts the first degree of his kingdom in the resurrection of the Son, who is the head: and the perfection, in the full conjunction of the members with the head, which will be in the latter day. Now all these tend to this purpose, to show that unless the dead do rise again, neither the Father can be King above all, neither Christ the Lord of all. For neither should the power of Satan and death be overcome, nor the glory of God be full in his Son, nor his Son in his members.
      (h) The conclusion and finishing of all things.
      (i) All his enemies who will be robbed of all the power that they have.

1Co 15:25

15:25 For he must reign, till he hath put all enemies {k} under his feet.

      (k) Christ is considered here as he appeared in the form of a servant, in which respect he rules the Church as head, and that because this power was given to him from his Father.

1Co 15:26

15:26 The {l} last enemy [that] shall be destroyed [is] death.

      (l) The conclusion of the argument, which is taken from the whole to the part: for if all his enemies will be put under his feet, then it will necessarily be that death also will be subdued under him.

1Co 15:28

15:28 And when all things shall be subdued unto him, {m} then shall the Son also himself be subject unto him that put all things under him, that {n} God may be all in all.

      (m) Not because the Son was not subject to his Father before, but because his body, that is to say, the Church which is here in distress, and not yet wholly partaker of his glory, is not yet fully perfect: and also because the bodies of the saints which are in the graves, will not be glorified until the resurrection. But Christ as he is God, has us subject to him as his Father has, but as he is Priest, he is subject to his Father together with us. Augustine, book 1, chap. 8, of the trinity.
      (n) By this high type of speech is set forth an incomprehensible glory which flows from God, and will fill all of us, as we are joined together with our head, but yet in such a way that our head will always preserve his preeminence.

1Co 15:29

15:29 {15} Else what shall they do which are baptized {o} for the dead, if the dead rise not at all? why are they then baptized for the dead?

      (15) The fifth argument taken of the end of baptism, that is, because those who are baptized, are baptized for dead: that is to say, that they may have a remedy against death, because baptism is a token of regeneration.
      (o) They that are baptized to this end and purpose, that death may be put out in them, or to rise again from the dead, of which baptism is a seal.

1Co 15:30

15:30 {16} And why stand we in jeopardy every hour?

      (16) The sixth argument: unless there is a resurrection of the dead, why should the apostles so daily cast themselves into danger of so many deaths?

1Co 15:31

15:31 I protest by your {p} rejoicing which I have in Christ Jesus our Lord, I die daily.

      (p) As though he said, "I die daily, as all the miseries I suffer can well witness, which I may truly boast of, that I have suffered among you."

1Co 15:32

15:32 {17} If {q} after the manner of men I have fought with beasts at Ephesus, what advantageth it me, if the dead rise not? {18} let us {r} eat and drink; for to morrow we die.

      (17) The taking away of an objection: but you, Paul, were ambitious, as men commonly and are accustomed to be, when you fought with beasts at Ephesus. That is very likely, says Paul: for what could that profit me, were it not for the glory of eternal life which I hope for?
      (q) Not upon any godly motion, nor casting my eyes upon God, but carried away with vain glory, or a certain headiness.
      (18) The seventh argument which depends upon the last: if there is no resurrection of the dead, why do we give ourselves to anything else, except for eating and drinking?
      (r) These are sayings of the Epicureans.

1Co 15:33

15:33 {19} Be not deceived: evil communications corrupt good manners.

      (19) The conclusion with a sharp exhortation, that they take heed of the wicked company of certain ones. And from this he shows where this evil sprang from: warning them to be wise with sobriety to righteousness.

1Co 15:35

15:35 {20} But some [man] will say, How are the dead raised up? and with what body do they come?

      (20) Now that he has proved the resurrection, he demonstrates their doltishness, in that they scoffingly demanded how it could be that the dead could rise again: and if they did rise again, they asked mockingly, what manner of bodies they should have. Therefore he sends these fellows, who seemed to themselves to be marvellously wise and intelligent, to be instructed of poor rude farmers.

1Co 15:36

15:36 {21} [Thou] fool, that which thou sowest is not quickened, except it die:

      (21) You might have learned either of these, Paul says, by daily experience: for seeds are sown, and rot, and yet nonetheless they are far from perishing, but rather they grow up far more beautiful. And whereas they are sown naked and dry, they spring up green from death by the power of God: and does it seem incredible to you that our bodies should rise from corruption, and that endued with a far more excellent quality?

1Co 15:38

15:38 {22} But God giveth it a body as it hath pleased him, and to every seed his own body.

      (22) We see a diversity both in one and the self same thing which has now one form and then another, and yet keeps its own type: as it is evident in a grain which is sown bare, but springs up far after another sort: and also in different types of one self same sort, as among beasts: and also among things of different sorts, as the heavenly bodies and the earthly bodies; which also differ very much one from another. Therefore there is no reason why we should reject either the resurrection of the bodies, or the changing of them into a better state, as a thing impossible, or strange.

1Co 15:42

15:42 {23} So also [is] the resurrection of the dead. It is {s} sown in corruption; it is raised in incorruption:

      (23) He makes three manner of qualities of the bodies being raised: first, incorruption, that is, because they will be sound and altogether of a nature that can not be corrupt. Second, glory, because they will be adorned with beauty and honour. Third, power, because they will continue everlasting, without food, drink, and all other helps, without which this frail life cannot keep itself from corruption.
      (s) Is buried, and man is hid as seed in the ground.

1Co 15:43

15:43 It is sown in {t} dishonour; it is raised in glory: it is sown in weakness; it is raised in {u} power:

      (t) Void of honour, void of glory and beauty.
      (u) Freed from the former weakness, in which it is subject to such alteration and change, that it cannot maintain itself without food and drink and such other like helps.

1Co 15:44

15:44 {24} It is sown a natural body; it is raised a spiritual body. There is a natural body, and there is a spiritual body.

      (24) He shows perfectly in one word this change of the quality of the body by the resurrection, when he says that a natural body will become a spiritual body: which two qualities being completely different the one from the other he straightway expounds, and sets forth diligently.

1Co 15:45

15:45 {25} And so it is written, The {x} first man Adam was made a living soul; the last Adam [was made] a {y} quickening spirit.

      (25) That is called a natural body which is made alive and maintained by a living soul only in the manner that Adam was, of whom we are all born naturally. And that is said to be a spiritual body, which together with the soul is made alive with a far more excellent power, that is, with the Spirit of God, who descends from Christ the second Adam to us.
      (x) Adam is called the first man, because he is the root as it were from which we spring. And Christ is the latter man, because he is the beginning of all those that are spiritual, and in him we are all included.
      (y) Christ is called a Spirit, by reason of that most excellent nature, that is to say, God who dwells in him bodily, as Adam is called a living soul, by reason of the soul which is the best part in him.

1Co 15:46

15:46 {26} Howbeit that [was] not first which is spiritual, but that which is natural; and afterward that which is spiritual.

      (26) Secondly, he wills the order of this twofold state or quality to be observed, that the natural was first, Adam being created of the clay of the earth. And the spiritual follows and came upon it, that is, when the Lord being sent from heaven, endued our flesh, which was prepared and made fit for him, with the fulness of the Godhead.

1Co 15:47

15:47 The first man [is] of the earth, {z} earthy: the second man [is] the Lord from {a} heaven.

      (z) Wallowing in dirt, and wholly given to an earthly nature.
      (a) As Adam was the first man, Christ is the second man; and these two are spoken of, as if they were the only two men in the world; because as the former was the head and representative of all his natural posterity, so the latter is the head and representative of all the spiritual offspring: and that he is "the Lord from heaven"; in distinction from the first man. (Ed.)

1Co 15:48

15:48 {27} As [is] the earthy, such [are] they also that are earthy: and as [is] the heavenly, such [are] they also that are heavenly.

      (27) He applies both the earthly naturalness of Adam (if I may so say) to our bodies, so long as they are naturally conversant upon earth, that is, in this life, and in the grave. And also the spirituality of Christ to our same bodies, after they are risen again: and he says that the former goes before, and that this latter will follow.

1Co 15:49

15:49 And as we have borne the {b} image of the earthy, we shall also bear the image of the heavenly.

      (b) Not a vain and false image, but such a one as indeed had the truth with it.

1Co 15:50

15:50 {28} Now this I say, brethren, that {c} flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God; neither doth corruption inherit incorruption.

      (28) The conclusion: we cannot be partakers of the glory of God unless we put off all that gross and filthy nature of our bodies subject to corruption, that the same body may be adorned with incorruptible glory.
      (c) Flesh and blood are taken here for a living body, which cannot attain to incorruption, unless it puts off corruption.

1Co 15:51

15:51 {29} Behold, I shew you a {d} mystery; We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed,

      (29) He goes further, declaring that it will come to pass that those who will be found alive in the latter day will not descend into that corruption of the grave, but will be renewed with a sudden change, which change is very necessary. And he further states that the certain enjoying of the benefit and victory of Christ, is deferred to that latter time.
      (d) A thing that has been hid, and never known before now, and therefore worthy that you give good care to it.

1Co 15:52

15:52 In {e} a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed.

      (e) He shows that the time will be very short.

1Co 15:58

15:58 {30} Therefore, my beloved brethren, be ye stedfast, unmoveable, always abounding in the work of the Lord, forasmuch as ye know that your labour is not in vain in the {f} Lord.

      (30) An exhortation taken from the profit that ensues, that seeing they understand that the glory of the other life is laid up for faithful workmen, they continue and stand fast in the truth of the doctrine of the resurrection of the dead.
      (f) Through the Lord's help and goodness working in us.

1Co 16:1

16:1 Now concerning {1} the collection for the saints, as I have given order to the churches of Galatia, even so do ye.

      (1) Collections in ancient times were made by the appointment of the apostle appointment to be the first day of the week, on which day the manner was then to assemble themselves.

1Co 16:2

16:2 Upon the {a} first [day] of the week let every one of you lay by him in store, as [God] hath {b} prospered him, that there be no gatherings when I come.

      (a) Which in times past was called Sunday, but now is called the Lord's day.
      (b) That every man bestow according to the ability that God has blessed him with.

1Co 16:3

16:3 And when I come, whomsoever ye shall approve by [your] {c} letters, them will I send to bring your liberality unto Jerusalem.

      (c) Which you will give to them to carry.

1Co 16:4

16:4 {2} And if it be meet that I go also, they shall go with me.

      (2) The rest of the epistle is spent in writing of familiar matters, yet so that all things are referred to his purposed mark, that is to say, to the glory of God, and the edifying of the Corinthians.

1Co 16:9

16:9 For a great door and {d} effectual is opened unto me, and [there are] many adversaries.

      (d) Very fit and convenient to do great things by.

1Co 16:10

16:10 Now if Timotheus come, see that he may be with you {e} without fear: for he worketh the work of the Lord, as I also [do].

      (e) Without any just occasion of fear.

1Co 16:11

16:11 Let no man therefore despise him: but conduct him forth {f} in peace, that he may come unto me: for I look for him with the brethren.

      (f) Safe and sound, and that with every type of courtesy.

1Co 16:15

16:15 I beseech you, brethren, (ye know the house of {g} Stephanas, that it is the firstfruits of Achaia, and [that] they have {h} addicted themselves to the ministry of the saints,)

      (g) Stephanas is the name of a man and not of a woman.
      (h) Given themselves wholly to the ministry.

1Co 16:16

16:16 That ye {i} submit yourselves unto such, and to every one that helpeth with [us], and laboureth.

      (i) That you honour and revere them, be obedient to them, and be content to be ruled by them, as you properly should, seeing that they have bestowed themselves and their goods, and this to help you with them.

1Co 16:18

16:18 For they have refreshed my {k} spirit and yours: therefore {l} acknowledge ye them that are such.

      (k) My heart.
      (l) Take them for such men as they are indeed.

1Co 16:22

16:22 If any man love not the Lord Jesus Christ, let him be Anathema {m} Maranatha.

      (m) By these words are meant the severest type of curse and excommunication that was among the Jews: and the words are as much as to say, "As our Lord comes". So that his meaning may be this, "Let him be accursed even to the coming of the Lord", that is to say, to the day of his death, even for ever.

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