1 Samuel
2 Samuel
1 Kings
2 Kings
1 Chronicles
2 Chronicles

Song of Songs



1 Corinthians
2 Corinthians
1 Thessalonians
2 Thessalonians
1 Timothy
2 Timothy

1 Peter
2 Peter
1 John
2 John
3 John

Revelation 1-11
Revelation 12-22

Notes on John
From the Original 1599 Geneva Bible Notes

Joh 1:1

1:1 In {1} the {a} beginning {b} was {c} the Word, and the Word was {d} with God, and the {e} Word was God.

      (1) The Son of God is of one and the selfsame eternity or everlastingness, and of one and the selfsame essence or nature with the Father.
      (a) From the beginning, as the evangelist says in 1Jo 1:1 ; it is as though he said that the Word did not begin to have his being when God began to make all that was made: for the Word was even then when all things that were made began to be made, and therefore he was before the beginning of all things.
      (b) Had his being.
      (c) This word "the" points out to us a peculiar and choice thing above all others, and puts a difference between this "Word", which is the Son of God, and the laws of God, which are also called the word of God.
      (d) This word "with" points out that there is a distinction of persons here.
      (e) This word "Word" is the first in order in the sentence, and is the subject of the sentence, and this word "God" is the latter in order, and is the predicate of the sentence.

Joh 1:3

1:3 {2} All {f} things were made by him; and {g} without him {h} was not any thing made that was made.

      (2) The Son of God declares that his everlasting Godhead is the same as the Father's, both by the creating of all things, and also by preserving them, and especially by the excellent gifts of reason and understanding with which he has beautified man above all other creatures.
      (f) Paul expounds on this in Col 1:15-16 .
      (g) That is, as the Father did work, so did the Son work with him: for the Son was a fellow worker with him.
      (h) Of all those things which were made, nothing was made without him.

Joh 1:4

1:4 {i} In him {k} was life; and the life was {l} the light of men.

      (i) That is, by him: and this is spoken after the manner of the Hebrews, meaning by this that by his force and working power all life comes to the world.
      (k) That is, even at that time when all things were made by him, for otherwise he would have said, "Life in him", and not "life was".
      (l) That force of reason and understanding which is kindled in our minds to acknowledge him, the author of so great a benefit.

Joh 1:5

1:5 {3} And the light shineth in darkness; and the darkness {m} comprehended it not.

      (3) The light of men is turned into darkness, but yet there is enough clearness so that they are without excuse.
      (m) They could not perceive nor reach it to receive any light from it, no, they did not so much as acknowledge him.

Joh 1:6

1:6 {4} There was a man sent from God, whose name [was] John.

      (4) There is another more full manifestation of the Son of God, by the consideration of which men are in good time stirred up, even to John's voice, who is as it were the herald of Christ.

Joh 1:7

1:7 The same came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all [men] {n} through him might believe.

      (n) Through John.

Joh 1:8

1:8 He was not {o} that Light, but [was sent] to bear witness of that Light.

      (o) That light which we spoke of, that is, Christ, who alone can enlighten our darkness.

Joh 1:9

1:9 {5} [That] was {p} the true Light, which lighteth every man that cometh into the world.

      (5) When the Son of God saw that men did not acknowledge him by his works, although they were endued with understanding
      (which he had given to all of them), he exhibited himself unto his people to be seen by them with their physical eyes: yet not even then did they acknowledge him or receive him.
      (p) Who alone and properly deserves to be called the light, for he shines by his own accord and borrows light from no one.

Joh 1:10

1:10 {q} He was in the world, and the world was made by him, and the world knew him not.

      (q) The person of the Word was made manifest even at that time when the world was made.

Joh 1:11

1:11 He came {r} unto his own, and his own received him not.

      (r) The Word showed himself again when he came in the flesh.

Joh 1:12

1:12 {6} But as many as received him, to them gave he {s} power to become the sons of God, [even] to them that believe on his name:

      (6) The Son being shut out by the majority of his people, and acknowledged but by a few, regenerates those few by his own strength and power, and receives them into that honour which is common to all the children of God, that is, to be the sons of God.
      (s) He condescended to give them this power to take them to be his children.

Joh 1:13

1:13 Which were born, not of blood, nor of the {t} will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God.

      (t) Of that shameful and corrupt nature of man, which is throughout the scriptures described as an enemy of the spirit.

Joh 1:14

1:14 {7} And the Word was made {u} flesh, and {x} dwelt among us, (and we beheld his {y} glory, the glory {z} as of the only begotten of the Father,) {a} full of grace and truth.

      (7) That Son who is God from everlasting took upon himself man's nature, so that one and the selfsame might be both God and man, who manifestly appeared to many witnesses that saw him, amongst whom he was conversant and unto whom by sure and undoubted arguments he showed both of his natures.
      (u) That is, man: so that, by the figure of speech synecdoche, the part is taken for the whole: for he took upon himself our entire nature, that is to say, a true body, and a true soul.
      (x) For a time, and when that was ended, he went up into heaven: for the word which he uses is used with reference to tents: and yet nonetheless he is always present with us, though not in flesh, but by the power of his spirit.
      (y) The glory which he speaks of here is that manifestation of Christ's majesty, which was as it were openly placed before our eyes when the Son of God appeared in the flesh.
      (z) This word "as" does not indicate here a likeness, but rather the truth of the matter, for his meaning is this, that we saw such a glory which suited and was proper for the true and only begotten Son of God, who is Lord and King over all the world.
      (a) He was not only a partaker of grace and truth, but was full of the very substance of grace and truth.

Joh 1:15

1:15 {8} John bare witness of him, and cried, saying, This was he of whom I spake, He that cometh {b} after me is preferred {c} before me: for he was before me.

      (8) John is a faithful witness of the excellency of Christ.
      (b) That is, "He before whom I am sent to prepare him the way": so that these words refer to the time of his calling, and not of his age, for John was six months older than Christ.
      (c) This sentence has in it a turning of the reason as we call it, as one would say, a setting of that first which should be last, and that last which should be first: for in plain speech it is this, "He that comes after me, is better than I am, for he was before me." We find a similar turning of the reason in Lu 7:47 : "Many sins are forgiven her, because she loved much", which is this much to say, "She loved much, because many sins are forgiven her."

Joh 1:16

1:16 {9} And of his fulness have all we received, and {d} grace for grace.

      (9) Christ is the most plentiful fountain of all goodness, but he gave out his gifts most bountifully at that time when he exhibited and showed himself to the world.
      (d) That is, grace upon grace; as one would say, graces piled one upon another.

Joh 1:18

1:18 {10} No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, which is in the {e} bosom of the Father, he hath {f} declared [him].

      (10) The true knowledge of God proceeds only from Jesus Christ.
      (e) Who is nearest to his Father, not only in respect of his love towards him, but by the bond of nature, and by means of that union or oneness that is between them, by which the Father and the Son are one.
      (f) Revealed him and showed him unto us, whereas before he was hidden under the shadows of the law, so that our minds were not able to perceive him: for whoever sees him, sees the Father also.

Joh 1:19

1:19 {11} And this is the record of John, when the Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, Who art thou?

      (11) John is neither the Messiah, nor like any of the other prophets, but is the herald of Christ, who is now present.

Joh 1:20

1:20 And he {g} confessed, and {h} denied not; but confessed, I am not the Christ.

      (g) He did acknowledge him, and spoke of him plainly and openly.
      (h) This repeating of the one and the selfsame thing, though in different words, is often used by the Hebrews, and it has great force, for they used to speak one thing twice in order to set it out more certainly and plainly.

Joh 1:21

1:21 And they asked him, What then? Art thou Elias? And he saith, {i} I am not. Art thou {k} that prophet? And he answered, No.

      (i) The Jews thought that Elias would come again before the days of the Messiah, and they took as the basis of their opinion Mal 4:5 , which is to be understood as referring to John, see Mt 11:14 . And yet John denies that he is Elias, answering their question just as they meant it.
      (k) They are inquiring about some great prophet, and not about Christ, for John denied before that he is Christ, for they thought that some great prophet would be sent like Moses, using to support this position De 18:15 , which is to be understood to refer to all the company of the prophets and ministers, which have been and shall be to the end, and especially of Christ who is the head of all prophets.

Joh 1:24

1:24 {12} And they which were sent were of the Pharisees.

      (12) Christ is the author of baptism, and not John: and therefore the authority of this does not come from John, who is the minister, but wholly from Christ the Lord.

Joh 1:25

1:25 And they asked him, and said unto him, {l} Why baptizest thou then, if thou be not that Christ, nor Elias, neither that prophet?

      (l) By this we may prove that the Jews knew there should be some change in religion under the Messiah.

Joh 1:26

1:26 John answered them, saying, I baptize with water: but there standeth one {m} among you, whom ye know not;

      (m) Whom all the world sees, and sees even amongst you.

Joh 1:29

1:29 {13} The next day John seeth Jesus coming unto him, and saith, Behold {n} the Lamb of God, which {o} taketh away the {p} sin of the world.

      (13) The body and truth of all the sacrifices of the law, to make satisfaction for the sin of the world, is Christ.
      (n) This word "the" which is added has great force in it, not only to set forth the worthiness of Christ, and so to separate him for the "lamb" which was a symbol of him, and from all other sacrifices of the law, but also to remind us of the prophecies of Isaiah and others.
      (o) This word is in the present tense, and signifies a continuous act, for the Lamb rightfully has this power both now and forever to take away the sins of the world.
      (p) That is, that root of sins, namely, our corruption, and so consequently the fruits of sins, which are commonly called in the plural number, sins.

Joh 1:31

1:31 And {q} I knew him not: but that he should be made manifest to Israel, therefore am I come baptizing with water.

      (q) I never knew him by face before.

Joh 1:32

1:32 {14} And John bare record, saying, I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove, and it abode upon him.

      (14) Christ is proved to be the Son of God by the coming down of the Holy Spirit, by the Father's voice, and by John's testimony.

Joh 1:34

1:34 And I saw, and bare record that this is {r} the Son of God.

      (r) This word "the" points out to us some excellent thing, and makes a distinction between Christ and others, whom Moses and the prophets commonly call the sons of the most High.

Joh 1:35

1:35 {15} Again the next day after John stood, and two of his disciples;

      (15) John gathers disciples not to himself, but to Christ.

Joh 1:36

1:36 {16} And looking upon Jesus as he walked, he saith, Behold the Lamb of God!

      (16) Christ is set before us to follow, not as a vain shadow, but as our Mediator.

Joh 1:37

1:37 {17} And the two disciples heard him speak, and they followed Jesus.

      (17) In this first gathering of the disciples we have shown to us that the beginning of salvation is from God, who calls us unto his Son by the ministry of his servants: whom, as he guides us, we must also hear, and follow him home, so that being instructed by him we may also instruct others.

Joh 1:38

1:38 Then Jesus turned, and saw them following, and saith unto them, What seek ye? They said unto him, Rabbi, (which is to say, being interpreted, Master,) {s} where dwellest thou?

      (s) Where is your lodging?

Joh 1:39

1:39 He saith unto them, Come and see. They came and saw where he dwelt, and abode with him that day: for it was about the {t} tenth hour.

      (t) It was getting later in the night.

Joh 1:41

1:41 He first findeth his own brother Simon, and saith unto him, We have found the Messias, which is, being interpreted, the {u} Christ.

      (u) That is, anointed, and king after the manner of the Jewish people.

Joh 1:45

1:45 {18} Philip findeth Nathanael, and saith unto him, We have found him, of whom Moses in the law, and the prophets, did write, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph.

      (18) God uses the good endeavours of the unlearned such that he makes them teachers of the learned.

Joh 1:46

1:46 {19} And Nathanael said unto him, Can there any good thing come out of Nazareth? Philip saith unto him, Come and see.

      (19) We must especially take heed of false presumptions, which prevent us from entrance to Christ.

Joh 1:47

1:47 {20} Jesus saw Nathanael coming to him, and saith of him, Behold an Israelite indeed, in whom is no guile!

      (20) Simple uprightness discerns the true Israelites from the false.

Joh 1:48

1:48 {21} Nathanael saith unto him, Whence knowest thou me? Jesus answered and said unto him, Before that Philip called thee, when thou wast under the fig tree, I saw thee.

      (21) The purpose of miracles is to set before us Christ the Almighty, and also the only author of our salvation, in order that we may apprehend him by faith.

Joh 1:51

1:51 And he saith unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Hereafter ye shall see heaven open, and the angels of God {x} ascending and descending upon the Son of man.

      (x) These words signify the power of God which would appear in Christ's ministry by the angels serving him as the head of the Church.

Joh 2:1

2:1 And {1} the {a} third day there was a marriage in Cana of Galilee; and the mother of Jesus was there:

      (1) Christ, declaring openly in an assembly by a notable miracle that he has power over the nature of things to feed man's body, leads the minds of all men to consider his spiritual and saving strength and power.
      (a) After the talk which he had with Nathanael, or after his departure from John, or after he came into Galilee.

Joh 2:3

2:3 {2} And when they wanted wine, the mother of Jesus saith unto him, They have no wine.

      (2) Christ takes good enough care of our salvation, and therefore has no need of others to remind of it.

Joh 2:4

2:4 Jesus saith unto her, Woman, what have I to do with thee? mine {b} hour is not yet come.

      (b) My appointed time.

Joh 2:6

2:6 And there were set there six {c} waterpots of stone, after the manner of the purifying of the Jews, containing two or three {d} firkins apiece.

      (c) These were vessels made for the use of water, in which they washed themselves.
      (d) Every firkin contained one hundred pounds, at twelve ounces a pound: By this we gather that Christ helps them with one thousand and eight hundred pounds of wine. (about 135 imperial gallons or 600 litres Ed.)

Joh 2:10

2:10 And saith unto him, Every man at the beginning doth set forth good wine; and when men have {e} well drunk, then that which is worse: [but] thou hast kept the good wine until now.

      (e) Literally, "are drunken". Now this saying, to be drunken, does not always refer to being drunk in the evil sense in the Hebrew language, but sometimes signifies an abundant and plentiful use of wine, which is nonetheless a measured amount, as in Ge 43:34 .

Joh 2:12

2:12 After this he went down to Capernaum, he, and his mother, and his {f} brethren, and his disciples: and they continued there not many days.

      (f) That is, his cousins.

Joh 2:13

2:13 {3} And the Jews' passover was at hand, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem,

      (3) Christ being made subject to the law for us, satisfies the law of the passover.

Joh 2:14

2:14 {4} And found in the temple those that sold oxen and sheep and doves, and the changers of money sitting:

      (4) Christ being ordained to purge the Church with great zeal begins his office both of Priest and Prophet.

Joh 2:17

2:17 And his disciples remembered that it was written, The {g} zeal of thine house hath eaten me up.

      (g) "Zeal" in this place is taken for a wrathful indignation and displeasure of the mind, brought about when someone deals wickedly and evilly towards those whom we love well.

Joh 2:18

2:18 {5} Then answered the Jews and said unto him, What {h} sign shewest thou unto us, seeing that thou doest these things?

      (5) Against those who so bind God to an ordinary calling, which they themselves most shamefully abuse, that they will not admit of an extraordinary calling, which God confirms from heaven (and they would have it extinguished, although in vain) unless it is sealed with outward and bodily miracles.
      (h) With what miracle do you confirm it, that we may see the heavenly power and strength which gives you authority to speak and to act in this manner?

Joh 2:21

2:21 But he spake of the {i} temple of his body.

      (i) That is, of his body.

Joh 2:24

2:24 {6} But Jesus did not commit himself unto them, because he knew all [men],

      (6) It is not good giving credit to those who trust only because of miracles.

Joh 2:25

2:25 {7} And needed not that any should testify of man: for he knew what was in man.

      (7) Christ is the searcher of hearts, and therefore truly God.

Joh 3:1

3:1 There {1} was a man of the Pharisees, named Nicodemus, a {a} ruler of the Jews:

      (1) There are none sometimes more unlearned than the learned, but the learned as well as the unlearned must desire wisdom from Christ only.
      (a) A man of great estimation and a ruler amongst the Jews.

Joh 3:2

3:2 The same came to Jesus by night, and said unto him, Rabbi, we know that thou art a {b} teacher come from God: for no man can do these miracles that thou doest, {c} except God be with him.

      (b) We know that you are sent from God to teach us.
      (c) But he in whom some part of the excellency of God appears. And if Nicodemus had rightly known Christ, he would not only have said that God was with him, but in him, as Paul does in 2Co 1:19 .

Joh 3:3

3:3 {2} Jesus answered and said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born again, he cannot {d} see the {e} kingdom of God.

      (2) The beginning of Christianity consists in this, that we know ourselves not only to be corrupt in part, but to be wholly dead in sin: so that our nature has need to be created anew, with regard to its qualities, which can be done by no other power, but by the divine and heavenly, by which we were first created.
      (d) That is, "go in", or "enter", as he expounds himself below in Joh 3:5 .
      (e) The Church: for Christ shows here how we come to be citizens and to have anything to do in the city of God.

Joh 3:4

3:4 Nicodemus saith unto him, How {f} can a man be born when he is old? can he enter the second time into his mother's womb, and be born?

      (f) How can I who am old be born again? For Nicodemus answers as if Christ's words were only addressed to himself.

Joh 3:6

3:6 That which is born of the flesh is {g} flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit.

      (g) That is, fleshly, namely, wholly unclean and under the wrath of God: and therefore this word "flesh" signifies the corrupt nature of man: contrary to which is the Spirit, that is, the man ingrafted into Christ through the grace of the Holy Spirit, whose nature is everlasting and immortal, though the strife of the flesh remains.

Joh 3:8

3:8 The wind bloweth where it {h} listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it goeth: so is every one that is born of the Spirit.

      (h) With free and wandering blasts as it wishes.

Joh 3:9

3:9 {3} Nicodemus answered and said unto him, How can these things be?

      (3) The secret mystery of our regeneration which cannot be comprehended by man's capacity, is perceived by faith, and that in Christ only, because he is both God on earth, and man in heaven, that is to say, man in such a way that he is God also, and therefore almighty: and God in such a way that he is man also, and therefore his power is made manifest to us.

Joh 3:11

3:11 Verily, verily, I say unto thee, We speak that we do know, and testify that we have seen; and ye receive not our {i} witness.

      (i) You handle doubtful things even though you have no solid basis for believing them, and yet men believe you: but I teach those things that are of a truth and well known, and you do not believe me.

Joh 3:13

3:13 And no {k} man {l} hath ascended up to heaven, but he that came down from heaven, [even] {m} the Son of man which {n} is in heaven.

      (k) Only Christ can teach us heavenly things, for no man ascends, etc.
      (l) That is, has any spiritual light and understanding, or ever had any, but only the Son of God who came down to us.
      (m) Whereas he is said to have come down from heaven, this must be understood as referring to his Godhead, and of the manner of his conception: for Christ's birth upon the earth was heavenly and not earthly, for he was conceived by the Holy Spirit.
      (n) That which is proper to the divinity of Christ, is here spoken of the whole Christ, to show us that he is but one person in which two natures are united.

Joh 3:16

3:16 {5} For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth {o} in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.

      (5) Nothing else but the free love of the Father is the beginning of our salvation, and Christ is he in whom our righteousness and salvation dwells: and faith is the instrument or means by which we apprehend it, and everlasting life is that which is set before us to apprehend.
      (o) It is not the same to believe in a thing, and to believe about a thing, for we may not believe in anything except in God alone, but we may believe about anything whatever, says Nazianzene in his Oration of the Spirit.

Joh 3:17

3:17 {6} For God sent not his Son into the world {p} to condemn the world; but that the {q} world through him might be saved.

      (6) Christ does not condemn, but rather despising Christ condemns.
      (p) That is, to be the cause of the condemning of the world, for indeed sins are the cause of death; however, Christ will still judge the living and the dead.
      (q) Not only the people of the Jews, but whoever will believe in him.

Joh 3:19

3:19 {7} And this is the {r} condemnation, that light is come into the world, and men loved darkness rather than light, because their deeds were evil.

      (7) The only reason why men refuse the light that is offered to them is wickedness.
      (r) That is, the cause of condemnation, which remains in men, unless through God's great benefit they are delivered from it.

Joh 3:21

3:21 But he that {s} doeth truth cometh to the light, that his deeds may be made manifest, that they are wrought {t} in God.

      (s) That is, he that leads an honest life, and is void of all cunning and deceit.
      (t) That is, with God, God as it were going before.

Joh 3:25

3:25 {8} Then there arose a question between [some] of John's disciples and the Jews about purifying.

      (8) Satan inflames the disciples of John with a fond emulation of their master in order to hinder the course of the gospel: but John, being mindful of his office, not only puts a stop to their endeavours, but also takes occasion by that means to give testimony of Christ, that in him alone the Father has set forth everlasting life.

Joh 3:27

3:27 John answered and said, A man {u} can receive nothing, except it be given him from heaven.

      (u) Why are you trying to better my state? This is every man's lot and portion, that he cannot better himself in the slightest way.

Joh 3:31

3:31 He that cometh from above is above all: he that is of the earth is {x} earthly, and {y} speaketh of the earth: he that cometh from heaven is above all.

      (x) Is nothing else but man, a piece of work made of the slime of the earth.
      (y) Is characterized by nothing but corruption, ignorance, dulness, etc.

Joh 3:32

3:32 And what he hath {z} seen and heard, that he testifieth; and {a} no man receiveth his testimony.

      (z) What he knows fully and perfectly.
      (a) That is, very few.

Joh 3:35

3:35 The Father loveth the Son, and hath {b} given all things into his hand.

      (b) Committed them to his power and will.

Joh 3:36

3:36 He that believeth on the Son hath everlasting life: and he that believeth not the Son shall not {c} see life; but the wrath of God abideth on him.

      (c) Shall not enjoy.

Joh 4:1

4:1 When {1} therefore the Lord knew how the Pharisees had heard that Jesus made and baptized more disciples than John,

      (1) This balance is to be kept in doing our duty, that neither by fear are we terrified from going forward, and neither by rashness procure or bring dangers upon ourselves.

Joh 4:5

4:5 {2} Then cometh he to a city of Samaria, which is called Sychar, near to the parcel of ground that Jacob gave to his son Joseph.

      (2) Christ, leaving the proud Pharisees, communicates the treasures of everlasting life with a poor sinful woman and stranger, refuting the gross errors of the Samaritans, and defending the true service of God, which was delivered to the Jews, but yet in such a way that he here calls both Samaritans and Jews back to himself, as one whom only all the fathers, and also all the ceremonies of the law, regarded, and had respect for.

Joh 4:6

4:6 Now Jacob's well was there. Jesus therefore, being wearied with [his] journey, sat {a} thus on the well: [and] it was about the {b} sixth hour.

      (a) Even as he was weary, or because he was weary.
      (b) It was almost noon.

Joh 4:9

4:9 Then saith the woman of Samaria unto him, How is it that thou, being a Jew, askest drink of me, which am a woman of Samaria? for the Jews {c} have no dealings with the Samaritans.

      (c) There is no familiarity nor friendship between the Jews and the Samaritans.

Joh 4:10

4:10 Jesus answered and said unto her, If thou knewest {d} the gift of God, and who it is that saith to thee, Give me to drink; thou wouldest have asked of him, and he would have given thee {e} living water.

      (d) By this word "the" we are shown that Christ speaks of some excellent gift, that is to say, even about himself, whom his Father offered to this woman.
      (e) This everlasting water, that is to say, the exceeding love of God, is called "living" or "of life", to make a difference between it and the water that should be drawn out of a well: and these metaphors are frequently used by the Jews.

Joh 4:20

4:20 {3} Our fathers worshipped in this {f} mountain; and ye say, that in Jerusalem is the place where men ought to worship.

      (3) All the religion of superstitious people stands for the most part upon two pillars, but very weak, that is to say, upon the perverted examples of the fathers, and a foolish opinion of outward things: and to refute such errors we have to turn to the word and nature of God.
      (f) The name of this mountain is Gerizim, upon which Sanabaletta the Cuthite built a temple with the permission of Alexander of Macedonia, after the victory of Issica: and he made high priest there Manasses his son in law; Josephus, book 11.

Joh 4:23

4:23 But the hour cometh, and now is, when the true worshippers shall worship the Father in {g} spirit and in truth: for the Father seeketh such to worship him.

      (g) This word "spirit" is to be taken here as it is set against that commandment which is called carnal in He 7:16 , as the commandment is considered in itself: and so he speaks of "truth" not as we set it against a lie, but as we take it in respect of the outward ceremonies of the law, which only shadowed that which Christ indeed performed.

Joh 4:24

4:24 God [is] a {h} Spirit: and they that worship him must worship [him] in spirit and in truth.

      (h) By the word "spirit" he means the nature of the Godhead, and not the third person in the Trinity.

Joh 4:32

4:32 {4} But he said unto them, I have meat to eat that ye know not of.

      (4) We may have care of our bodies, but in such a way that we prefer willingly and freely the occasion which is offered us to enlarge the kingdom of God before all necessities of this life, whatever else they may be.

Joh 4:35

4:35 {5} Say not ye, There are yet four months, and [then] cometh harvest? behold, I say unto you, Lift up your eyes, and look on the fields; for they are white already to harvest.

      (5) When the spiritual corn is ripe, we must not linger, for so the children of this world would condemn us.

Joh 4:36

4:36 {6} And he that reapeth receiveth wages, and gathereth fruit unto life eternal: that both he that soweth and he that reapeth may rejoice together.

      (6) The doctrine of the prophets was as it were a sowing time, and the doctrine of the gospel, as the harvest: and there is an excellent agreement between them both, and the ministers of them both.

Joh 4:37

4:37 And herein is that {i} saying true, One soweth, and another reapeth.

      (i) That proverb.

Joh 4:39

4:39 {7} And many of the Samaritans of that city believed on him for the saying of the woman, which testified, He told me all that ever I did.

      (7) The Samaritans most joyfully embrace that which the Jews most stubbornly rejected.

Joh 4:43

4:43 {8} Now after two days he departed thence, and went into {k} Galilee.

      (8) The despisers of Christ deprive themselves of his benefit: yet Christ prepares a place for himself.
      (k) Into the towns and villages of Galilee, for he would not live in his country of Nazareth, because they despised him, and where (as the other evangelists write) the efficacy of his benefits was hindered because of their being incredibly stiffnecked.

Joh 4:46

4:46 {9} So Jesus came again into Cana of Galilee, where he made the water wine. And there was a certain {l} nobleman, whose son was sick at Capernaum.

      (9) Although Christ is absent in body, yet he works mightily in the believers by his word.
      (l) Some of Herod's royal attendants, for though Herod was not a king, but a Tetrarch, yet he was a king in all respects (or at least the people called him a king) except that he lacked the title of king.

Joh 5:2

5:2 {1} Now there is at Jerusalem by the sheep [market] a {a} pool, which is called in the Hebrew tongue {b} Bethesda, having five porches.

      (1) There is no disease so old which Christ cannot heal.
      (a) Of which cattle drank, and used to be plunged in, since there was a great abundance of water at Jerusalem.
      (b) That is to say, the house of pouring out, because a great abundance of water was poured out into that place.

Joh 5:10

5:10 {2} The Jews therefore said unto him that was cured, It is the sabbath day: it is not lawful for thee to carry [thy] bed.

      (2) True religion is assaulted most cruelly by the pretence of religion itself.

Joh 5:17

5:17 {3} But Jesus answered them, My Father worketh hitherto, and I work.

      (3) The work of God was never the breach of the sabbath, and the works of Christ are the works of the Father, both because they are one God, and also because the Father does not work except in the Son.

Joh 5:18

5:18 Therefore the Jews sought the more to kill him, because he not only had broken the sabbath, but said also that God was {c} his Father, making himself equal with God.

      (c) That is, his alone and no one else's, which they gather from his saying, "And I work", applying this word "work" to himself which properly belongs to God, and therefore makes himself equal to God.

Joh 5:19

5:19 Then answered Jesus and said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, The Son can do nothing {d} of himself, but what he {e} seeth the Father do: for what things soever he doeth, these also doeth the Son {f} likewise.

      (d) Not only without his Father's authority, but also without his mighty working and power.
      (e) This must be understood of the person of Christ, which consists of two natures, and not simply of his Godhead: so then he says that his Father moves and governs him in all things, but yet nonetheless, when he says he works with his Father, he confirms his Godhead.
      (f) In like sort, jointly and together. Not because the Father does some things, and then the Son works after him and does the same, but because the might and power of the Father and the Son work equally and jointly together.

Joh 5:21

5:21 {4} For as the Father raiseth up the dead, and quickeneth [them]; even so the Son quickeneth whom he will.

      (4) The Father makes no man partaker of everlasting life except in Christ, in whom alone also he is truly worshipped.

Joh 5:22

5:22 For the Father {g} judgeth {h} no man, but hath committed all judgment unto the Son:

      (g) This word "judgeth" is taken by the figure of speech synecdoche to represent all governing.
      (h) These words are not to be taken as though they simply denied that God governed the world, but rather they deny that he governed as the Jews imagined it, who separate the Father from the Son, whereas indeed, the Father does not govern the world, but only in the person of his Son, being made manifest in the flesh: so he says below in Joh 5:30 , that he came not to do his own will: that his doctrine is not his own, that the blind man and his parents did not sin Joh 7:16 Joh 9:3 , etc.

Joh 5:24

5:24 {5} Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that heareth my word, and believeth on him that sent me, hath everlasting life, and shall not come into condemnation; but is passed from death unto life.

      (5) The Father is not worshipped except by his Son's word apprehended by faith, which is the only way that leads to eternal life.

Joh 5:25

5:25 {6} Verily, verily, I say unto you, The hour is coming, and now is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God: and they that hear shall live.

      (6) We are all dead in sin and cannot be made alive by any other means, except by the word of Christ apprehended by faith.

Joh 5:27

5:27 And hath given him {i} authority to execute judgment also, because he is {k} the Son of man.

      (i) That is, high and sovereign power to rule and govern all things, in so much that he has power over life and death.
      (k) That is, he will not only judge the world as he is God, but also as he is man, he received this from his Father, to be judge of the world.

Joh 5:28

5:28 {7} Marvel not at this: for the hour is coming, in the which all that are in the graves shall hear his voice,

      (7) All will eventually appear before the judgment seat of Christ to be judged.

Joh 5:29

5:29 {8} And shall come {l} forth; they that have done good, unto the {m} resurrection of life; and they that have done evil, unto the resurrection of damnation.

      (8) Faith and infidelity will be judged by their fruits.
      (l) From their graves.
      (m) To that resurrection which has everlasting life following it: against which is set the resurrection of condemnation, that is, which is followed by condemnation.

Joh 5:30

5:30 {9} I can {n} of mine own self do nothing: {o} as I hear, I judge: and my judgment is just; because I seek not mine own will, but the will of the Father which hath sent me.

      (9) The Father is the author and approver of all things which Christ does.
      (n) See above in Joh 5:22 .
      (o) As my Father directs me, who dwells in me.

Joh 5:31

5:31 If I bear witness of myself, my witness is not {p} true.

      (p) Faithful, that is, worthy to be credited; see Joh 8:14 .

Joh 5:33

5:33 {10} Ye sent unto John, and he bare witness unto the truth.

      (10) Christ is declared to be the only Saviour by John's voice, and infinite miracles, and by the testimonies of all the prophets. But the world, being addicted to false prophets, and desirous to seem religious, does not see any of these things.

Joh 5:35

5:35 He was a burning and a shining light: and ye were willing for {q} a season to rejoice in his light.

      (q) A little while.

Joh 5:42

5:42 But I know you, that ye have not the {r} love of God in you.

      (r) Love toward God.

Joh 5:45

5:45 {s} Do not think that I will accuse you to the Father: there is [one] that accuseth you, [even] Moses, in whom ye trust.

      (s) This denial does not set aside that which is said here, but corrects it, as if Christ said, the most severe accuser the Jews will have is Moses, not him.

Joh 6:1

6:1 After these things Jesus went {a} over the sea of Galilee, which is [the sea] of Tiberias.

      (a) Not that he cut across the lake of Tiberias, but by sailing across the large creeks he made his journey shorter: therefore he is said to have gone over the sea, when in reality he passed over from one side of the creek to the other.

Joh 6:5

6:5 {1} When Jesus then lifted up [his] eyes, and saw a great company come unto him, he saith unto Philip, Whence shall we buy bread, that these may eat?

      (1) They that follow Christ sometimes hunger, but they are never without help.

Joh 6:15

6:15 {2} When Jesus therefore perceived that they would come and take him by force, to make him a king, he departed again into a mountain himself alone.

      (2) Not only is Christ not delighted by a preposterous worship, but he is greatly offended by it.

Joh 6:16

6:16 {3} And when even was [now] come, his disciples went down unto the sea,

      (3) The godly are often in peril and danger, but Christ comes to them in time, even in the midst of the tempests, and brings them to the haven.

Joh 6:17

6:17 And entered into a ship, and went over the sea {b} toward Capernaum. And it was now dark, and Jesus was not come to them.

      (b) In Mr 6:45 they are told to go ahead to Bethsaida, for Bethsaida was along the way to Capernaum.

Joh 6:21

6:21 Then they {c} willingly received him into the ship: and immediately the ship was at the land whither they went.

      (c) They were afraid at first, but when they recognized his voice they became new men and took him willingly into the ship, the very one whom they had shunned and fled from before.

Joh 6:26

6:26 {4} Jesus answered them and said, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Ye seek me, not because ye saw the miracles, but because ye did eat of the loaves, and were filled.

      (4) They that seek the kingdom of heaven lack nothing: nevertheless, the gospel is not the food of the stomach but rather of the mind.

Joh 6:27

6:27 {d} Labour not for the meat which perisheth, but for that meat which endureth unto everlasting life, which the Son of man shall give unto you: for him hath God the Father {e} sealed.

      (d) Bestow your labour and pain.
      (e) That is, whom God the Father had distinguished from all other men by planting his own power in him, as though he had sealed him with his seal, so that he might be a vivid example and representation of him: and furthermore he installed him to this office, to reconcile us men to God, and bring us to everlasting life, which office belongs only to Christ.

Joh 6:28

6:28 Then said they unto him, What shall we do, that we might work the {f} works of God?

      (f) Which please God: for they think that everlasting life depends upon the condition of fulfilling the law: therefore Christ calls them back to faith.

Joh 6:29

6:29 {5} Jesus answered and said unto them, {g} This is the work of God, that ye believe on him whom he hath sent.

      (5) Men torment themselves in vain when they try to please God without faith.
      (g) That is, this is the work that God requires, that you believe in me, and therefore he calls them back to faith.

Joh 6:30

6:30 {6} They said therefore unto him, What sign shewest thou then, that we may see, and believe thee? what dost thou work?

      (6) The spiritual virtue of Christ is condemned by those that desire earthly miracles.

Joh 6:32

6:32 {7} Then Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Moses gave you not {h} that bread from heaven; but my Father giveth you the true bread from heaven.

      (7) Christ, who is the true and only author and giver of eternal life, was represented unto those in the Old Testament by the manna.
      (h) He denies that manna was the true heavenly bread, and says that he himself is the true bread, because he feeds the true and everlasting life. And as for 1Co 10:1-5 , where Paul calls manna spiritual food, it does not contradict what is said here, for Paul joins the thing signified with the sign: but in this whole disputation, Christ deals with the Jews after their own opinion and conceit of the matter, who thought of the manna only in terms of physical food.

Joh 6:35

6:35 And Jesus said unto them, I am the bread {i} of life: he that cometh to me shall never hunger; and he that believeth on me shall never thirst.

      (i) Which has life and gives life.

Joh 6:37

6:37 {8} All that the Father giveth me shall come to me; and him that cometh to me I will in no wise cast out.

      (8) The gift of faith proceeds from the free election of the Father in Christ, after which everlasting life necessarily follows: therefore faith in Christ Jesus is a sure witness of our election, and therefore of our glorification, which is to come.

Joh 6:38

6:38 For I came down from heaven, not to do mine {k} own will, but the will of him that sent me.

      (k) See above in Joh 5:22 .

Joh 6:40

6:40 And this is the will of him that sent me, that every one which {l} seeth the Son, and believeth on him, may have everlasting life: and I will raise him up at the last day.

      (l) Seeing and believing are joined together: for there is another type of seeing which is general, which the demons have, for they see: but here he speaks about that type of seeing which properly belongs to the elect.

Joh 6:41

6:41 {9} The Jews then murmured at him, because he said, I am the bread which came down from heaven.

      (9) Flesh cannot perceive spiritual things, and therefore the beginning of our salvation comes from God, who changes our nature, so that we, being inspired by him, may remain to be instructed and saved by Christ.

Joh 6:45

6:45 It is written in the {m} prophets, And they shall be all {n} taught of God. Every man therefore that hath heard, and hath learned of the Father, cometh unto me.

      (m) In the book of the prophets, for the Old Testament was divided by them into three general parts: into the law, the prophets, and the holy writings.
      (n) That is, they will be children of the Church, for so the prophet Isaiah expounds it in Is 54:13 ; that is to say, ordained to life, see Geneva "Ac 13:48", and therefore the knowledge of the heavenly truth is the gift and work of God, and does not rest in any power of man.

Joh 6:46

6:46 Not that any man hath seen the Father, {o} save he which is of God, he hath seen the Father.

      (o) If only the Son has seen the Father, then it is only he that can truly teach us and instruct us.

Joh 6:48

6:48 {10} I am that bread of life.

      (10) The true use of sacraments is to ascend from them to the thing itself, that is, to Christ: and by the partaking of him alone we get everlasting life.

Joh 6:50

6:50 {p} This is the bread which cometh down from heaven, that a man may eat thereof, and not die.

      (p) He refers to himself when he speaks these words.

Joh 6:51

6:51 {11} I am the {q} living bread which came down from heaven: if any man {r} eat of this bread, he shall live for ever: and the bread that I will give is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world.

      (11) Christ being sent from the Father is the selfsame unto us for the getting and keeping of everlasting life, as bread and flesh, yea, meat and drink, are to the use of this transitory life.
      (q) Which gives life to the world.
      (r) That is to say, whoever is truly a partaker of Christ, who is our food.

Joh 6:52

6:52 {12} The Jews therefore strove among themselves, saying, How can this man give us [his] flesh to eat?

      (12) Flesh cannot make a difference between fleshly eating, which is done by the help of the teeth, and spiritual eating, which consists in faith: and therefore it condemns that which it does not understand: yet nonetheless, the truth must be preached and taught.

Joh 6:53

6:53 Then Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink his blood, ye have {s} no life in you.

      (s) If Christ is present, life is present, but when Christ is absent, then death is present.

Joh 6:57

6:57 As {t} the living Father hath sent me, and I live by the {u} Father: so he that eateth me, even he shall live by me.

      (t) In that Christ is man, he receives that power which quickens and gives life to those that are his, from his Father: and he adds this word "the" to make a distinction between his Father and all other fathers.
      (u) Christ means that although he is man, yet his flesh can give life, not by its own nature, but because his flesh lives by the Father, that is to say, sucks and draws out of the Father that power which it has to give life.

Joh 6:60

6:60 {13} Many therefore of his disciples, when they had heard [this], said, This is an hard saying; who can hear it?

      (13) The reason of man cannot comprehend the uniting of Christ and his members: therefore let it worship and revere that which is better than itself.

Joh 6:63

6:63 {14} It is the {x} spirit that quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing: the words that I speak unto you, [they] are spirit, and [they] are life.

      (14) The flesh of Christ therefore quickens us, because he that is man is God: and this mystery is only comprehended by faith, which is the gift of God, found only in the elect.
      (x) Spirit, that is, that power which flows from the Godhead causes the flesh of Christ (which is otherwise nothing but flesh) both to live in itself and to give life to us.

Joh 6:66

6:66 {15} From that [time] many of his disciples went back, and walked no more with him.

      (15) Such is the malice of men, that they bring about their own destruction, even in hearing the very doctrine of salvation, but there are a few who believe through the singular gift of God.

Joh 6:70

6:70 {16} Jesus answered them, Have not I chosen you twelve, and one of you is a devil?

      (16) The number of the professors of Christ is very small, and among them also there are some hypocrites, and those worse than all others.

Joh 7:2

7:2 Now the Jews' {a} feast of tabernacles was at hand.

      (a) This feast was so called because of the booths and tents which they made out of different types of boughs, and sat under them seven days altogether; and during this entire time the feast went on.

Joh 7:3

7:3 {1} His brethren therefore said unto him, Depart hence, and go into Judaea, that thy disciples also may see the works that thou doest.

      (1) The grace of God comes not by inheritance, but it is a gift that comes in another way: because of this it occurs that the children of God often suffer more affliction from their own relatives than from strangers.

Joh 7:5

7:5 For neither did his {b} brethren believe in him.

      (b) His relatives: for the Hebrews used to speak in this way.

Joh 7:6

7:6 {2} Then Jesus said unto them, My time is not yet come: but your time is alway ready.

      (2) We must not follow the foolish desires of our friends.

Joh 7:10

7:10 {3} But when his brethren were gone up, then went he also up unto the feast, not openly, but as it were in secret.

      (3) An example of horrible confusion in the very bosom of the Church. The pastors oppress the people with terror and fear: the people seek Christ, when he does not appear: when he offers himself, they neglect him. Some also that know him condemn him rashly: only a very few think well of him, and even then in secret.

Joh 7:13

7:13 Howbeit no man spake {c} openly of him for fear of the Jews.

      (c) Or, boldly and freely: for the majority of the Jews wanted nothing more than to extinguish his fame and his name.

Joh 7:14

7:14 {4} Now about the {d} midst of the feast Jesus went up into the temple, and taught.

      (4) Christ uses goodness to strive against the wickedness of the world: in the meanwhile most men are offended even by that fame by which they ought to have been stirred up to embrace Christ.
      (d) About the fourth day of the feast.

Joh 7:16

7:16 {5} Jesus answered them, and said, {e} My doctrine is not mine, but his that sent me.

      (5) Therefore there are few to whom the gospel appeals, because the giving of serious attention to godliness is very rare.
      (e) See above in Joh 5:22 ; and he speaks this in accordance with the opinion of the Jews, as if he said, "My doctrine is not mine, that is, it is not the doctrine of myself, whom you consider to be just a mere man and therefore treat me lightly, but it is his that sent me."

Joh 7:18

7:18 {6} He that speaketh of himself seeketh his own glory: but he that seeketh his glory that sent him, the same is true, and no unrighteousness is in him.

      (6) The true doctrine of salvation differs from the false in this, that the true doctrine sets forth the glory of God, and the false doctrine by puffing up men, dishonouring the glory of God.

Joh 7:19

7:19 {7} Did not Moses give you the law, and [yet] none of you keepeth the law? Why go ye about to kill me?

      (7) None boast more confidently that they themselves are the defenders of the law of God than they that break it most impudently.

Joh 7:21

7:21 {8} Jesus answered and said unto them, I have done one work, and ye all marvel.

      (8) The sabbath day (which is here set before us as a standard of all ceremonies) was not appointed to hinder, but to further and practise God's works, amongst which the main one is the love of our neighbour.

Joh 7:23

7:23 If a man on the sabbath day receive circumcision, that the {f} law of Moses should not be broken; are ye angry at me, because I have made a man every whit whole on the sabbath day?

      (f) That is to say, if the law of circumcision which Moses gave matters so much to you that you do not hesitate to circumcise upon the sabbath, do you rightly reprove me for thoroughly healing a man?

Joh 7:24

7:24 {9} Judge not {g} according to the appearance, but judge righteous judgment.

      (9) We must judge according to the truth of things, lest men turn us from the truth and carry us away.
      (g) By the show that I make: for I seem to be a despicable person from among the rabble of Galilee, and a carpenter's son, whom no man considers to be very important: but mark the matter itself well, and judge the tree by the fruit.

Joh 7:25

7:25 {10} Then said some of them of Jerusalem, Is not this he, whom they seek to kill?

      (10) Many marvel that the endeavours of the enemies of God have no success, but in the meanwhile they do not acknowledge the strength and power of God.

Joh 7:27

7:27 {11} Howbeit we know this man whence he is: but when Christ cometh, no man knoweth whence he is.

      (11) Men are very wise to have checks and balances for their own thoughts.

Joh 7:28

7:28 {12} Then cried Jesus in the temple as he taught, saying, Ye both know me, and ye know whence I am: and I am not come of myself, but he that sent me is true, whom ye know not.

      (12) The truth of Christ does not depend upon the judgment of man.

Joh 7:30

7:30 {13} Then they sought to take him: but no man laid hands on him, because his hour was not yet come.

      (13) The wicked cannot do what they desire, but what God has appointed.

Joh 7:32

7:32 {14} The Pharisees heard that the people murmured such things concerning him; and the Pharisees and the chief priests sent officers to take him.

      (14) As the kingdom of God increases, so increases the rage of his enemies, till at last they seek in vain for those missing blessings which they despised when they were present.

Joh 7:35

7:35 Then said the Jews among themselves, Whither will he go, that we shall not find him? will he go unto the {h} dispersed among the Gentiles, and teach the Gentiles?

      (h) Literally, "to the dispersion of the Gentiles" or "Greeks", and under the name of the Greeks he refers to the Jews who were dispersed among the Gentiles.

Joh 7:37

7:37 {15} In the {i} last day, that great [day] of the feast, Jesus stood and cried, saying, If any man thirst, let him come unto me, and drink.

      (15) There are two principles of our salvation: the one is to be thoroughly touched with a true feeling of our extreme poverty: the other to seek in Christ only (whom we catch hold of by faith) the abundance of all good things.
      (i) The last day of the feast of tabernacles, that is, the eighth day, was as celebrated a day as the first.

Joh 7:38

7:38 He that believeth on me, as the {k} scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water.

      (k) The scripture being referred to is not found anywhere word for word, but rather Christ seems to be referring to many different places where mention is made of the gifts of the Holy Spirit; see Joe 2:28-29; Isa 44:3 and especially Isa 55:1-13 .

Joh 7:39

7:39 (But this spake he of the Spirit, which they that believe on him should receive: for the {l} Holy Ghost was not yet [given]; because that Jesus was not yet {m} glorified.)

      (l) What is meant by the Holy Spirit he expressed a little before, speaking of the Spirit which they that believed in him should receive. So that by the name of Holy Spirit are meant the powers and mighty workings of the Holy Spirit.
      (m) That is, those things were not yet seen and perceived which were to show and set forth the glory of the only begotten.

Joh 7:40

7:40 {16} Many of the people therefore, when they heard this saying, said, Of a truth this is the Prophet.

      (16) There is contention even in the Church itself about the main point of religion: neither has Christ any more cruel enemies than those that occupy the seat of truth: yet they cannot do what they would.

Joh 7:45

7:45 {17} Then came the officers to the chief priests and Pharisees; and they said unto them, Why have ye not brought him?

      (17) God scorns from heaven those who are his Son's enemies.

Joh 7:48

7:48 {18} Have any of the rulers or of the Pharisees believed on him?

      (18) False pastors are so stupid and foolish that they consider the Church of God to be of value according to the number of people in it, and from the outward show of it.

Joh 7:51

7:51 Doth our law judge [any] man, before it hear him, and know {n} what he doeth?

      (n) What the one who is accused has committed.

Joh 7:53

7:53 {19} And every man went unto his own house.

      (19) There is no counsel against the Lord.

Joh 8:3

8:3 {1} And the scribes and Pharisees brought unto him a woman taken in adultery; and when they had set her in the midst,

      (1) While the wicked go about to make a snare for good men, they make a snare for themselves.

Joh 8:7

8:7 {2} So when they continued asking him, he lifted up himself, and said unto them, He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her.

      (2) Against hypocrites who are very severe judges against other men, and flatter themselves while they are sinning.

Joh 8:10

8:10 {3} When Jesus had lifted up himself, and saw none but the woman, he said unto her, Woman, where are those thine accusers? hath no man condemned thee?

      (3) Christ would not take upon himself the office of the civil magistrate: he was content to bring sinners to faith and repentance.

Joh 8:12

8:12 {4} Then spake Jesus again unto them, saying, I am the light of the world: he that followeth me shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life.

      (4) The world, which is blind in itself, cannot come to have any light but in Christ alone.

Joh 8:13

8:13 {5} The Pharisees therefore said unto him, {a} Thou bearest record of thyself; thy record is not true.

      (5) Christ is without all exception the best witness of the truth, for he was sent by his Father for that purpose, and his Father showed his approval of him to the world by infinite miracles.
      (a) You bear witness of yourself, which is worth nothing in the opinion of all men, and for a man to commend himself is very uncommendable.

Joh 8:14

8:14 Jesus answered and said unto them, {b} Though I bear record of myself, [yet] my record is true: for I know whence I came, and whither I go; but ye cannot tell whence I come, and whither I go.

      (b) That which he denied before in Joh 5:31 must be understood as Christ granting their position in a way, for in that place he talked of himself somewhat in line with the opinions of his hearers, who acknowledged nothing in Christ but his humanity, and therefore he was content they should not regard his own witness, unless it were otherwise confirmed. But in this place he stands and affirms Godhead, and praises his Father, who is his witness, and agrees with him.

Joh 8:15

8:15 Ye judge after the flesh; I {c} judge no man.

      (c) I am presently only teaching you, I condemn no man: but yet if I want to do it, I might lawfully do it, for I am not alone, but my Father is with me.

Joh 8:18

8:18 {d} I am one that bear witness of myself, and the Father that sent me beareth witness of me.

      (d) The Godhead is plainly distinguished from the manhood, or else there would not be two witnesses: for the accused party is not taken as a witness.

Joh 8:19

8:19 {6} Then said they unto him, Where is thy Father? Jesus answered, Ye neither know me, nor my Father: if ye had known me, ye should have known my Father also.

      (6) No man can know God except in Christ alone.

Joh 8:20

8:20 These words spake Jesus in the {e} treasury, as he taught in the temple: and no man laid hands on him; {7} for his hour was not yet come.

      (e) This was a certain place appointed for the gathering of the offerings.
      (7) We live and die according to the pleasure of God, and not of men: therefore it behooves us that we constantly go forward in our calling.

Joh 8:21

8:21 {8} Then said Jesus again unto them, I go my way, and ye shall seek me, and shall die in your sins: whither I go, ye cannot come.

      (8) Because men naturally abhor heavenly things, no man can be a fit disciple of Christ unless the Spirit of God makes him so: in the meantime nonetheless, the world must necessarily perish, because it refuses the life that is offered unto it.

Joh 8:25

8:25 {9} Then said they unto him, Who art thou? And Jesus saith unto them, Even {f} [the same] that I said unto you from the beginning.

      (9) He will eventually know who Christ is who will diligently hear what Christ says.
      (f) That is, I am Christ, and the Saviour, for so I told you from the beginning that I was.

Joh 8:26

8:26 {10} I have many things to say and to judge of you: but he that sent me is true; and I speak to the world those things which I have heard of him.

      (10) God is the avenger of Christ's despised doctrine.

Joh 8:27

8:27 {11} They understood not that he spake to them of the Father.

      (11) Even the contempt of Christ results in his glory: and this thing his enemies will eventually feel to their great pain.

Joh 8:31

8:31 {12} Then said Jesus to those Jews which believed on him, If ye continue in my word, [then] are ye my disciples indeed;

      (12) The true disciples of Christ continue in his doctrine, that profiting more and more in the knowledge of the truth they may be delivered from the most grievous burden of sin, into the true liberty of righteousness and life.

Joh 8:32

8:32 And ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall {g} make you free.

      (g) From the slavery of sin.

Joh 8:33

8:33 {h} They answered him, We be {i} Abraham's seed, and were never in bondage to any man: how sayest thou, Ye shall be made free?

      (h) Some of the multitude, not they that believed: for this is not the speech of men that agree with him, but of men that are against him.
      (i) Born and begotten of Abraham.

Joh 8:37

8:37 {13} I know that ye are Abraham's seed; but ye seek to kill me, because my word hath no place in you.

      (13) Our wicked manners declare that we are obviously born of a wicked nature: but we are changed, and made part of the household of God according to the covenant which he made with Abraham by Christ alone, apprehended and laid hold on by faith: and this faith is known by a godly and honest life.

Joh 8:43

8:43 Why do ye not understand my {k} speech? [even] because ye cannot hear my word.

      (k) Or, language: as though he said, "You do not understand what I say any more than if I spoke in a strange and unknown language to you."

Joh 8:44

8:44 Ye are of [your] father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do. He was a murderer from the {l} beginning, and {m} abode not in the {n} truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his {o} own: for he is a liar, and the {p} father of it.

      (l) From the beginning of the world: for as soon as man was made, the devil cast him headlong into death.
      (m) That is, did not continue constantly, or did not remain.
      (n) That is, in faithfulness and uprightness, that is, he did not remain in the manner in which he was created.
      (o) Even from his own head, and from his own mind or disposition.
      (p) The author of it.

Joh 8:46

8:46 {14} Which of you convinceth me of sin? And if I say the truth, why do ye not believe me?

      (14) Christ thoroughly executed the office that his Father gave him.

Joh 8:48

8:48 {15} Then answered the Jews, and said unto him, Say we not well that thou art a Samaritan, and hast a devil?

      (15) The enemies of Christ act bravely for a while, but the Father will appear in his time to avenge the reproach that is done unto him in the person of his Son.

Joh 8:50

8:50 And I seek not mine own glory: there is one {q} that seeketh and judgeth.

      (q) That is, that will avenge both your despising of me and of him.

Joh 8:51

8:51 {16} Verily, verily, I say unto you, If a man keep my saying, he shall never {r} see death.

      (16) Only the doctrine of the gospel apprehended by faith is a sure remedy against death.
      (r) That is, he will not feel it: for even in the midst of death the faithful see life.

Joh 8:52

8:52 {17} Then said the Jews unto him, Now we know that thou hast a devil. Abraham is dead, and the prophets; and thou sayest, If a man keep my saying, he shall never taste of death.

      (17) Against those who abuse the glory of the saints to debase Christ's glory.

Joh 8:54

8:54 {18} Jesus answered, If I honour myself, my honour is {s} nothing: it is my Father that honoureth me; of whom ye say, that he is your God:

      (18) There is no one further from seeking glory than Christ, but his Father has set him above all things.
      (s) In saying this Christ grants their opinion, though not agreeing with it, as if he had said, "Be it so, let this report which I give of myself be of no force; yet there is another that glorifies me, that is, that honours my name."

Joh 8:55

8:55 {19} Yet ye have not known him; but I know him: and if I should say, I know him not, I shall be a liar like unto you: but I know him, and keep his saying.

      (19) There is no right knowledge of God without Christ, neither is there any right knowledge of Christ without his word.

Joh 8:56

8:56 {20} Your father Abraham {t} rejoiced to see my {u} day: and he {x} saw [it], and was glad.

      (20) The power of Christ showed itself through all former ages in the fathers, for they saw in the promises that he would come, and very joyfully laid hold of him with a living faith.
      (t) Was very desirous.
      (u) A day is a space that a man lives in, or does any notable act in, or endures any great thing in.
      (x) With the eyes of faith; He 11:13 .

Joh 8:58

8:58 Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was, I {y} am.

      (y) Christ, as he was God, was before Abraham: and he was the Lamb slain from the beginning of the world.

Joh 8:59

8:59 {21} Then took they up stones to cast at him: but Jesus hid himself, and went out of the temple, going through the midst of them, and so passed by.

      (21) Zeal without knowledge eventually breaks out into a most open madness: and yet the wicked cannot do what they desire.

Joh 9:1

9:1 And {1} as [Jesus] passed by, he saw a man which was blind from [his] birth.

      (1) Sin is even the beginning of all bodily diseases, and yet it does not follow that in punishing, even very severely, that God is punishing because of sin.

Joh 9:3

9:3 Jesus answered, {a} Neither hath this man sinned, nor his parents: but that the works of God should be made manifest in him.

      (a) Christ reasons here as his disciples thought, who presupposed that no diseases came except for the reason of sins: as a result of this he answers that there was another cause of this man's blindness, and that was in order that God's work might be seen.

Joh 9:4

9:4 {2} I must work the works of him that sent me, while it is {b} day: the night cometh, when no man can work.

      (2) The works of Christ are is it were a light, which enlighten the darkness of the world.
      (b) By "day" is meant the light, that is, the enlightening doctrine of the heavenly truth: and by night is meant the darkness which comes by the obscurity of the same doctrine.

Joh 9:6

9:6 {3} When he had thus spoken, he spat on the ground, and made clay of the spittle, and he anointed the eyes of the blind man with the clay,

      (3) Christ healing the man born blind by taking the symbol of clay, and afterward the symbol of the fountain of Siloam
      (which signifies "sent") shows that as he at the beginning made man, so does he again restore both his body and soul: and yet in such a way that he himself comes first of his own accord to heal us.

Joh 9:8

9:8 {4} The neighbours therefore, and they which before had seen him that he was blind, said, Is not this he that sat and begged?

      (4) A true image of all men, who as they are naturally blind do not themselves receive the light that is offered unto them, nor endure it in another, and yet make a great fuss among themselves.

Joh 9:10

9:10 Therefore said they unto him, How were thine eyes {c} opened?

      (c) This is a Hebrew idiom, for they call a man's eyes shut when they cannot receive any light: and therefore blind men who are made to see are said to have their eyes opened.

Joh 9:16

9:16 {5} Therefore said some of the Pharisees, This man is not of God, because he keepeth not the sabbath day. Others said, How can a man that is a sinner do such miracles? And there was a division among them.

      (5) Religion is assaulted most by the pretence of religion: but the more it is pressed down, the more it rises up.

Joh 9:24

9:24 Then again called they the man that was blind, and said unto him, {d} Give God the praise: we know that this man is a {e} sinner.

      (d) A solemn order, by which men were put under oath in ancient time to acknowledge their fault before God, as if it was said to them, "Consider that you are before God, who knows the entire matter, and therefore be sure that you revere his majesty, and do him this honour and confess the whole matter openly rather than to lie before him"; Jos 7:19; 1Sa 6:5 .
      (e) He is called a sinner in the Hebrew language, who is a wicked man, and someone who makes an art of sinning.

Joh 9:28

9:28 {6} Then they reviled him, and said, Thou art his disciple; but we are Moses' disciples.

      (6) Eventually, proud wickedness must necessarily break forth, which lies vainly hidden under a zeal of godliness.

Joh 9:34

9:34 They answered and said unto him, {f} Thou wast altogether born in sins, and dost thou teach us? And they cast him out.

      (f) You are wicked even from your cradle, and as we used to say, there is nothing in you but sin.

Joh 9:35

9:35 {7} Jesus heard that they had cast him out; and when he had found him, he said unto him, Dost thou believe on the Son of God?

      (7) Most happy is their state who are cast furthest out of the Church of the wicked (who themselves proudly boast to be of the Church) so that Christ may come nearer to them.

Joh 9:39

9:39 {8} And Jesus said, For {g} judgment I am come into this world, that they {h} which see not might see; and that they which see might be made blind.

      (8) Christ enlightens all those by the preaching of the Gospel who acknowledge their own darkness, but those who seem to themselves to see clearly enough, those he altogether blinds: and these latter ones are often those who have the highest place in the Church.
      (g) With great power and authority, to do what is righteous and just: as if he said, "These men take upon themselves to govern the people of God after their own desire, as though they saw all things, and no one else did: but I will rule much differently than these men do: for those whom they consider as blind men, them will I enlighten, and those who take themselves to be wisest, them will I drown in most abundant darkness of ignorance.
      (h) In these words of seeing and not seeing there is a secret taunting and rebuff to the Pharisees: for they thought all men to be blind but themselves.

Joh 10:1

10:1 Verily, {1} verily, I say unto you, He that entereth not by the door into the sheepfold, but climbeth up some other way, the same is a thief and a robber.

      (1) Seeing that by Christ alone we have access to the Father, there are no true shepherds other than those who come to Christ themselves and bring others there also, neither is any to be thought to be in the true sheepfold but those who are gathered to Christ.

Joh 10:3

10:3 To him the {a} porter openeth; and the sheep hear his voice: and he calleth his own sheep by name, and leadeth them out.

      (a) In those days they used to have a servant always sitting at the door, and therefore he speaks after the manner of those days.

Joh 10:6

10:6 This {b} parable spake Jesus unto them: but they understood not what things they were which he spake unto them.

      (b) This word "parable", which the evangelist uses here, signifies a hidden type of speech, when words are not used with their natural meaning, but are used to signify another thing to us.

Joh 10:8

10:8 {2} All that {c} ever came before me are thieves and robbers: but the sheep did not hear them.

      (2) It does not matter how many false teachers there have been, neither how old they have been.
      (c) These terms must be applied to the matter he speaks of. And therefore when he calls himself the door, he calls all those thieves and robbers who take upon themselves this name of "door", which none of the prophets can do, for they showed the sheep that Christ was the door.

Joh 10:9

10:9 {3} I am the door: by me if any man enter in, he shall be saved, and shall {d} go in and out, and find pasture.

      (3) Only Christ is the true Pastor, and those only are the true Church who acknowledge him to properly be their only Pastor: opposite to him are thieves who do not feed the sheep, but kill them: and hirelings also, who forsake the flock in time of danger, because they feed it only for their own profit and gains.
      (d) That is, will live safely, as the Jews used to speak (see De 26:6-10 ), and yet there is a special reference to the shepherd's office.

Joh 10:15

10:15 As the Father {e} knoweth me, even so know I the Father: and I lay down my life for the sheep.

      (e) Loves me, allows me.

Joh 10:16

10:16 {4} And other sheep I have, which are not of this fold: them also I must bring, and they shall hear my voice; and there shall be {f} one fold, [and] one shepherd.

      (4) The calling of the Gentiles.
      (f) The distinguishing mark of the Christian Church throughout all the world, is that it has only one head, that is Christ, the only keeper, and only shepherd of it.

Joh 10:17

10:17 {5} Therefore doth my Father love me, because {g} I lay down my life, that I might take it again.

      (5) Christ is by the decree of the Father the only true shepherd of the true Church, for he willingly gave his life for his sheep, and by his own power rose again to life.
      (g) He uses the present tense because Christ's whole life was as it were a perpetual death.

Joh 10:19

10:19 {6} There was a division therefore again among the Jews for these sayings.

      (6) The gospel uncovers hypocrisy, and therefore the world must necessarily rage when the gospel comes forth.

Joh 10:22

10:22 And it was at Jerusalem the feast of the {h} dedication, and it was winter.

      (h) The feast of the dedication was instituted by Judas Maccabeus and his brethren after the restoring of God's true religion, by the casting out of Antiochus' garrison.

Joh 10:23

10:23 {7} And Jesus walked in the temple in Solomon's porch.

      (7) The unbelievers and proud men accuse the gospel of darkness, and this very darkness is indeed within themselves.

Joh 10:25

10:25 {8} Jesus answered them, I told you, and ye believed not: the works that I do in my Father's name, they bear witness of me.

      (8) The doctrine of the gospel is proved from heaven by two witnesses: both by the purity of the doctrine and by miracles.

Joh 10:26

10:26 {9} But ye believe not, {i} because ye are not of my sheep, as I said unto you.

      (9) It is no marvel that only a few believe, seeing that all men are by nature untamed beasts: yet nonetheless God has his own, which he turns into sheep, and commits them unto his Son, and preserves them against the cruelty of all wild beasts.
      (i) He gives a reason why they do not believe, that is, because they are not his sheep.

Joh 10:31

10:31 {10} Then the Jews took up stones again to stone him.

      (10) Christ proves his dignity by divine works.

Joh 10:32

10:32 Jesus answered them, Many good works have I shewed you from my {k} Father; for which of those works do ye stone me?

      (k) Through my Father's authority and power.

Joh 10:35

10:35 If he called them gods, unto whom the word of God came, and the scripture cannot be {l} broken;

      (l) Void and of no effect.

Joh 10:39

10:39 {11} Therefore they sought again to take him: but he escaped out of their hand,

      (11) Christ flees danger, not because of mistrust, nor for fear of death, nor that he would be lazy, but to gather a Church in another place.

Joh 11:1

11:1 Now {1} a certain [man] was sick, [named] Lazarus, of Bethany, the {a} town of Mary and her sister Martha.

      (1) Christ, in restoring the rotting body of his friend to life, shows an example both of his mighty power, and also of his singular good will toward men: and this is also an image of the resurrection to come.
      (a) Where his sisters dwelt.

Joh 11:6

11:6 {2} When he had heard therefore that he was sick, he abode two days still in the same place where he was.

      (2) In that thing which God sometimes seems to linger in helping us, he does it both for his glory, and for our salvation, as the end result of the matter clearly proves.

Joh 11:8

11:8 {3} [His] disciples say unto him, Master, the Jews of late sought to stone thee; and goest thou thither again?

      (3) This alone is the sure and right way to life, to follow God boldly without fear, who calls us and shines before us in the darkness of this world.

Joh 11:9

11:9 Jesus answered, Are there not {c} twelve hours in the day? If any man walk in the day, he stumbleth not, because he seeth the light of this world.

      (c) All things happen in a proper way and are brought to pass in their due time.

Joh 11:11

11:11 These things said he: and after that he saith unto them, Our friend Lazarus {d} sleepeth; but I go, that I may awake him out of sleep.

      (d) The Jews used a milder kind of speech and called death "sleep", and this same manner of speech is found in other languages, who call the place of burial where the dead are laid waiting for the resurrection a "sleeping place".

Joh 11:19

11:19 {4} And many of the Jews came to Martha and Mary, to comfort them concerning their brother.

      (4) God, who is the maker of nature, does not condemn natural emotions, but shows that they ought to be guided by the rule of faith.

Joh 11:23

11:23 Jesus saith unto her, Thy brother shall {e} rise again.

      (e) That is, will recover life again.

Joh 11:33

11:33 {5} When Jesus therefore saw her weeping, and the Jews also weeping which came with her, he {f} groaned in the spirit, and was troubled,

      (5) Christ took upon himself together with our flesh all affections of man (sin alone excepted), and amongst them especially mercy and compassion.
      (f) These are signs that he was greatly moved, but yet these signs were without sin: and these affections belong to man's nature.

Joh 11:46

11:46 {6} But some of them went their ways to the Pharisees, and told them what things Jesus had done.

      (6) The last aspect of hard and ironlike stubbornness is to proclaim open war against God, and yet it does not cease to make a pretence both of godliness and of the profit of the nation.

Joh 11:47

11:47 Then gathered the chief priests and the Pharisees a {g} council, and said, What do we? for this man doeth many miracles.

      (g) The Jews called the council sanhedrin: and the word that John uses is Synedri.

Joh 11:48

11:48 If we let him thus alone, all [men] will believe on him: and the Romans shall come and {h} take away both our place and nation.

      (h) That is, take away from us by force: for at that time, though the high priest's authority was greatly lessened and weakened, yet there was some type of government left among the Jews.

Joh 11:49

11:49 {7} And one of them, [named] Caiaphas, being the high priest that same year, said unto them, Ye know nothing at all,

      (7) The raging and angry company of the false church persuade themselves that they cannot be in safety, unless he is taken away, who alone upholds the Church. And the wisdom of the flesh judges in the same way in worldly affairs, which is governed by the spirit of giddiness or madness.

Joh 11:51

11:51 {8} And this spake he not of himself: but being high priest that year, he prophesied that Jesus should die for that nation;

      (8) Christ sometimes turns the tongues, even of the wicked, so that even in cursing they bless.

Joh 11:52

11:52 And not for that nation only, but that also he should gather together in one the children of God that {i} were scattered abroad.

      (i) For they were not gathered together in one country, as the Jews were, but were to be gathered from all quarters, from the east to the west.

Joh 11:54

11:54 {9} Jesus therefore walked no more openly among the Jews; but went thence unto a country near to the wilderness, into a city called Ephraim, and there continued with his disciples.

      (9) We may give place to the rage of the wicked, when it is expedient to do so, but yet in such a way that we do not swerve from God's calling.

Joh 12:5

12:5 {1} Why was not this ointment sold for three hundred pence, and given to the poor?

      (1) A horrible example in Judas of a mind blinded with covetousness, and yet pretending godliness.

Joh 12:7

12:7 {2} Then said Jesus, Let her alone: against the day of my burying hath she kept this.

      (2) This extraordinary anointing, which was a sign, is allowed by God so that he may witness that he will not be worshipped with outward pomp or costly service, but with alms.

Joh 12:9

12:9 {3} Much people of the Jews therefore knew that he was there: and they came not for Jesus' sake only, but that they might see Lazarus also, whom he had raised from the dead.

      (3) When the light of the gospel shows itself, some are found to be curious, and others are found to be open enemies (and these latter ones should be the least opposed to the gospel): others fervently honour him whom they will immediately fall away from, and very few receive him as reverently as they ought to. Nonetheless, Christ begins his spiritual kingdom in the midst of his enemies.

Joh 12:19

12:19 {4} The Pharisees therefore said among themselves, Perceive ye how ye prevail nothing? behold, the world is gone after him.

      (4) Even they who go about to oppress Christ are made instruments of his glory.

Joh 12:20

12:20 And there were certain Greeks among them that {a} came up to worship at the feast:

      (a) After the solemn custom: the Greeks were first so called by the name of the country of Greece, where they lived: but afterward, all that were not of the Jew's religion, but worshipped false gods and were also called heathens, were called by the name Greeks.

Joh 12:24

12:24 {5} Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except a corn of wheat fall into the ground and {b} die, it abideth alone: but if it die, it bringeth forth much fruit.

      (5) The death of Christ is as it were a sowing, which seems to be a dying of the corn, but indeed is the cause of a much greater harvest: and such as is the condition of the head, so will be the condition of the members.
      (b) A wheat corn dies when it is changed in the ground, and becomes the root of a fruitful new plant.

Joh 12:27

12:27 {6} Now is my soul troubled; and what shall I say? Father, save me from this {c} hour: but for this cause came I unto this hour.

      (6) While Christ went about to suffer all the punishment which is due to our sins, and while his divinity did not yet show his might and power so that the satisfaction might be fully accomplished, he is stricken with the great fear of the curse of God, and so he cries and prays, and desires to be released: yet nonetheless he prefers the will and glory of his Father before all things, and his Father allows this obedience even from heaven.
      (c) That is, of death which is now at hand.

Joh 12:28

12:28 Father, {d} glorify thy name. Then came there a voice from heaven, [saying], I have both glorified [it], and will glorify [it] again.

      (d) So then the Father's glory is Christ's glory.

Joh 12:30

12:30 {7} Jesus answered and said, This voice came not because of me, but for your sakes.

      (7) Christ foretells to the deaf the manner of his death, the overcoming of the devil and the world, and in conclusion his triumph.

Joh 12:32

12:32 And I, if I be {e} lifted up from the earth, will draw {f} all [men] unto me.

      (e) Christ used a word which has a double meaning, for it signifies either to lift up or to get out of the way: for he intended them to think of his death, but the Jews seemed to take it another way.
      (f) Chrysostom and Theophylact say that this word "all" refers to all nations: that is, not only to the Jews.

Joh 12:35

12:35 {8} Then Jesus said unto them, Yet a little while is the light with you. Walk while ye have the light, lest darkness come upon you: for he that walketh in darkness knoweth not whither he goeth.

      (8) Unmeasurable is the mercy of God, but a horrible judgment follows if it is condemned.

Joh 12:36

12:36 While ye have light, believe in the light, that ye may be the {g} children of light. These things spake Jesus, and departed, and did hide himself from them.

      (g) That is, partakers of light.

Joh 12:37

12:37 {9} But though he had done so many miracles before them, yet they believed not on him:

      (9) Faith is not of nature, but of grace.

Joh 12:38

12:38 That the saying of Esaias the prophet might be fulfilled, which he spake, Lord, who hath believed our report? and to whom hath the {h} arm of the Lord been revealed?

      (h) The arm of the Lord is the gospel, which is the power of God to salvation to all that believe, and therefore the arm of the Lord is not revealed to those whose hearts the Lord has not opened.

Joh 12:42

12:42 {10} Nevertheless among the chief rulers also many believed on him; but because of the Pharisees they did not confess [him], lest they should be put out of the synagogue:

      (10) The ones who believe are not only few in number, if they are compared with the unbelievers, but also the majority of those few (yea, and especially the ones of highest rank) fear men more than God.

Joh 12:44

12:44 {11} Jesus cried and said, He that believeth on me, believeth {i} not on me, but on him that sent me.

      (11) The sum of the gospel, and therefore of salvation, which Christ witnessed in the midst of Jerusalem by his crying out, is this: to rest upon Christ through faith as the only Saviour appointed and given us by the Father.
      (i) This word "not" does not take anything away from Christ which is spoken of here, but is rather spoken in way of correction, as if he said, "He that believes in me does not so much believe in me as in him that sent me." So is it in Mr 9:37 .

Joh 13:1

13:1 Now {1} before the feast of the passover, when Jesus knew that his hour was come that he should depart out of this world unto the Father, having loved his {a} own which were in the world, he loved them unto the end.

      (1) Christ is as sure of the victory as he is of the combat which was at hand, and by using the sign of washing the feet, gives by this an example in part of singular modesty, and his great love toward his apostles in this notable act, being likely to depart very shortly from them: and he partly witnesses unto them that it is he alone who washes away the filth of his people, and sanctifies them little by little in their time and season.
      (a) Those of his household, that is, his saints.

Joh 13:3

13:3 Jesus knowing that the Father had given all things into his {b} hands, and that he was come from God, and went to God;

      (b) Into his power.

Joh 13:4

13:4 He {c} riseth from supper, and laid aside his garments; and took a towel, and girded himself.

      (c) In that he is said to rise, it argues that there was a space of time between the ceremony of the passover and this washing of feet, at which time it seems that the Lord's supper was instituted.

Joh 13:8

13:8 Peter saith unto him, Thou shalt never wash my feet. Jesus answered him, If I wash thee not, thou hast {d} no part with me.

      (d) Unless you allow me to wash you, you will have no part in the kingdom of heaven.

Joh 13:18

13:18 {2} I speak not of you all: I know whom I have chosen: but that the scripture may be fulfilled, He that eateth bread with me hath lifted up his heel against me.

      (2) The betraying of Christ was not accidental, or a thing that happened by chance, but it was the Father who ordained the cause of our salvation, to reconcile us unto himself in his Son, and the Son willingly and voluntarily obeyed the Father.

Joh 13:21

13:21 When Jesus had thus said, he was troubled in spirit, and {e} testified, and said, Verily, verily, I say unto you, that one of you shall betray me.

      (e) He affirmed it openly and sealed it.

Joh 13:23

13:23 Now there was {f} leaning on Jesus' bosom one of his disciples, whom Jesus loved.

      (f) John's leaning was such that sitting down on his mat his head was toward the head of Jesus: for it is certain that in ancient times men used to not sit at the table, but to lie down on one of their sides.

Joh 13:31

13:31 {3} Therefore, when he was gone out, Jesus said, {g} Now is the Son of man glorified, and God is glorified in him.

      (3) We have to see the glorifying of Christ in his dishonour.
      (g) This verse and the one following are a most plain and evident testimony to the divinity of Christ.

Joh 13:33

13:33 {4} Little children, yet a little while I am with you. Ye shall seek me: and as I said unto the Jews, Whither I go, ye cannot come; so now I say to you.

      (4) The eternal glory will flow little by little from the head into the members. But meanwhile, we must take good heed that we run the race of this life in brotherly love.

Joh 13:36

13:36 {5} Simon Peter said unto him, Lord, whither goest thou? Jesus answered him, Whither I go, thou canst not follow me now; but thou shalt follow me afterwards.

      (5) A weighty example of rash trust and confidence.

Joh 14:1

14:1 Let {1} not your heart be troubled: ye believe in God, believe also in me.

      (1) He believes in God who believes in Christ, and there is no other way to strengthen and encourage our minds during the greatest distresses.

Joh 14:2

14:2 In my Father's house are many mansions: if [it were] not [so], {a} I would have told you. I go to {b} prepare a place for you.

      (a) That is, if it were not as I am telling you, that is, unless there was room enough not only for me, but also for you in my Father's house, I would not deceive you in this way with a vain hope, but I would have plainly told you so.
      (b) This whole speech is an allegory, by which the Lord comforts his own, declaring to them his departure into heaven; and he departs not to reign there alone, but to go before and prepare a place for them.

Joh 14:3

14:3 {2} And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will {c} come again, and receive you unto myself; that where I am, [there] ye may be also.

      (2) Christ did not go away from us with the intent of forsaking us, but rather that he might eventually take us up with him into heaven.
      (c) These words are to be understood as being said to the whole Church, and therefore the angels said to the disciples when they were astonished, "Why do you stand gazing up into heaven? This Jesus will so come as you saw him go up", Ac 1:11 . And in all places of the Scripture the full comfort of the Church is considered to be that day when God will be all in all, and is therefore called the day of redemption.

Joh 14:4

14:4 {3} And whither I go ye know, and the way ye know.

      (3) Christ alone is the way to true and everlasting life, for it is he in whom the Father has revealed himself.

Joh 14:6

14:6 Jesus saith unto him, I am {d} the way, the truth, and the life: no man cometh unto the Father, but by me.

      (d) This saying shows unto us the nature, the will, and office of Christ.

Joh 14:7

14:7 {e} If ye had known me, ye should have known my Father also: and from henceforth ye know him, and have seen him.

      (e) It is plain by this verse that to know God and to see God is the same thing. Now whereas he said before that no man saw God at any time, it is to be understood in this way: without Christ, or were it not through Christ, no man could ever see God, nor ever saw God, at any time: for as Chrysostom says, the Son is a very concise and plain setting forth of the Father's nature to us.

Joh 14:10

14:10 {4} Believest thou not that I am in the Father, and the Father in me? the words that I speak unto you I speak not of myself: but the Father that dwelleth in me, he doeth the works.

      (4) The majesty of God shows itself most evidently both in Christ's doctrine and in his deeds.

Joh 14:12

14:12 {5} Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that believeth on me, the works that I do shall he do also; and {f} greater [works] than these shall he do; because I go unto my Father.

      (5) Christ's power is not only shown within his own person, but it is spread through the body of his entire Church.
      (f) That is, not only do them, but I can also give other men power to do greater.

Joh 14:15

14:15 {6} If ye love me, keep my commandments.

      (6) He loves Christ rightly who obeys his commandment: and because obedience to Christ is accompanied with an infinite type and amount of miseries, although he is absent in body, yet he comforts his own with the present power of the Holy Spirit, whom the world despises, because it does not know him.

Joh 14:17

14:17 [Even] the {g} Spirit of truth; whom the {h} world cannot receive, because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him: but ye know him; for he dwelleth with you, and shall be in you.

      (g) The Holy Spirit is called the Spirit of truth by reason of that which he does, because he inspires the truth into us, because he has the truth in himself.
      (h) Worldly men.

Joh 14:20

14:20 At that day ye shall know that I [am] {i} in my Father, and ye in me, and I in you.

      (i) The Son is in the Father in such a way that he is of one selfsame substance with the Father, but he is in his disciples in a different way, as an aider and helper of them.

Joh 14:21

14:21 He that hath my commandments, and keepeth them, he it is that loveth me: and he that loveth me shall be loved of my Father, and I will love him, and will {k} manifest myself to him.

      (k) I will show myself to him, and be known by him, as if he saw me with his eyes: but this showing of himself is not bodily, but spiritual, yet so plain that no other showing could be more evident.

Joh 14:22

14:22 {7} Judas saith unto him, not Iscariot, Lord, how is it that thou wilt manifest thyself unto us, and not unto the world?

      (7) We must not ask why the gospel is revealed to some rather than to others, but we must rather take heed that we embrace Christ who is offered unto us, and that we truly love him, that is to say, that we give ourselves wholly to obeying him.

Joh 14:25

14:25 {8} These things have I spoken unto you, being [yet] present with you.

      (8) It is the duty and responsibility of the Holy Spirit to imprint in the minds of the elect, in their times and seasons, that which Christ once said.

Joh 14:27

14:27 {9} Peace I leave with you, my peace I give unto you: not as the world giveth, give I unto you. Let not your heart be troubled, neither let it be afraid.

      (9) All true comfort and peace comes to us by Christ alone.

Joh 14:28

14:28 {10} Ye have heard how I said unto you, I go away, and come [again] unto you. If ye loved me, ye would rejoice, because I said, I go unto the Father: for my Father is {l} greater than I.

      (10) We should in no way be sorry for the departing of Christ from us according to the flesh, but rather we should rejoice in it, seeing that all the blessing of the body depends upon the glorifying of the head.
      (l) This is spoken in that Christ is mediator, for in this regard the Father is greater than he, in as much as the person to whom request is made is greater than he that makes the request.

Joh 14:30

14:30 {11} Hereafter I will not talk much with you: for the prince of this world cometh, and hath {m} nothing in me.

      (11) Christ goes to death not unwillingly, but willingly, not that he is yielding to the devil, but rather that he is obeying his Father's decree.
      (m) As one would say, "Satan will eventually set upon me with all the might he can, but he has no power over me, neither will he find any such thing in me as he thinks he will."

Joh 15:1

15:1 I {1} am the true vine, and my Father is the husbandman.

      (1) We are by nature dry and fit for nothing but the fire. Therefore, in order that we may live and be fruitful, we must first be grafted into Christ, as it were into a vine, by the Father's hand: and then be daily moulded with a continual meditation of the word, and the cross: otherwise it will not avail any man at all to have been grafted unless he cleaves fast to the vine, and so draws juice out of it.

Joh 15:7

15:7 {2} If ye abide in me, and my words abide in you, ye shall ask what ye will, and it shall be done unto you.

      (2) Whoever rests in Christ's doctrine abides in him, and therefore brings forth good fruit, and the Father will not deny anything to such a person as this.

Joh 15:8

15:8 {a} Herein is my Father glorified, that ye bear much fruit; so shall ye be my disciples.

      (a) As one would say, "Herein will my Father be glorified, and herein also will you be my disciples, if you bring forth much fruit."

Joh 15:9

15:9 {3} As the Father hath loved me, so have I loved you: {b} continue ye in my love.

      (3) The love of the Father towards the Son, and of the Son towards us, and of us toward God and our neighbour, are joined together with an inseparable knot: and there is nothing more sweet and pleasant than it is. Now this love shows itself by its effects, a most perfect example of which Christ himself exhibits to us.
      (b) That is, in that love with which I love you, which love is the responsibility of both parties.

Joh 15:15

15:15 {4} Henceforth I call you not servants; for the servant knoweth not what his lord doeth: but I have called you friends; for all things that I have heard of my Father I have made known unto you.

      (4) The doctrine of the gospel, as it is uttered by Christ's own mouth, is a most perfect and absolute declaration of the counsel of God, which pertains to our salvation and is committed unto the apostles.

Joh 15:16

15:16 {5} Ye {c} have not chosen me, but I have chosen you, and ordained you, that ye should go and bring forth fruit, and [that] your fruit should remain: that whatsoever ye shall ask of the Father in my name, he may give it you.

      (5) Christ is the author and preserver of the ministry of the gospel, even to the end of the world, but the ministers have above all things need of prayer and brotherly love.
      (c) These words plainly teach us that our salvation comes only from the favour and gracious goodness of the everlasting God towards us, and of nothing that we do or can deserve.

Joh 15:18

15:18 {6} If the world hate you, ye know that it hated me before [it hated] you.

      (6) When the faithful ministers of Christ are hated by the world as their master was, it should not cause them to fear, but rather strengthen and encourage them.

Joh 15:21

15:21 {7} But all these things will they do unto you for my name's sake, because they know not him that sent me.

      (7) The hatred that the world bears against Christ proceeds from the stupidity of the mind, which nonetheless is voluntarily blind, so that those of the world cannot give any excuse to explain away their fault.

Joh 15:22

15:22 {d} If I had not come and spoken unto them, they had not had sin: but now they have no cloke for their sin.

      (d) As one would say, "If I had not come, these men would not have been wrong in saying before God's judgment seat that they are religious, and void of sin: but since I came to them, and they completely rejected me, they can have no cloak for their wickedness."

Joh 15:25

15:25 But [this cometh to pass], that the word might be fulfilled that is written in their {e} law, They hated me without a cause.

      (e) Sometimes this word "law" refers to the five books of Moses, but in this place it refers to the whole scripture: for the place that he refers to is found in the Psalms.

Joh 15:26

15:26 {8} But when the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, [even] the Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from the Father, he shall testify of me:

      (8) We will surely stand against the rage of the wicked by the inward testimony of the Holy Spirit. But the Holy Spirit speaks in no other way and is consistent with what he spoke by the mouth of the apostles.

Joh 16:1

16:1 These {1} things have I spoken unto you, that ye should not be offended.

      (1) The ministers of the gospel must expect all types of reproaches, not only by those who are open enemies, but even by those also who seem to be of the same household, and the very pillars of the Church.

Joh 16:7

16:7 {2} Nevertheless I tell you the truth; It is expedient for you that I go away: for if I go not away, the Comforter will not come unto you; but if I depart, I will send him unto you.

      (2) The absence of Christ according to the flesh is profitable to the Church in that it causes the Church to be wholly dependant upon his spiritual power.

Joh 16:8

16:8 {3} And when he is come, he will {a} reprove the {b} world of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment:

      (3) The Spirit of God works so mightily by the preaching of the word that he forces the world, whether or not it wants to, to confess its own unrighteousness and Christ's righteousness and almightiness.
      (a) He will so reprove the world, that those of the world will not be able to give any excuse.
      (b) He refers to the time that followed his ascension, when as all those opposed were manifestly reproved, through the pouring out of the Holy Spirit upon the Church: so that the very enemies of Christ were reproved of sin, in that they were forced to confess that they were deceived, in that they believed not, and therefore they said to Peter in Ac 2:37 , "Men and brethren, what shall we do?"

Joh 16:10

16:10 Of {c} righteousness, because I go to my Father, and ye see me no more;

      (c) Of Christ himself: for when the world will see that I have poured out the Holy Spirit they will be forced to confess that I was just, and was not condemned by my Father when I went out of this world.

Joh 16:11

16:11 Of {d} judgment, {e} because the prince of this world is judged.

      (d) Of that authority and power which I have both in heaven and in earth.
      (e) That is, because they will then understand and indeed know that I have overcome the devil, and govern the world, and then all men will see that they set themselves against you in vain, for I will arm you with heavenly power by which you may destroy every high thing which is lifted up against the knowledge of God; 2Co 10:5 .

Joh 16:12

16:12 {4} I have yet many things to say unto you, but ye cannot bear them now.

      (4) The doctrine of the apostles proceeded from the Holy Spirit, and is most perfect.

Joh 16:14

16:14 {5} He shall glorify me: for he shall receive of mine, and shall shew [it] unto you.

      (5) The Holy Spirit brings no new doctrine, but teaches that which was uttered by Christ's own mouth, and imprints it in our minds.

Joh 16:16

16:16 {6} A {f} little while, and ye shall not see me: and again, a little while, and ye shall see me, {g} because I go to the Father.

      (6) The grace of the Holy Spirit is a most distinct mirror in which Christ is truly beheld with the most sharp sighted eyes of faith, and not with the blurred eyes of the flesh: and by this we feel a continual joy even in the midst of sorrows.
      (f) When a little time is past.
      (g) For I go on to eternal glory, so that I will be much more present with you than I was before: for then you will feel indeed what I am, and what I am able to do.

Joh 16:25

16:25 {7} These things have I spoken unto you in proverbs: but the time cometh, when I shall no more speak unto you in proverbs, but I shall shew you plainly of the Father.

      (7) The Holy Spirit, who was poured upon the apostles after the ascension of Christ, instructed both them in all the central mysteries and secrets of our salvation, and also the Church by them, and he will also instruct the Church until the end of the world.

Joh 16:26

16:26 {8} At that day ye shall ask in my name: and I say not unto you, that I will pray the Father for you:

      (8) The sum of the worship of God is the invocation of the Father in the name of the Son the mediator, who is already heard for us, for whom he both abased himself, and is now also glorified.

Joh 16:29

16:29 {9} His disciples said unto him, Lo, now speakest thou plainly, and speakest no proverb.

      (9) Faith and foolish security differ greatly.

Joh 16:32

16:32 {10} Behold, the hour cometh, yea, is now come, that ye shall be scattered, every man to his own, and shall leave me alone: and yet I am not alone, because the Father is with me.

      (10) Neither the wickedness of the world, neither the weakness of his own, can diminish anything of the virtue of Christ.

Joh 16:33

16:33 {11} These things I have spoken unto you, that {h} in me ye might have peace. In the world ye shall have tribulation: but be of good cheer; I have overcome the world.

      (11) The surety and foundation of the Church depends only upon the victory of Christ.
      (h) That in me you might be thoroughly quieted. For by "peace" is meant here that quiet state of mind which is completely contrary to disquietness and great sadness.

Joh 17:1

17:1 These {1} words spake Jesus, and lifted up his eyes to heaven, and said, {2} Father, the hour is come; glorify thy Son, that thy Son also may glorify thee:

      (1) Jesus Christ, the everlasting high Priest, being ready to immediately offer himself up, by solemn prayers consecrates himself to God the Father as a sacrifice, and us together with himself. Therefore this prayer was from the beginning, is, and will be to the end of the world, the foundation and ground of the Church of God.
      (2) He first declares that as he came into the world so that the Father might show in him (being apprehended by faith) his glory in saving his elect, so he applied himself to that only: and therefore he desires from the Father that he would bless the work which he had finished.

Joh 17:2

17:2 As thou hast given him power over {a} all flesh, that he should give eternal life to as many as thou hast given him.

      (a) Over all men.

Joh 17:3

17:3 And this is life eternal, that they might know thee the {b} only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom thou hast sent.

      (b) He calls the Father the only true God in order to set him against all false gods, and to include himself and the Holy Spirit, for he immediately joins the knowledge of the Father and the knowledge of himself together, and according to his accustomed manner sets forth the whole Godhead in the person of the Father. So is the Father alone said to be King, immortal, wise, dwelling in light which no man can attain unto, and invisible; Ro 16:27; 1Ti 1:17 .

Joh 17:6

17:6 {3} I have manifested thy name unto the men which thou gavest me out of the world: {c} thine they were, and thou {d} gavest them me; and they have kept thy word.

      (3) First of all he prays for his disciples by whom he would have the rest of his disciples gathered together, and commends them unto the Father (having already rejected the whole company of the reprobate) because he received them from his Father into his custody, and because by embracing his doctrine, they will have so many and so mighty enemies, that there is no way for them to be in safety, except by his help.
      (c) He shows by this the everlasting election and choice, which was hidden in the good will and pleasure of God, which is the groundwork of our salvation.
      (d) He shows that the everlasting and hidden purpose of God is declared in Christ, by whom we are justified and sanctified, if we lay hold of him by faith, so that we may eventually come to the glory of the election.

Joh 17:11

17:11 And now I am no more in the world, but these are in the world, and I come to thee. Holy Father, keep through thine own name those whom thou hast given me, that they may be {c} one, as we [are].

      (c) He prays that his people may peaceably agree and be joined together in one, that as the Godhead is one, so they may be of one mind and one consent together.

Joh 17:15

17:15 {4} I pray not that thou shouldest take them out of the world, but that thou shouldest keep them from the evil.

      (4) He shows what type of deliverance he means: not that they should be in no danger, but that in being preserved from all they might prove by experience that the doctrine of salvation is true, which doctrine they received from his mouth to deliver to others.

Joh 17:17

17:17 {f} Sanctify them through thy truth: thy word is truth.

      (f) That is, make them holy: and that thing is said to be holy which is dedicated to God and belongs to him alone.

Joh 17:18

17:18 {5} As thou hast sent me into the world, even so have I also sent them into the world.

      (5) Moreover, he adds that the apostles have a calling common with him, and therefore that they must be held up by the very same virtue to give themselves up wholly to God, by which Christ, who was first, did consecrate himself to the Father.

Joh 17:19

17:19 And for their sakes I sanctify myself, that they also might be sanctified through the {g} truth.

      (g) The true and substantial sanctification of Christ is contrasted with the outward purifyings of the law.

Joh 17:20

17:20 {6} Neither pray I for these alone, but for them also which shall believe on me through their word;

      (6) Secondly, he offers to God the Father all of his, that is, all those who will believe in him by the doctrine of the apostles: that as he cleaves unto the Father, receiving from him all fulness, so they being joined with him may receive life from him, and being loved together in him, may also with him eventually enjoy everlasting glory.

Joh 17:26

17:26 {7} And I have declared unto them thy name, and will declare [it]: that the love wherewith thou hast loved me may be in them, and I in them.

      (7) He communicates the knowledge of the Father with his own little by little, which knowledge is most full in Christ the mediator, that they may in him be beloved by the Father, with the selfsame love with which he loves the Son.

Joh 18:1

18:1 When {1} Jesus had spoken these words, he went forth with his disciples over the brook Cedron, where was a garden, into the which he entered, and his disciples.

      (1) Christ goes of his own accord into a garden, which his betrayer knew, to be taken, so that by his obedience he might take away the sin that entered into the world by one man's rebellion, and that in a garden.

Joh 18:3

18:3 {2} Judas then, having received a band [of men] and officers from the chief priests and Pharisees, cometh thither with lanterns and torches and weapons.

      (2) Christ who was innocent was taken as a wicked person, that we who are wicked might be let go as innocent.

Joh 18:4

18:4 {3} Jesus therefore, knowing all things that should come upon him, went forth, and said unto them, Whom seek ye?

      (3) Christ's person (but not his power) was bound by his adversaries, but only when and how he desired.

Joh 18:8

18:8 {4} Jesus answered, I have told you that I am [he]: if therefore ye seek me, let these go their way:

      (4) Christ does not neglect the office of a good pastor, not even in his greatest danger.

Joh 18:10

18:10 {5} Then Simon Peter having a sword drew it, and smote the high priest's servant, and cut off his right ear. The servant's name was Malchus.

      (5) We ought to contain our zeal for God within the bounds of our calling.

Joh 18:13

18:13 {6} And led him away to Annas first; for he was father in law to Caiaphas, which was the high priest that same year.

      (6) Christ is brought before an earthly high priest to be condemned for our blasphemies, that we might be acquitted by the everlasting high Priest himself.

Joh 18:15

18:15 {7} And Simon Peter followed Jesus, and [so did] another disciple: that disciple was known unto the high priest, and went in with Jesus into the palace of the high priest.

      (7) A graphic example of the fragility of men, even the best of them, when they are left to themselves.

Joh 18:19

18:19 {8} The high priest then asked Jesus of his disciples, and of his doctrine.

      (8) Christ defends his cause, but only slightly, not that he would withdraw himself from death, but to show that he was condemned as someone who was innocent.

Joh 18:25

18:25 {9} And Simon Peter stood and warmed himself. They said therefore unto him, Art not thou also [one] of his disciples? He denied [it], and said, I am not.

      (9) After men have once fallen, they cannot only not lift themselves up by their own strength, but also they fall more and more into a worse condition, until they are raised up again by a new power from God.

Joh 18:28

18:28 {10} Then led they Jesus from {a} Caiaphas unto the hall of judgment: and it was early; and they themselves went not into the judgment hall, lest they should be defiled; but that they might eat the passover.

      (10) The Son of God is brought before the judgment seat of an earthly and profane man, in whom there is found much less wickedness than in the rulers of the people of God. A graphic image of the wrath of God against sin, and in addition of his great mercy, and last of all of his most severe judgment against the stubborn condemners of his grace when it is offered unto them.
      (a) From Caiaphas' house.

Joh 18:31

18:31 Then said Pilate unto them, Take ye him, and judge him according to your law. The Jews therefore said unto him, {b} It is not lawful for us to put any man to death:

      (b) For judgments of life and death were taken from them forty years before the destruction of the temple.

Joh 18:32

18:32 That the saying of Jesus might be fulfilled, which he spake, {c} signifying what death he should die.

      (c) For Christ had foretold that he would be crucified.

Joh 18:36

18:36 {11} Jesus answered, My kingdom is not of this world: if my kingdom were of this world, then would my servants fight, that I should not be delivered to the Jews: but now is my kingdom not from hence.

      (11) Christ affirms his spiritual kingdom, but rejects a worldly one.

Joh 18:38

18:38 {12} Pilate saith unto him, {d} What is truth? And when he had said this, he went out again unto the Jews, and saith unto them, I find in him no fault [at all].

      (12) It was required that Christ should be pronounced innocent, but nonetheless, in that he took upon himself our person, he was to be condemned as a most wicked man.
      (d) He speaks this disdainfully and scoffingly, and not by way of asking a question.

Joh 18:40

18:40 Then {e} cried they all again, saying, Not this man, but Barabbas. Now Barabbas was a robber.

      (e) Literally, "made a great and foul voice".

Joh 19:1

19:1 Then Pilate therefore took Jesus, and {1} scourged [him].

      (1) The wisdom of the flesh chooses the least of two evils, but God curses that very wisdom.

Joh 19:4

19:4 {2} Pilate therefore went forth again, and saith unto them, Behold, I bring him forth to you, that ye may know that I find no fault in him.

      (2) Christ is again acquitted by the same mouth with which he was afterwards condemned.

Joh 19:6

19:6 When the chief priests therefore and officers saw him, they cried out, saying, {a} Crucify [him], crucify [him]. Pilate saith unto them, Take ye him, and crucify [him]: for I find no fault in him.

      (a) They will have him crucified whom, by an old custom of theirs, they should have stoned and hanged up as convicted of blasphemy: but they desire to have him crucified after the manner of the Romans.

Joh 19:8

19:8 {3} When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he was the more afraid;

      (3) Pilate's conscience fights for Christ, but it immediately yields, because it is not upheld with the singular power of God.

Joh 19:13

19:13 {4} When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he brought Jesus forth, and sat down in the judgment seat in a place that is called the Pavement, but in the Hebrew, {b} Gabbatha.

      (4) Pilate condemns himself first, with the same mouth with which he afterwards condemns Christ.
      (b) "Gabbatha" signifies a high place, as judgment seats are.

Joh 19:16

19:16 {5} Then delivered he him therefore unto them to be crucified. And they took Jesus, and led [him] away.

      (5) Christ fastens Satan, sin, and death to the cross.

Joh 19:19

19:19 {6} And Pilate wrote a title, and put [it] on the cross. And the writing was, JESUS OF NAZARETH THE KING OF THE JEWS.

      (6) Christ, sitting upon the throne of the cross, is publicly proclaimed everlasting King of all people by the hand of him who condemned him for usurping a kingdom.

Joh 19:23

19:23 {7} Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took his garments, and made four parts, to every soldier a part; and also [his] coat: now the coat was without seam, woven from the top throughout.

      (7) Christ signifies by the division of his garments amongst the bloody butchers (except for his coat which had no seam) that it will come to pass, that he will shortly divide his benefits, and enrich his very enemies throughout the world: but in such a way that the treasure of his Church will remain whole.

Joh 19:25

19:25 {8} Now there stood by the cross of Jesus his mother, and his mother's sister, Mary the [wife] of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene.

      (8) Christ is a perfect example of all righteousness, not only in the keeping of the first, but also of the second table of the ten commandments.

Joh 19:28

19:28 {9} After this, Jesus knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the scripture might be fulfilled, saith, I thirst.

      (9) Christ when he has taken the vinegar, yields up the Spirit, indeed drinking up in our name that most bitter and severe cup of his Father's wrath.

Joh 19:29

19:29 Now there was set a {c} vessel full of vinegar: and they filled a spunge with vinegar, and put [it] upon hyssop, and put [it] to his mouth.

      (c) Galatinus witnesses out of the book called Sanhedrin that the Jews often gave those who were executed vinegar mixed with frankincense to drink, to make them somewhat delirious: so the Jews provided charitably for the poor men's conscience who were executed.

Joh 19:31

19:31 {10} The Jews therefore, because it was the preparation, that the bodies should not remain upon the cross on the sabbath day, (for that sabbath day was an high day,) besought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and [that] they might be taken away.

      (10) The body of Christ which was dead for a season (because it so pleased him) is wounded, but not the least bone of it is broken: and such is the state of his resurrection body.

Joh 19:34

19:34 {11} But one of the soldiers with a spear {d} pierced his side, and forthwith came there out blood and water.

      (11) Christ, being dead upon the cross, witnesses by a double sign that he alone is the true satisfaction, and the true washing for the believers.
      (d) This wound was a most manifest witness of the death of Christ: for the water that issued out by this wound shows us plainly that the weapon pierced the very skin that encompasses the heart, and this skin is the vessel that contains the water; and once that is wounded, the creature which is so pierced and stricken has no choice but to die.

Joh 19:38

19:38 {12} And after this Joseph of Arimathaea, being a disciple of Jesus, but secretly for fear of the Jews, besought Pilate that he might take away the body of Jesus: and Pilate gave [him] leave. He came therefore, and took the body of Jesus.

      (12) Christ is openly buried, and in a famous place, Pilate permitting and allowing it, and buried by men who showed favour to Christ in doing this, men who had before that day never openly followed him: so that by his burial, no man can justly doubt either of his death, or resurrection.

Joh 19:41

19:41 Now in the place where he was crucified there was a garden; and in the garden a new sepulchre, wherein was {e} never man yet laid.

      (e) That no man might frivolously object to his resurrection, as though someone else that had been buried there had risen; Theophylact.

Joh 20:1

20:1 The {1} first [day] of the week cometh Mary Magdalene early, when it was yet dark, unto the sepulchre, and seeth the stone taken away from the sepulchre.

      (1) Mary Magdalene, Peter, and John, are the first witnesses of the resurrection, and these cannot justly be suspected, for they themselves could hardly be persuaded of it; therefore, they would obviously not invent such a story on purpose.

Joh 20:11

20:11 But Mary stood {a} without at the sepulchre weeping: and as she wept, she stooped down, [and looked] into the sepulchre,

      (a) That is, outside of the cave which the sepulchre was cut out of.

Joh 20:12

20:12 {2} And seeth two angels in {b} white sitting, the one at the head, and the other at the feet, where the body of Jesus had lain.

      (2) Two angels are made witnesses of the Lord's resurrection.
      (b) In white clothing.

Joh 20:13

20:13 And they say unto her, Woman, why weepest thou? She saith unto them, Because they have taken away {c} my Lord, and I know not where they have laid him.

      (c) Mary spoke as the common people used to speak: for they spoke of a dead carcass as they did of a living man.

Joh 20:14

20:14 {3} And when she had thus said, she turned herself back, and saw Jesus standing, and knew not that it was Jesus.

      (3) Jesus witnesses by his presence that he is truly risen.

Joh 20:17

20:17 {4} Jesus saith unto her, Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended to my Father: but go to my {d} brethren, and say unto them, I ascend unto {e} my Father, and your Father; and [to] my God, and your God.

      (4) Christ, who is risen, is not to be sought in this world according to the flesh, but in heaven by faith where he has gone before us.
      (d) By his brethren he means his disciples, for in the following verse it is said that Mary told his disciples.
      (e) He calls God his Father because he is naturally his Father in the Godhead, and he says "your Father" because he is our Father by grace through the adoption of the sons of God: that is, by taking us by his free grace to be his sons; Epiphanius.

Joh 20:19

20:19 {5} Then the same day at evening, being the first [day] of the week, when the {f} doors were shut where the disciples were assembled for fear of the Jews, came Jesus and stood in the midst, and saith unto them, Peace [be] unto you.

      (5) Christ, in that he presents himself before his disciples suddenly through his divine power, when the gates were shut, fully assures them both of his resurrection, and also of their apostleship, inspiring them with the Holy Spirit who is the director of the ministry of the Gospel.
      (f) Either the doors opened to him of their own accord, or the very walls themselves were a passage to him.

Joh 20:23

20:23 {6} Whose soever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them; [and] whose soever [sins] ye retain, they are retained.

      (6) The publishing of the forgiveness of sins by faith in Christ, and the setting forth and proclaiming the wrath of God in retaining the sins of the unbelievers, is the sum of the preaching of the gospel.

Joh 20:24

20:24 {7} But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Didymus, was not with them when Jesus came.

      (7) Christ draws out of the unbelief of Thomas a certain and sure testimony of his resurrection.

Joh 20:29

20:29 {8} Jesus saith unto him, Thomas, because thou hast seen me, thou hast believed: blessed [are] they that have not seen, and [yet] have believed.

      (8) True faith depends upon the mouth of God, and not upon the eyes of the flesh.

Joh 20:30

20:30 {9} And many other signs truly did Jesus in the presence of his disciples, which are not written in this book:

      (9) To believe in Christ, the Son of God and our only saviour, is the goal of the doctrine of the gospel, and especially of the true account of the resurrection.

Joh 21:1

21:1 After these things {1} Jesus shewed himself again to the disciples at the sea of Tiberias; and on this wise shewed he [himself].

      (1) In that Christ is not only present here but also eats with his disciples, he gives a most full assurance of his resurrection.

Joh 21:7

21:7 Therefore that disciple whom Jesus loved saith unto Peter, It is the Lord. Now when Simon Peter heard that it was the Lord, he girt [his] fisher's {a} coat [unto him], (for he was naked,) and did cast himself into the sea.

      (a) It was a linen garment which prevented him from swimming freely.

Joh 21:15

21:15 {2} So when they had dined, Jesus saith to Simon Peter, Simon, [son] of Jonas, lovest thou me more than these? He saith unto him, Yea, Lord; thou knowest that I love thee. He saith unto him, Feed my lambs.

      (2) Peter by this triple confession is restored into his former position from where he fell by his triple denial: and furthermore it is proclaimed that he is indeed a pastor, who shows his love to Christ in feeding his sheep.

Joh 21:17

21:17 He saith unto him the {b} third time, Simon, [son] of Jonas, lovest thou me? Peter was grieved because he said unto him the third time, Lovest thou me? And he said unto him, Lord, thou knowest all things; thou knowest that I love thee. Jesus saith unto him, Feed my sheep.

      (b) It was appropriate that he that had denied him three times should confess him three times, so that Peter might neither doubt the forgiveness of his grievous sin, nor his being restored to the office of the apostleship.

Joh 21:18

21:18 {3} Verily, verily, I say unto thee, When thou wast young, thou {c} girdedst thyself, and walkedst whither thou wouldest: but when thou shalt be old, thou shalt stretch forth thy hands, and another shall {d} gird thee, and carry [thee] whither thou wouldest {e} not.

      (3) The violent death of Peter is foretold.
      (c) Those that took long trips, especially in the east and in those places where the people used long garments, needed to be girded and fastened up.
      (d) He meant that kind of girding which is used with captives, when they are bound fast with cords and chains, as one would say, "Now you gird yourself as you think best, to go where you want to go, but the time will come when you will not gird yourself with a girdle, but another will bind you with chains, and carry you where you would not."
      (e) Not that Peter suffered anything for the truth of God against his will, for we read that he came with joy and gladness when he returned from the council where he was whipped, but because this will comes not from the flesh, but from the gift of the Spirit who is given to us from above, therefore he shows that there should be a certain striving and conflict or repugnancy, which also is in us, in all our sufferings as touching the flesh.

Joh 21:19

21:19 This spake he, signifying by {f} what death he should glorify God. And when he had spoken this, he saith unto him, Follow me.

      (f) That is, that Peter would die by a violent death.

Joh 21:20

21:20 {4} Then Peter, turning about, seeth the disciple whom Jesus loved following; which also leaned on his breast at supper, and said, Lord, which is he that betrayeth thee?

      (4) We must take heed that while we cast our eyes upon others that we do not neglect that which we are commanded to do.

Joh 21:24

21:24 {5} This is the disciple which testifieth of these things, and wrote these things: and we know that his testimony is true.

      (5) The history of Christ is truly and cautiously written: not for the curiosity of men, but for the salvation of the godly.

Return to the Documents page